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We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
The frequency division multiple access (FDMA) strategy used in GLONASS causes inter-frequency phase bias (IFPB) and inter-frequency code bias (IFCB) between receivers from different manufacturers. The existence of IFPB and IFCB significantly increases the difficulties of fixing GLONASS ambiguity and limits the accuracy and reliability of GLONASS positioning. Moreover, the initial value of IFPB and IFCB may be unavailable or unreliable with the increasing number of receivers from different manufacturers in recent years. In this study, a real-time and reliable calibration algorithm of IFPB and IFCB based on multi-GNSS assistance is proposed by providing a fixed solution. Real-time IFPB rate and IFCB can be obtained using this algorithm without the initial IFPB and IFCB. The IFPB rate for all GLONASS satellites and IFCB for each GLONASS satellite are estimated due to different characteristics of IFPB and IFCB. IFPB calibration can be divided into constant and real-time IFPB calibrations to meet the different positioning requirements. Results show that constant IFPB rate has only 2 mm difference from the mean value of real-time IFPB rate. The IFPB rate and IFCB estimated by this algorithm have excellent stability, and the change in reference satellite cannot affect the results of IFPB rate and the stability of IFCB. The centimetre-level positioning results can be obtained using two calibration methods, and the positioning results with real-time calibration method are 10%–20% better than those with the constant calibration method. Under satellite-deprived environments, the improvements of multi-GNSS positioning accuracy with constant inter-frequency bias calibration gradually increase as the satellite cut-off elevation angle increases compared with GPS/BDS, which can reach up to 0·9 cm in the vertical direction.
The large-scale structure of the ionization field during the epoch of reionization (EoR) can be modeled by the excursion set theory. While the growth of ionized regions during the early stage are described by the “bubble model”, the shrinking process of neutral regions after the percolation of the ionized region calls for an “island model”. An excursion set based analytical model and a semi-numerical code (islandFAST) have been developed. The ionizing background and the bubbles inside the islands are also included in the treatment. With two kinds of absorbers of ionizing photons, i.e. the large-scale under-dense neutral islands and the small-scale over-dense clumps, the ionizing background are self-consistently evolved in the model.
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