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The evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs), which are the main sites of star formation, is essential for unraveling how stars form and how galaxies evolve. We analyzed the M33 CO(J = 2–1) data with spatial resolution of 39 pc obtained by ALMA-ACA 7 m array combined with IRAM 30 m. We identified 736 GMCs and classified them into three types; Type I: associated with no Hii regions, Type II: associated with Hii regions with the Hα luminosity L(Hα) < 1037.5 erg s-1, Type III: associated with Hii regions with L(Hα) > 1037.5erg s-1. We found that mass, size, and velocity dispersion of GMCs slightly increase in the order of Type I, II, and III GMCs. Type III GMCs mainly exist in the spiral arm, while many of Type I and Type II GMCs are distributed in the inter-arm. Assuming that the star formation proceeds steadily, we roughly estimated the total GMC lifetime of 30 Myr.
The Magellanic Clouds offer the opportunity to obtain a spatially resolved view of external galaxies at reduced metallicity with no distance ambiguity. Our ALMA observations of the active star-forming region N83C in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) revealed subparsec-scale molecular structures in 12CO and 13CO (2-1) emission Muraoka et al. (2017). We found strong CO peaks associated with Young Stellar Objects(YSOs) and derived a typical gas density of ∽104 cm−3 and gas temperature of 40-60 K from the excitation analysis. The high gas density and temperature are presumably due to the effect of the HII region under the low-metallicity environment. We have found that the column density ratios N(CI)/N(CO) are generally high throughout the cloud compared with the Galaxy, ranging from 0.2 to 2.0. A peak of the ratio is observed toward a CO peak associated with a massive protostar.
We report detections of thermal X-ray line emission and proper motions in the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946, the prototype of the small class of synchrotron dominated SNRs. Based on deep XMM-Newton observations, we find clear line features including Ne Lyα, Mg Heα, and Si Heα from the central portion of the remnant. The metal abundance ratios suggest that the thermal emission originates from core-collapse SN ejecta arising from a relatively low-mass (≲20 M⊙) progenitor. In addition, using XMM-Newton observations on a 13 yr time interval, we have measured expansion in the southeastern rim to be ~0.75″ yr−1 or ~3500 km s−1 at a distance of 1 kpc. Given this, we derive an upstream density to be ~0.01 cm−3, compatible with the lack of thermal X-rays from the shocked ambient medium. We also estimate the age of the remnant to be ~1200–1600 yr, roughly consistent with the idea that RX J1713.7-3946 is the remnant of SN 393.
By performing a global magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation for the Milky Way with an axisymmetric gravitational potential, we propose that spatially dependent amplification of magnetic fields possibly explains the observed noncircular motion of the gas in the Galactic centre (GC) region. The radial distribution of the rotation frequency in the bulge region is not monotonic in general. The amplification of the magnetic field is enhanced in regions with stronger differential rotation, because magnetorotational instability and field-line stretching are more effective. The strength of the amplified magnetic field reaches ≳ 0.5 mG, and radial flows of the gas are excited by the inhomogeneous transport of angular momentum through turbulent magnetic field that is amplified in a spatially dependent manner. As a result, the simulated position-velocity diagram exhibits a time-dependent asymmetric parallelogram-shape owing to the intermittency of the magnetic turbulence; the present model provides a viable alternative to the bar-potential-driven model for the parallelogram shape of the central molecular zone. In addition, Parker instability (magnetic buoyancy) creates vertical magnetic structure, which would correspond to observed molecular loops, and frequently excited vertical flows. Furthermore, the time-averaged net gas flow is directed outward, whereas the flows are highly time dependent, which would contribute to the outflow from the bulge.
Various observations show peculiar features in the Galactic Center region, such as loops and filamentary structure. It is still unclear how such characteristic features are formed. Magnetic field is believed to play very important roles in the dynamics of gas in the Galaxy Center. Suzuki et al. (2015) performed a global magneto-hydrodynamical simulation focusing on the Galactic Center with an axisymmetric gravitational potential and claimed that non-radial motion is excited by magnetic activity. We further analyzed their simulation data and found that vertical motion is also excited by magnetic activity. In particular, fast down flows with speed of ~100 km/s are triggered near the footpoint of magnetic loops that are buoyantly risen by Parker instability. These downward flows are accelerated by the vertical component of the gravity, falling along inclined field lines. As a result, the azimuthal and radial components of the velocity are also excited, which are observed as high velocity features in a simulated position-velocity diagram. Depending on the viewing angle, these fast flows will show a huge variety of characteristic features in the position-velocity diagram.
New CO J=1–0 observations with NANTEN and NANTEN2 reveal that extensive collisions between two molecular clouds at relative velocity of 15 km s−1 triggered the O star formation in the Galactic mini-starbursts NGC 6357 and NGC 6334. Correlated/anti-correlated gas distributions and intermediate velocity features between the two clouds lend support for the cloud-cloud collision scenario. The timescale of the collision and high-mass star formation is as short as less than 0.5 Myrs, suggesting rapid O star formation.
High-mass stars usually form in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) as part of a young stellar cluster, but some isolated O/B stars are observed. What are the initial conditions that lead to the formation of these objects? The aim of this study is to measure the distribution and basic physical properties of the neutral gas associated with isolated intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
As part of the SAGE Spitzer Legacy program for the LMC, we have identified and confirmed YSOs using Spitzer IRAC photometry and IRS spectroscopy. By examining the spatial coincidence between the YSOs and 12CO(1–0) emission detected by the NANTEN mapping survey, we identified more than one hundred intermediate/massive YSOs in the LMC that appear to be isolated, i.e. not associated with CO emission. Deeper follow-up CO observations by our team with the higher resolution by Mopra Telescope (beam=30”) detected CO emission at the YSO positions for ~80% of the isolated LMC YSOs. We obtained ALMA data of some of the targets during Cycle 2. We targeted a small but representative (in terms of their association with neutral gas tracers) sample of the isolated high-mass YSOs that we have been studying in the LMC. All of our 12 targets are separated by more than 200 pc from known CO clouds. Our analysis of the ALMA data shows that a compact molecular cloud whose mass is a few thousand solar masses or smaller is associated with most of the YSOs.
It is crucially important to observe dense cores in order to investigate the initial condition of star formation since protostars are formed via dynamical collapse of dense cores, inhering the physical properties from their natal dense cores. Here we present the results of ALMA Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 observations of dust continuum emission and molecular rotational lines toward a dense core, MC27 (aka L1521F), which is considered to be very close to the first protostellar core phase. We revealed the spatial/velocity structures of the core are very complex and and suggest that the star formation is highly dynamical.
RCW 38 is the youngest super star cluster in the Galaxy and is located at a distance of 1.7 kpc. Molecular observations revealed that the cluster is associated with two molecular clouds having velocity difference of 12 km s−1. We interpret that the two clouds are colliding with each other and the collision triggered the cluster formation. The natal molecular gas still survives within ~ 0.5 pc of the central O stars which have an age of 0.1 Myrs as inferred from the collision morphology. We suggest that the high column density of one of the clouds 1023 cm−2 enabled formation of ~ 20 O stars in the cluster center and discuss the implications on massive cluster formation.
We present results from a Mopra 7 mm-wavelength survey that targeted the dense gas-tracing CS(1-0) transition towards the young γ-ray-bright supernova remnant, RX J1713.7–3946 (SNR G 347.3−0.5). In a hadronic γ-ray emission scenario, where cosmic ray (CR) protons interact with gas to produce the observed γ-ray emission, the mass of potential CR target material is an important factor. We summarise newly discovered dense gas components, towards Cores G and L, and Clumps N1, N2, N3, and T1, which have masses of 1 – 104 M⊙. We argue that these components are not likely to contribute significantly to γ-ray emission in a hadronic γ-ray emission scenario. This would be the case if RX J1713.7–3946 were at either the currently favoured distance of ~1 kpc or an alternate distance (as suggested in some previous studies) of ~6 kpc.
This survey also targeted the shock-tracing SiO molecule. Although no SiO emission corresponding to the RX J1713.7–3946 shock was observed, vibrationally excited SiO(1-0) maser emission was discovered towards what may be an evolved star. Observations taken 1 yr apart confirmed a transient nature, since the intensity, line-width, and central velocity of SiO(J = 1-0,v = 1,2) emission varied significantly.
We present Herschel/HIFI sub-mm atomic carbon ([Ci] 3P1 – 3P0 and [Ci] 3P2 – 3P1), ionized carbon ([Cii] 2P3/2 – 2P1/2), and ionized nitrogen ([Nii] 3P1 – 3P0) line observations obtained in the frame of the Herschel Guaranteed Time HEXGAL (Herschel EXtraGALactic) key program (P. I. Rolf Güsten, MPIfR), and NANTEN2/SMART carbon monoxide (CO(J = 4 – 3)) observations of the warm gas around the Sgr A region. The spectrally resolved emission from all lines, and the corresponding line intensity ratios, show a very complex morphology. The determination of spatial and spectral (anti)correlation with known sources in the Sgr A region such as the Arched Filaments, NTF filaments, the Sickle, Quintuplet cluster, CND clouds, is ongoing work.
We present the first results of the new CO J = (2 − 1) observations toward the central molecular zone (CMZ) using the NANTEN2 telescope at an angular resolution of 100″. Large area coverage of 4° × 2° in l and b and a high angular resolution of 100″ enable us to investigate detailed structures of the molecular gas in the CMZ including peculiar molecular filaments perpendicularly to the Galactic plane to b > |0.5°|. The major components of the CMZ, e.g., Sgr A, Sgr B and Sgr C cloud complexes, show high CO J = (2 − 1)/J = (1 − 0) ratios around 0.9, indicating highly excited conditions of the molecular gas, while the local foreground components show less than 0.4. The molecular filaments show the typical ratios of 0.6–0.7 indicate that they are indeed located in the Galactic center.
With the ATNF Mopra telescope we are performing a survey in the 12CO(1–0) line to map the molecular gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. For some regions we also obtained interferometric maps of the high density gas tracers HCO+ and HCN with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Here we discuss the properties of the elongated molecular complex that stretches about 2 kpc southward from 30 Doradus. Our data suggest that the complex, which we refer to as the ‘molecular ridge’, is not a coherent feature but consists of many smaller clumps that share the same formation history. Likely triggers of molecular-cloud formation are shocks and shearing forces that are present in the surrounding south-eastern Hi overdensity region, a region influenced by strong ram pressure and tidal forces. The molecular ridge is at the western edge of the the overdensity region where a bifurcated velocity structure transitions into a single disk velocity component. We find that the 12CO(1–0) and Hi emission peaks in the molecular ridge are typically near each other but never coincide. A likely explanation is the conversion of warmer, low-opacity Hi to colder, high-opacity Hi from which H2 subsequently forms. On smaller scales we find that very dense molecular gas, as traced by interferometric HCO+ and HCN maps, is associated with star formation along shocked filaments and with rims of expanding shell-like structures, both created by feedback from massive stars.
Galactic-scale studies of γ-rays and sub-mm radiation suggest that a significant amount of neutral interstellar medium is not detectable either in CO or HI (Grenier et al. 2005; Ade et al. 2011). This component is called “dark gas”. Here we argue that cool and dense atomic gas without molecules is responsible for the dark gas. This interpretation is supported by a recent finding of cool HI gas corresponding to the TeV γ-ray shell in the SNR RX J1713.7-3946 (Fukui et al. 2011). Such HI gas is not recognized under a usual assumption of optically thin HI emission but is identified by a careful analysis considering optically thick HI. The typical column density of such HI gas is a few times 1021 cm−2 and is also identified as visual extinction.
We report the results of the submillimeter observations with the ASTE 10 m telescope toward the giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Magellanic Clouds to reveal the physical properties of dense molecular gas, the principle sites of star and cluster formation. Six GMCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud have been mapped in the 12CO(J = 3 − 2) transition and 32 clumps are identified in these GMCs at a resolution of 5 pc. These data are combined with 12CO(J = 1 − 0) and 13CO(J = 1 − 0) results and compared with LVG calculations to derive the density and temperature of clumps. The derived density and temperature are distributed in wide ranges. We have made small mapping observations in the 13CO(J = 3 − 2) transition toward 9 representative peak positions of clumps to determine the density and temperature of clumps. These physical properties are constrained well and there are differences in density and temperature among clumps. We suggest that these differences of clump properties represent an evolutionary sequence of GMCs in terms of density increase leading to star formation.
We have carried out the mid-infrared slit spectroscopic observations of sources in the LMC and in NGC 6946 with AKARI/IRC. We investigate the properties of the UIR bands in terms of the star forming activities. We find systematically larger ratios of UIR bands in 6–9 μm to 11.2 μm band in active star forming regions than in the quiet regions. This behavior is consistent with the photo-ionization model of PAHs. Our results suggest that the ratios of UIR bands in 6–9 μm to 11.2 μm band can be used as more efficient and vigorous tools to measure the extent of on-going star formation in remote galaxies rather than just the presence or absence of the features themselves.
Large-scale CO observations with the millimeter/submillimeter telescope NANTEN toward a whole FIR loop-like structure whose angular extent is ~20° × 20° around (l, b) ~(109°, − 45°) in Pegasus have been carried out in the 12CO (J = 1 − 0) at 4′ – 8′ grid spacing and the 12CO emitting region in the 13CO (J=1–0) at 2′ grid spacing. The diameter corresponds to ~25 pc at a distance of 100 pc, adopted from that of the star HD886(B2IV) near the center of the loop.
Formation of GMCs is one of the most crucial issues in galaxy evolution. I will compare CO and HI in the LMC in 3 dimensional space for the first time aiming at revealing the physical connection between GMCs and associated HI gas at a ~40 pc scale. The present major findings are 1) [total CO intensity] ∝ [total HI intensity]0.8 for the 110 GMCs, and 2) the HI intensity tends to increase with the evolution of GMCs. I argue that these findings are consistent with the growth of GMCs via HI accretion over a time scale of a few × 10 Myrs. I will also discuss the role of the background stellar gravity and the dynamical compression by supershells in formation of GMCs.
The Magellanic Clouds, consisting of the LMC, the SMC and the Bridge offer an ideal laboratory for studying cluster formation in a lower metal abundance environment at an unrivaled closeness to us among external galaxies. It is known that very young populous clusters like R136 are still being formed in the LMC, where populous clusters include more than 10000 stars tightly gravitationally bound. In this talk, I will present mm and sub-mm CO observations of the Magellanic molecular clouds obtained with NANTEN, SEST, and ASTE at spatial resolutions of 5–50pc. I will then use these CO data to identify the parent cloud cores for populous clusters and discuss the cluster formation by comparing the cloud properties with those of the Milky Way.