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The study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the FFQ for residents of northeast China. A total of 131 participants completed two FFQ (FFQ1 and FFQ2) within a 3-month period, 125 participants completed 8-d weighed diet records (WDR) and 112 participants completed blood biomarker testing. Reproducibility was measured by comparing nutrient and food intake between FFQ1 and FFQ2. The validity of the FFQ was assessed by WDR and the triad method. The Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for reproducibility ranged from 0·41 to 0·69 (median = 0·53) and from 0·18 to 0·68 (median = 0·53) for energy and nutrients and from 0·37 to 0·73 (median = 0·59) and from 0·33 to 0·86 (median = 0·60) for food groups, respectively. The classifications of same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 73·64 to 93·80 % for both FFQ. The crude SCC between the FFQ and WDR ranged from 0·27 to 0·55 (median = 0·46) for the energy and nutrients and from 0·26 to 0·70 (median = 0·52) for food groups, and classifications of the same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 65·32 to 86·29 %. The triad method indicated that validation coefficients for the FFQ were above 0·3 for most nutrients, which indicated a moderate or high level of validity. The FFQ that was developed for residents of northeast China for the Northeast Cohort Study of China is reliable and valid for assessing the intake of most foods and nutrients.
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations between dietary fibre (DF) intake and depressive symptoms in a general adult population in Tianjin, China. A total of 24 306 participants (mean age 41 years; range 18–91 years) were enrolled. DF intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Socio-demographic, behavioural, health status and dietary factors were adjusted. In men, compared with participants in the lowest quartiles for total, soluble, vegetable and soya DF, OR for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0·83 (95 % CI 0·69, 0·99), 0·74 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·87), 0·79 (95 % CI 0·65, 0·96) and 0·69 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·81), respectively. In women, compared with participants in the lowest quartiles for vegetable and soya DF, the OR for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0·77 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·93) and 0·82 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·95), respectively. No association was found between total or soluble DF intake and depressive symptoms in women. No association was found between insoluble, cereal, fruit or tuber DF intake and depressive symptoms in men and women. Linear associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were only detected for soya DF (men, β = –0·148, P < 0·0001; women, β = –0·069, P = 0·04). Results suggest that intake of soluble, vegetable and soya DF was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. These results should be confirmed through prospective and interventional studies.
Very little attention has been paid to quantifying ammonia (NH3) emissions from Antarctic marine animal excreta. In this paper, penguin guano and ornithogenic soils from four penguin colonies and seal colony soils were collected in coastal Antarctica, and laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate potential NH3 emissions and effects of environmental factors on NH3 fluxes. Ammonia fluxes were extremely low from the frozen samples. Significantly enhanced NH3 emissions were observed following thawing. The mean fluxes were 7.66 ± 4.33 mg NH3 kg-1 h-1 from emperor penguin guano, 1.31 ± 0.64 mg NH3 kg-1 h-1 from Adélie penguin guano and 0.33 ± 0.39 mg NH3 kg-1 h-1 from seal colony soils during the thawing period. Ammonia emissions from penguin guano were higher than those from ornithogenic soils during freezing-thawing cycles (FTCs). The temperature, pH, total nitrogen (TN) and drying-wetting conversion had an important effect on NH3 fluxes. For the first time, we provide a quantitative relationship between NH3 flux and temperature, TN and pH. Our results show that marine animal excreta and ornithogenic soils are significant NH3 emission sources. In coastal Antarctica, FTC-induced NH3 emissions might account for a large proportion of annual flux from marine animal colonies due to high freezing-thawing frequency.
We investigated nutrient composition and the potential for greenhouse gas production in Antarctic penguin guano, ornithogenic soils and seal colony soils through a laboratory incubation experiment. Total organic carbon contents ranged from 0.2–14.7% and total nitrogen contents ranged from 0.05–3.60% across all the samples. Penguin guano and the soils had the δ13Corg values of -28.4‰ to -22.8‰ and highly enriched δ15N values (8.28–35.51‰), indicating a rapid N cycling in local ecosystems. The mean CO2 and CH4 emission rates from penguin guano were significantly higher than those from the soils under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The CO2-C/TOC rate indicated that the bioavailability of TOC was markedly higher in penguin guano than in the soils. These soils showed higher N2O emission rates under anaerobic conditions, indicating that denitrification may be the major process in N2O emission. The CO2 and CH4 emissions have a significant correlation with TOC in both penguin guano and the soils. Our results show that marine animal excreta are an important factor determining storage and composition of nutrients in coastal Antarctica, and that they may considerably affect current and future net fluxes of greenhouse gases in this region.
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