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Background: Memory impairment has been proposed as the most common early sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aims of this work were to evaluate the risk of progression from mild memory impairment/no dementia (MMI/ND) to clinically diagnosable AD in a community-based prospective cohort and to establish the risk factors for progression from MMI/ND to AD in the elderly.
Methods: Elderly subjects aged over 65 years were selected from the participants in the first Nakayama study. MMI/ND was defined as memory deficit on objective memory assessment, without dementia, impairment of general cognitive function, or disability in activities of daily living. A total of 104 MMI/ND subjects selected from 1242 community-dwellers were followed longitudinally for five years.
Results: During the five-year follow-up, 11 (10.6%) subjects were diagnosed with AD, five (4.8%) with vascular dementia (VaD), and six (5.8%) with dementia of other etiology. Logistic regression analysis revealed that diabetes mellitus (DM) and a family history of dementia (within third-degree relatives) were positively associated with progression to AD, while no factor was significantly associated with progression to VaD or all types of dementia.
Conclusions: DM and a family history of dementia were significant risk factors for progression from MMI/ND to clinically diagnosable AD in the elderly in a Japanese community.
Background: Eating problems occur frequently in patients with dementia, and almost half of all patients with Parkinson's disease have such problems. It has therefore been assumed that eating problems are also common in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, few systematic studies have investigated eating problems in DLB patients. The aim of this study was to clarify the frequency and characteristics of eating problems in patients with DLB.
Methods: We examined 29 consecutive patients with DLB and 33 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in terms of age, sex, education, Mini-mental State Examination, clinical dementia rating (CDR), neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), Unified Parkinson disease rating scale (UPDRS), fluctuations in cognition, and usage of neuroleptic drugs / antiparkinsonian drugs. We employed a comprehensive questionnaire comprising 40 items and compared the scores between the two groups.
Results: DLB patients showed significantly higher scores than AD patients for “difficulty in swallowing foods,” “difficulty in swallowing liquids,” “coughing or choking when swallowing,” “taking a long time to swallow,” “suffering from sputum,” “loss of appetite,” “need watching or help,” and “constipation”. Only the UPDRS score significantly affected the scores for “difficulty in swallowing foods,” “taking a long time to swallow” and “needs watching or help” score, whereas only the NPI score affected the score for “loss of appetite.” The scores for UPDRS, NPI and CDR significantly affected the scores for “difficulty in swallowing liquids.” No significant independent variables affected the scores for “coughing or choking when swallowing,” “suffering from sputum” and “constipation.”
Conclusion: Although DLB patients show many eating problems, the causes of each problem vary, and the severity of dementia or Parkinsonism is not the only determinant.
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