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High sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has been shown to correlate with a higher risk for CVD and metabolic disorders, while the association between SSB intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains unclear. The present study aimed to explore the association between SSB intake and MetS among children and adolescents in urban China.
A cross-sectional study involving 7143 children and adolescents was conducted in urban China. MetS definition proposed by the International Diabetes Federation was adopted. Data on SSB intake, diet, physical activity and family environment factors were obtained through questionnaires. Logistic regression models with multivariable adjustment were adopted to analyse the association between SSB intake and the risk of MetS and its components.
Primary and secondary schools in three urban cities of China.
Children and adolescents (n 5258) aged 7–18 years.
Among the participants, 29·9 % of them had high SSB intake (at least 0·3 servings/d) and the overall MetS prevalence was 2·7 %. Participants with high SSB intake were at higher risk for MetS (OR = 1·60; 95 % CI 1·03, 2·54) and abdominal obesity (OR = 1·55; 95 % CI 1·28, 1·83) compared with their counterparts with no SSB intake (0 servings/d).
High SSB intake is significantly associated with increased MetS and abdominal obesity risk among children and adolescents in urban China. These results suggest that strong policies focusing on controlling SSB intake might be effective in preventing MetS and abdominal obesity.
The association of Fe metabolism with obesity in children remains unclear. The present study aimed to assess the status of Fe metabolism parameters, the prevalence of anaemia, Fe deficiency (ID) and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA), and the associations of these variables with obesity in Chinese schoolchildren.
A cross-sectional study conducted in 5295 schoolchildren aged 7–11 years in Guangzhou, China, 2014–2015. Full data of anthropometric and Fe metabolic parameters were collected to assess obesity, anaemia, ID and IDA. Logistic regression models were established to determine the possible associations of anaemia, ID and IDA with obesity. Two-tailed P values of <0·05 was considered statistically significant.
Guangzhou City, China.
Schoolchildren aged 7–11 years (n 5295).
In this sample, mean Hb concentration was 128·1 g/l and the prevalence of anaemia, ID and IDA was 6·6, 6·2 and 0·6 %, respectively. Of the participants, 14·0 % were overweight and 8·8 % were obese. Importantly, obesity was associated with lower anaemia risk (adjusted OR = 0·553; 95 % CI 0·316, 0·968) but higher ID risk (adjusted OR = 1·808; 95 % CI 1·146, 2·853) after adjustment for confounders. No significant relationship was found between obesity and IDA.
Our results confirmed that anaemia and ID remain public health concerns among schoolchildren in Guangzhou, while IDA is remarkably less prevalent. Furthermore, obesity was associated with lower anaemia risk, but higher ID risk. More efforts should be made to prevent the onset of ID and obesity in the same individual, thus improving the health and fitness of children.
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in 7- to 17-year-old children and adolescents in China and to examine the relationship between MetS and its associated early-life factors.
Data were collected using a standard parent/guardian questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. Each participant underwent a complete anthropometric evaluation. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF; 2007) for children and adolescents.
Guangzhou, a large city in South China, September 2013.
A total of 1770 children and adolescents were enrolled in the study, including 913 girls (51·6 %) and 857 boys (48·4 %).
The overall prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents was 1·1 % (n 19), which was higher in boys (1·4 %) than in girls (0·8 %). Multivariate analysis indicated that high birth weight was significantly associated with abdominal obesity (OR=2·86; 95 % CI 1·62, 5·06) and MetS (OR=3·61; 95 % CI 1·33, 9·82). Furthermore, >6 months of maternal breast-feeding was inversely associated with MetS (OR=0·39; 95 % CI 0·16, 0·98).
Based on IDF criteria, the prevalence of MetS among southern Chinese children was significantly lower than that in other populations. High birth weight was significantly associated with abdominal obesity and MetS, and breast-feeding for longer than 6 months was inversely associated with MetS in South China.
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