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Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) films, Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films and TNO/GZO layered films were fabricated on glass substrates and electrical properties of TNO/GZO layered films were investigated in terms of interaction between TNO and GZO layers. By a thermal annealing in vacuum, the observed resistivity of the TNO/GZO layered films was lower than that of the single layered films fabricated and annealed at the same conditions. The resistivity reduction observed in the layered structure is not explained by the parallel connection of the TNO and GZO layers, indicating that there exists an interaction between these two layers. The TNO/GZO films with low resistivity have still been transparent.
A single crystal of NdBa2Cu3O7−δ was synthesized by the Top Seeded Solution Growth method (TSSG method). Then, the crystal was heat-treated 500 °C for 400 h and then 340 °C for 200 h in a pure oxygen gas flow. This sample showed critical current density (Jc) as high as 15,000 A/cm2 under a magnetic field, of 5 T, applied along the c-axis of the crystal. Electron microscopic studies with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) have revealed that the Ba/Nd ratio fluctuates between 2.0 and 0.7 with a wavelength of a few tens of nanometer. This implies that superconducting phase of Nd1.0Ba2.0Cu3O7−δ and nonsuperconducting phase of Nd1.8Ba1.2Cu3O7−δ mingle with each other, which is the ideal structure for high-Jc superconducting material.
We have estimated the growth rate of the YBa2Cu3Ox crystal grown from the solution by crystal pulling, in terms of solute diffusion in the liquid with convection. The maximum growth rate deduced from the solute diffusion rate is roughly estimated to be about one order larger than the typical measured value. This implies that the driving force for the surface reaction is significantly larger when compared to the total driving force for the growth of YBa2Cu3Ox crystal in our method.
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