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After lengthy and tough negotiations, China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, which is widely considered as a landmark economic event in modern world history. The WTO accession marked a milestone of China’s economic opening and success in integration into the world economy. China’s trade opening, as well as global economic integration and multilateral trade rules, worked together to facilitate China gaining extraordinary economic and trade growth. In return, China has proved to become an indispensable engine for global economic growth, and its WTO membership has made the WTO a truly global and more relevant international organization. On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of China’s WTO membership, this chapter focuses on China’s performance in the multilateral trading system during the past 20 years, analyzing China’s overall implementation of WTO commitments and its contribution to the world economy and trade. More specifically, it takes the Initiative on Investment Facilitation as an example to analyze China’s leading role in spearheading recent “Joint Statement Initiatives” under the WTO framework. Furthermore, the chapter touches upon how China could assume its responsibility and commitment to the broader WTO reform.
How was Chinese people’s confidence in the political system linked to their perception of Covid infection risk, perception of health threat of Covid infection, lockdown experience, and attitudes toward the dynamic Zero-Covid policy? Using 2 waves of online surveys conducted in 2020 and 2022, we investigated how these factors were related. Individuals who were more supportive of the Zero-Covid policy were more confident. Those who were less supportive of the Zero-Covid policy were from areas with more severe Covid infections and experienced a longer lockdown as well; these individuals also perceived higher Covid infection risk and health threat. As such, their confidence in the political system was also more likely to drop from 2020 to 2022. In sum, these findings suggest that Chinese people’s confidence in the political system was linked to their Covid infection risk perception, perceived Covid threat to health, lockdown experience, and attitudes toward the Zero-Covid policy. These findings were corroborated with the severity of Covid infections in the province and individual’s political beliefs and orientation.
This article presents a system architecture and a set of interfaces that can build scalable information systems capable of large city modeling based on dynamic geospatial knowledge graphs to avoid pitfalls of Web 2.0 applications while blending artificial and human intelligence during the knowledge enhancement processes. We designed and developed a GeoSpatial Processor, an SQL2SPARQL Transformer, and a geospatial tiles ordering tasks and integrated them into a City Export Agent to visualize and interact with city models on an augmented 3D web client. We designed a Thematic Surface Discovery Agent to automatically upgrade the model’s level of detail to interact with thematic parts of city objects by other agents. We developed a City Information Agent to help retrieve contextual information, provide data concerning city regulations, and work with a City Energy Analyst Agent that automatically estimates the energy demands for city model members. We designed a Distance Agent to track the interactions with the model members on the web, calculate distances between objects of interest, and add new knowledge to the Cities Knowledge Graph. The logical foundations and CityGML-based conceptual schema used to describe cities in terms of the OntoCityGML ontology, together with the system of intelligent autonomous agents based on the J-Park Simulator Agent Framework, make such systems capable of assessing and maintaining ground truths with certainty. This new era of GeoWeb 2.5 systems lowers the risk of deliberate misinformation within geography web systems used for modeling critical infrastructures.
Cyperus rotundus L. is a globally distributed noxious weed that poses a significant challenge for control due to its fast and efficient propagation through the tuber, which is the primary reproductive organ. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has proved to be crucial for tuberization in tuberous plants. Therefore, understanding the relationship between GA3 and tuber development and propagation of C.roundus will provide valuable information for controlling this weed. This study shows that the content of GA3 decreases with tuber development, which corresponds to lower expression of bioactive GA3 synthesis genes (CrGA20ox, two CrGA3oxs) and two up-regulated GA3 catabolism genes (CrGA2oxs), indicating that GA3 is involved in tuber development. Simultaneously, the expressions of CrDELLAs and CrGID1 decline with tuber growth and GA3 decreasing, and Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays confirm that the GA3 signaling is DELLA-dependent. Furthermore, exogenous application of GA3 markedly reduces the number and the width of tuber, and represses the growth of tuber chain, further confirming the negative impact that GA3 has on tuber development and propagation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GA3 is involved in tuber development and regulated by the DELLA-dependent pathway in C. rotundus, and plays a negative role in tuber development and propagation.
We previously reported that dual injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice constitute a valuable tool for investigating the contribution of inflammation to psychotic disorders. The present study investigated how immune activation affects the kynurenine pathway and rat behaviour of relevance for psychotic disorders.
Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with either dual injections of LPS (0.5 mg/kg + 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or dual injections of saline. Twenty-four hours after the second injection, behavioural tests were carried out, including locomotor activity test, fear conditioning test, spontaneous alternation Y-maze test, and novel object recognition test. In a separate batch of animals, in vivo striatal microdialysis was performed, and tryptophan, kynurenine, quinolinic acid, and kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the dialysate were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).
Dual-LPS treatment decreased spontaneous locomotion, exaggerated d-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, and impaired recognition memory in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In vivo microdialysis showed that dual-LPS treatment elicited metabolic disturbances in the kynurenine pathway with increased extracellular levels of kynurenine and KYNA in the striatum.
The present study further supports the feasibility of using the dual-LPS model to investigate inflammation-related psychotic disorders and cognitive impairments.
In this paper, several linear two-dimensional consecutive k-type systems are studied, which include the linear connected-(k, r)-out-of-$(m,n)\colon\! F$ system and the linear l-connected-(k, r)-out-of-$(m,n)\colon\! F$ system without/with overlapping. Reliabilities of these systems are studied via the finite Markov chain imbedding approach (FMCIA) in a novel way. Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results established here and also to demonstrate the efficiency of the developed method. Finally, some possible applications and generalizations of the developed results are pointed out.
There is a pressing need for studies of large sample sizes and variable age ranges to delineate the mechanism underlying reduced visual attention to biological motion in autism. Here we focused on the basic movement of the eyes or mouth in guiding attention. The stimuli face blinked continuously or moved the mouth silently. In a large sample (145 autistic and 132 non-autistic participants) ranging from 3 to 17 years old, we assessed whether autistic participants showed reduced visual attention to basic movement of the eyes or mouth using a free-viewing eye-tracking task. We found that, like non-autistic participants, autistic participants increased their eye-looking time when viewing the blinking face and increased mouth-looking time when viewing the mouth-moving face. Furthermore, these effects were stable across ages, suggesting the presence of a developmentally stable attentional capture by basic face movements in both groups. We also found that autistic participants looked less at basic face movement than non-autistic participants. Our results suggest that autistic children and adolescents could modulate their visual attention to the basic face movements, but their modulation effect is weaker than non-autistic participants. These results further our understanding of the mechanism underlying visual attention-to-face movement in autistic people.
Cardiac mass in children is rare and insidious onset, and primary cardiac mass is less than secondary mass. Among the malignant tumours in children with tumour thrombus in the venous system, about 98% of the cases are nephroblastoma. But it is still rare for the tumour thrombus to reach the level of the atrium or even enter the right ventricle. In this case, the child complained of chest tightness and palpitation and went to the doctor and found Wilms tumour complicated with intracardiac tumour thrombus.
Despite rising incidences of global disasters, basic principles of disaster medicine training are barely taught in Singapore’s 3 medical schools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current levels of emergency preparedness, attitudes, and perceptions of disaster medicine education among medical students in Singapore.
The Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire (EPIQ) was provided to enrolled medical students in Singapore by means of an online form, from March 6, 2020, to February 20, 2021. A total of 635 (25.7%) responses were collated and analyzed.
Mean score for overall familiarity was low, at 1.50 ± 0.74, on a Likert scale of 1 for not familiar to 5 for very familiar. A total of 90.6% of students think that disaster medicine is an important facet of the curriculum, and 93.1% agree that training should be provided for medical students. Although 77.3% of respondents believe that they are unable to contribute to a disaster scenario currently, 92.8% believe that they will be able to contribute with formal training.
Despite low levels of emergency preparedness knowledge, the majority of medical students in Singapore are keen for adaptation of disaster medicine into the current curriculum to be able to contribute more effectively. This can arm future health-care professionals with the confidence to respond to any potential emergency.
Preterm birth is a global health problem and associated with increased risk of long-term developmental impairments, but findings on the adverse outcomes of prematurity have been inconsistent.
Data were obtained from the baseline session of the ongoing longitudinal Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. We identified 1706 preterm children and 1865 matched individuals as Control group and compared brain structure (MRI data), cognitive function and mental health symptoms.
Results showed that preterm children had higher psychopathological risk and lower cognitive function scores compared to controls. Structural MRI analysis indicated that preterm children had higher cortical thickness in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal and occipital gyrus; smaller volumes in the temporal and parietal gyrus, cerebellum, insula and thalamus; and smaller fiber tract volumes in the fornix and parahippocampal-cingulum bundle. Partial correlation analyses showed that gestational age and birth weight were associated with ADHD symptoms, picvocab, flanker, reading, fluid cognition composite, crystallized cognition composite and total cognition composite scores, and measures of brain structure in regions involved with emotional regulation, attention and cognition.
These findings suggest a complex interplay between psychopathological risk and cognitive deficits in preterm children that is associated with changes in regional brain volumes, cortical thickness, and structural connectivity among cortical and limbic brain regions critical for cognition and emotional well-being.
Breast cancer is a high-risk disease with a high mortality rate among women. Chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. However, chemotherapy eventually results in tumours that are resistant to drugs. In recent years, many studies have revealed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling is crucial for the emergence and growth of breast tumours as well as the development of drug resistance. Additionally, drugs that target this pathway can reverse drug resistance in breast cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine has the properties of multi-target and tenderness. Therefore, integrating traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine into chemotherapy provides a new strategy for reversing the drug resistance of breast tumours. This paper mainly reviews the possible mechanism of Wnt/β-catenin in promoting the process of breast tumour drug resistance, and the progress of alkaloids extracted from traditional Chinese medicine in the targeting of this pathway in order to reverse the drug resistance of breast cancer.
We describe an outbreak of echovirus 18 infection involving 10 patients in our neonatal intensive care unit (an attack rate of 33%). The mean age at the onset of illness was 26.8 days. Eighty percent were preterm infants. All were discharged home without sequelae. There were no differences in gestation age, birth weight, delivery mode, use of antibiotics, and parenteral nutrition between the enterovirus (EV) group and non-EV group, but the rate of breastfeeding was significantly higher in the EV group. Separation care and reinforcement of hand-washing seemed to be effective in preventing further spread of the virus. Visiting policy, hygiene practice, and handling of expressed breastmilk should be reinforced.
Paresis of muscle groups in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tends to present split phenomena. We explored the split phenomenon of fasciculation in multiple antagonistic muscle groups in ALS patients.
One hundred and forty ALS patients and 66 non-ALS patients were included from a single ALS center. Muscle ultrasonography (MUS) was performed to detect fasciculation in elbow flexor-extensor, wrist flexor-extensor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle flexor-extensor. Split phenomena of fasciculation between different antagonistic muscle groups were summarized, and the possible influence factors were analyzed through stratified analysis.
The frequency of split phenomenon of fasciculation intensity was significantly higher than those of muscle strength (26.1% vs. 7.1% for elbow flexor-extensor, 38.3% vs. 5.7% for wrist flexor-extensor, 37.9% vs. 3.0% for knee extensor-flexor, and 33.6% vs. 14.4% for ankle flexor-extensor) (P < 0.01). For muscles with 0–1 level of muscle strength (the Medical Research Council, MRC, score), significance difference in mean fasciculation intensity was observed only in ankle flexor-extensor. For muscles with 2–5 level of muscle strength, significant dissociation of fasciculation grade was common, especially among patients with slow rapid progression rate and both upper and lower motor neuron (UMN and LMN) involvement. As for non-ALS patients, no significant difference was observed in fasciculation intensity between antagonistic muscles.
Split phenomenon of fasciculation between antagonistic muscles was common and relatively specific in ALS patients. Muscle strength, progression rate, and UMN involvement were influence factors of the split phenomenon of fasciculation intensity.
Casualties need to be triaged, stabilized and treated before they can be evacuated to the hospital. However, when Field Medical Teams (FMTs) arrive at the First Aid Post (FAP), the staff has to perform outside of their usual settings. There are also differences in the conception of medical operations, organization of the FAP, availability of medical equipment and supply, as well as means of communication, command, and control which can affect their performance and eventually the optimal survival of casualties during a mass casualty incident.
Guided by Kern’s model for curriculum development, Disaster Medical Responder's Course (DMRC) was developed. The curriculum focused on disaster response operations and processes; roles and responsibilities; command, control and communication; as well as supplies and resources. The content was taught through interactive lectures and skill stations. Course evaluation was based on the Kirkpatrick Model. A feedback form evaluated the reaction of the participants as to whether the course was relevant, if they learnt new knowledge and skills, and if they could apply these to their roles as FMTs. A tabletop exercise evaluated learning with participants working collaboratively.
DMRC has been sustainable since 2013 with six to eight courses per year. There had been numerous revisions of the content and delivery to keep up-to-date with the latest concept of operations, best practices from the literature, as well as educational methodologies. The last update was in 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic where course schedule and mode of delivery were adjusted to comply with the safe management measures.
FMTs will require training so they can function to their maximum capacity and capability. In Singapore, DMRC is the course for this unique and important training of FMTs. DMRC plays a pivotal role in ensuring the preparedness and operational readiness of FMTs for mass casualty incidents.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Glioblastoma (GBM) patients face a poor prognosis. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a chemo resistant GBM subpopulation, possess enhanced DNA repair and elevated levels of epigenetic modifier KDM1A. This study aims to establish the significance of KDM1A in DNA repair and determine the potential of novel KDM1A inhibitor NCD38 to enhance TMZ efficacy in GSCs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patient derived GSCs were obtained via IRB-approved protocol from patient samples at UT Health San Antonio. KDM1A knockdown and knockout cells were generated by transduction of validated KDM1A-specific shRNA or gRNA, respectively. Brain bioavailability of KDM1A inhibitor NCD38 was established using LS-MS/MS. Effect of combination of KDM1A knockdown, knockout, or inhibition with TMZ was studied using cell viability, neurosphere, and self-renewal assays. Mechanistic studies were conducted using CUT&Tag-seq, RNA-seq, immunofluorescence, comet, Western blotting, RT-qPCR, homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair reporter assays. In vivo efficacy of KDM1A knockdown or inhibitor alongside TMZ treatment was determined using orthotopic murine GBM models. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: KDM1A knockdown, knockout, or inhibition increased efficacy of TMZ in reducing cell viability and self-renewal of GSCs. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated KDM1A inhibitor NCD38 is readily brain penetrable. CUT&Tag-seq studies revealed KDM1A is enriched at DNA repair gene promoters. RNA-seq studies suggest KDM1A inhibition reduces DNA double strand break repair gene expression, with these findings validated using RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Knockdown, knockout, or inhibition of KDM1A attenuated HR and NHEJ-mediated DNA repair capacity. Immunofluorescence and comet assay support findings of increased DNA damage in NCD38/TMZ combination treated GSCs. Importantly, KDM1A knockdown or inhibition enhanced efficacy of TMZ and significantly improved survival of orthotopic GBM tumor-bearing mice. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show compelling evidence that KDM1A is essential for DNA repair in GSCs and that KDM1A inhibition sensitizes GBM to TMZ via attenuation of DNA repair pathways. These findings suggest combination of KDM1A inhibitor NCD38 with TMZ could serve as a promising novel therapeutic strategy that can be translated to improve GBM patient outcomes.
The relationships between childhood weight self-misperception and obesity-related factors particularly health markers have not been extensively discussed. This study aims to examine the associations between weight self-misperception and obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, lifestyles and cardio-metabolic markers among Chinese paediatric population.
Data sourced from a national survey in Chinese seven provinces in 2013.
Children and adolescents aged 5–19 years.
Of the total 14 079 participants, there were 14·5 % and 2·2 % participants over-estimated and under-perceived their weight, respectively. Multi-variable logistic regression was applied to calculate OR and 95 % CI (95 % Cl) of obesity-related behaviours and cardio-metabolic markers by actual and perceived weight status. Individuals who perceived themselves as overweight/obese were more likely to have prolonged screen time, insufficient dairy intake and over sugar-sweetened beverages consumption (all P < 0·05), regardless of their weight. Furthermore, actual overweight/obese individuals had higher odds of abnormal cardio-metabolic markers, but a smaller magnitude of association was found among weight under-estimators. Among non-overweight/obese individuals, weight over-estimation was positively associated with abdominal obesity (OR: 10·49, 95 % CI: 7·45, 14·76), elevated blood pressure (OR: 1·30, 95 % CI: 1·12, 1·51) and dyslipidemia (OR: 1·43, 95 % CI: 1·29, 1·58).
Weight over-perception was more prevalent than under-estimation, particularly in girls. Weight over-estimators tended to master better knowledge but behave more unhealthily; both weight over-perception and actual overweight/obesity status were associated with poorer cardio-metabolic markers. Future obesity intervention programmes should additionally pay attention to the population with inaccurate estimation of weight who were easily overlooked.
Trematodes of the genus Ogmocotyle are intestinal flukes that can infect a variety of definitive hosts, resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. However, there are few studies on molecular data of these trematodes. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ogmocotyle ailuri isolated from red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was determined and compared with those from Pronocephalata to investigate the mt genome content, genetic distance, gene rearrangements and phylogeny. The complete mt genome of O. ailuri is a typical closed circular molecule of 14 642 base pairs, comprising 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. In addition, 23 intergenic spacers and 2 locations with gene overlaps were determined. Sequence identities and sliding window analysis indicated that cox1 is the most conserved gene among 12 PCGs in O. ailuri mt genome. The sequenced mt genomes of the 48 Plagiorchiida trematodes showed 5 types of gene arrangement based on all mt genome genes, with the gene arrangement of O. ailuri being type I. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs revealed that O. ailuri was closer to Ogmocotyle sikae than to Notocotylus intestinalis. These data enhance the Ogmocotyle mt genome database and provide molecular resources for further studies of Pronocephalata taxonomy, population genetics and systematics.
The study aimed to present a dual-band 5G multi-input multi-output monopole dual-antenna system, which was configured on the upper edge of the display ground plane for laptops. The dual-antenna unit is a 29 × 2 × 3 mm3 three-dimensional structure with two antennas of the same structure and size, consisting of a fed monopole antenna and a shorted monopole antenna. The antennas are arranged 4 mm apart, side by side in the same direction, to form a dual-antenna unit. Such a configuration allows the feeding points of the two antennas to be separated by the shorting point of the shorted monopole antenna, and the shorting point of the low-frequency resonant path (the shorted monopole antenna) of the two antennas to be larger than a quarter of the wavelength of the low frequency with appropriate bending. The strong current will be concentrated near the shorting point of the shorted monopole antenna when the low-frequency mode is excited, and the current flow from the ground to the feeding point of the other antenna will be reduced, achieving the isolation which is better than 10 dB in measurement between the two antennas without adopting any isolation element. The envelope correlation coefficients calculated from the measured complex E-field radiation patterns are all smaller than 0.12, which can cover the 5G dual-band operations of 3300–3600 and 4800–5000 MHz, and the measured antenna efficiencies can reach more than 40%, which are well suited for multiple antenna applications.
Abnormal reward functioning is central to anhedonia and amotivation symptoms of schizophrenia (SCZ). Reward processing encompasses a series of psychological components. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the brain dysfunction related to reward processing of individuals with SCZ spectrum disorders and risks, covering multiple reward components.
After a systematic literature search, 37 neuroimaging studies were identified and divided into four groups based on their target psychology components (i.e. reward anticipation, reward consumption, reward learning, effort computation). Whole-brain Seed-based d Mapping (SDM) meta-analyses were conducted for all included studies and each component.
The meta-analysis for all reward-related studies revealed reduced functional activation across the SCZ spectrum in the striatum, orbital frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and cerebellar areas. Meanwhile, distinct abnormal patterns were found for reward anticipation (decreased activation of the cingulate cortex and striatum), reward consumption (decreased activation of cerebellum IV/V areas, insula and inferior frontal gyri), and reward learning processing (decreased activation of the striatum, thalamus, cerebellar Crus I, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and parietal and occipital areas). Lastly, our qualitative review suggested that decreased activation of the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate cortex was also involved in effort computation.
These results provide deep insights on the component-based neuro-psychopathological mechanisms for anhedonia and amotivation symptoms of the SCZ spectrum.