In vitro fertilization (IVF) has wide application in human infertility and animal breeding. It is also used for research on reproduction, fertility and development. However, IVF embryos are still inferior to their in vivo counterparts. Some substances in seminal plasma appear to have important roles in embryo development, and during the traditional IVF procedure, the seminal plasma is washed away. In this study, extracellular vesicles (EVs) were concentrated from seminal plasma by ultracentrifugation, visualized using transmission electron microscopy, and particle size distributions and concentrations were determined with a NanoSight particle analyzer. We found particles of various sizes in the seminal plasma, the majority having diameters ranging from 100 to 200 nm and concentrations of 6.07 × 1010 ± 2.91 × 109 particles/ml. Addition of seminal plasma EVs (SP-EVs) to the IVF medium with mouse oocytes and sperm significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation and the inner cell mass (ICM)/trophectoderm (TE) cell ratio, and reduced the apoptosis of blastocysts. Our findings provide new insights into the role of seminal plasma EVs in mediating embryo development and it suggests that SP-EVs may be used to improve the developmental competence of IVF embryos, which has important significance for assisted reproduction in animals and humans.