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Erectile dysfunction (ED) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are highly prevalent among aging men. However, the rate of coexistence of these two conditions in China is still unclear, especially among men aged 45 to 60 years. Instruments such as the abbreviated five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) can be used to determine the presence of ED and the symptoms and severity of BPH, respectively. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ED in men with BPH and to assess its impact on the quality of life (QoL) of these patients.
Between October 2018 and March 2019 we enrolled 650 patients aged 45 to 65 years who were diagnosed with BPH by a urologist in nine first- and second-tier cities in China. Information on patients’ demographics, lifestyle, comorbidities, and medication use was collected through an electronic clinical outcome assessment tool. Patients with an IIEF-5 score of less than twenty-two were considered to have ED. The IPSS and the five-level EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) were used to assess BPH severity and overall health-related QoL.
We enrolled 650 patients with BPH. Of these, only the 607 men who reported sexual intercourse attempts (mean age of 56.6 years, standard deviation 5.5) were included in the analysis because it was assumed that the other patients did not have ED. Signs of ED were present in ninety-seven percent of patients (IIEF-5 score < 22), and eighty-four percent had at least mild to moderate impairment (IIEF score < 17). Up to nineteen percent reported having physician-diagnosed ED previously, and twenty-eight percent had used medication for ED in the past six months. Compared to men without ED, those with ED and BPH had higher IPSS scores (13.2 versus 6.7, p < 0.05) and lower EQ-5D-5L scores (0.90 versus 0.97, p < 0.05).
Although the prevalence of ED in men with BPH in China is high, it is still underdiagnosed and undertreated. Co-existing ED in patients with BPH is associated with more severe BPH symptoms and lower quality of life.
The hierarchical Au-loaded SnO2 nanoflowers were synthesized using a new developed self-reductive hydrothermal method, of which the gas-sensing properties were enhanced significantly. The SnO2 hierarchical nanoflowers were composed of well-defined nanosheets with a specific surface area of around 84 m2/g. Gas sensors made of pure and Au-doped SnO2 were fabricated, and their gas-sensing properties were characterized. The 1.0 at.% Au-loaded SnO2 sensor prepared by the new developed self-reductive method showed much more excellent selectivity toward ethanol at 200 °C than the one prepared with the conventional hydrothermal method. Its response to ethanol was around 3 times higher than that of the pure SnO2 sensor. A very wide detection range of 1–500 ppm for ethanol, good repeatability, and long-term stability were also approved.
In this present study, the influence of different casting processes on high cycle fatigue behavior of Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr magnesium alloy was investigated by using porosity-free low-pressure sand-casting (LPS) bars and gravity permanent mold casting (GPM) ingots. The results show that the fatigue properties of both LPS and GPM Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr alloy in as-cast condition are determined by Mg matrix and eutectic phase. However, the fatigue property improvement for LPS alloy by T6 heat treatment is significantly superior to that of GPM alloy. The different degree of enhancement of fatigue properties for two conditions of the alloy is related to different crack initiation mechanism. The fatigue crack of the LPS alloy initiates from the free surface of the sample, while the crack of the GPM alloy initiates from porosities or inclusions near the surface of the sample. Meanwhile, the crack of slip band has a crucial effect on the fatigue crack initiation of both as-cast and T6 conditions for LPS alloy.
The effect of 0.5 wt% Mn addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast Al–2Li–2Cu–0.8Mg–0.4Zn–0.2Zr (wt%) alloy was investigated. Results showed that the grain size of Mn-containing alloy was smaller than that of Mn-free alloy in both the as-cast and solution treated state. Al20Mn3Cu2 dispersoids were formed during solution treatment in the Mn-containing alloy. After aging at 175 °C for 32 h, a large volume fraction of coherent Al3Li/Al3(Li, Zr) particles were precipitated in both Mn-free and Mn-containing alloys, while more Guinier–Preston–Bagaratsky zones were observed in the Mn-free alloy. Mn addition improved the elongation significantly, which was 1.7% for Mn-free alloy and 3.3% for the alloy with 0.5 wt% Mn addition.
The microstructures, high-temperature mechanical properties, and fracture behavior of Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy components produced by low-pressure sand casting with different Gd and Zr contents, have been investigated. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS), tensile yield strength, and total elongation (EL) were measured within the 25–300 °C range. At the same temperatures, the UTS and yield strength (YS) of the T6 treated Mg–xGd–3Y–0.5Zr alloys increased with Gd content increasing from 9 to 11%, which was attributed to the improvement of precipitation strengthening. Increasing the Zr content from 0.3 to 0.5% leads to dramatic decrease in grain size and improved tensile properties of T6 treated Mg–10Gd–3Y–yZr alloys which is considered to be due to grain-boundary strengthening. With the increase of tensile temperature, both UTS and YS of the T6 treated Mg–xGd–3Y–yZr alloys initially increase and then decrease. The β′ precipitates provide important strengthening sources in experimental alloys, especially at elevated temperatures. The Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr alloy shows good combination of strength and EL within the 25–300 °C range.
Different parts of a casting may receive different microstructures during cooling particularly for the large scale casting, which can affect the fatigue behavior. In the present study, in consideration of the safety and reliability, the microstructures, tensile properties, and high cycle fatigue behaviors of different regions in a low-pressure sand-cast Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr (GW103K) magnesium alloy component with large scale and complicated structure were investigated. The results showed that the tensile properties particularly ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation (EL) varied with regions and the fatigue strength varied in a range from 100 to 115 MPa. In addition, crack initiation, crack propagation, and fracture behavior of the studied alloys after tensile test and high cycle fatigue test were also investigated systematically.
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