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Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is an ion channelopathy, caused by mutations in genes coding for calcium-handling proteins. It can coexist with left ventricular non-compaction. We aim to investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics of this co-phenotype.
Medical records of 24 patients diagnosed with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in two Chinese hospitals between September, 2005, and January, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated their clinical and genetic characteristics, including basic demographic data, electrocardiogram parameters, medications and survival during follow-up, and their gene mutations. We did structural analysis for a novel variant ryanodine receptor 2-E4005V.
The patients included 19 with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia mono-phenotype and 5 catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia-left ventricular non-compaction overlap patients. The median age of onset symptoms was 9.0 (8.0,13.5) years. Most patients (91.7%) had cardiac symptoms, and 50% had a family history of syncope. Overlap patients had lower peak heart rate and threshold heart rate for ventricular tachycardia and ventricular premature beat during the exercise stress test (p < 0.05). Sudden cardiac death risk may be higher in overlap patients during follow-up. Gene sequencing revealed 1 novel ryanodine receptor 2 missense mutation E4005V and 1 mutation previously unreported in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, but no left ventricular non-compaction-causing mutations were observed. In-silico analysis showed the novel mutation E4005V broke down the interaction between two charged residues.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia overlapping with left ventricular non-compaction may lead to ventricular premature beat/ventricular tachycardia during exercise stress test at lower threshold heart rate than catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia alone; it may also indicate a worse prognosis and requires strict follow-up. ryanodine receptor 2 mutations disrupted interactions between residues and may interfere the function of ryanodine receptor 2.
COVID-19 lockdowns increased the risk of mental health problems, especially for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, despite its importance, little is known about the protective factors for ASD children during the lockdowns.
Based on the Shanghai Autism Early Developmental Cohort, 188 ASD children with two visits before and after the strict Omicron lockdown were included; 85 children were lockdown-free, while 52 and 51 children were under the longer and the shorter durations of strict lockdown, respectively. We tested the association of the lockdown group with the clinical improvement and also the modulation effects of parent/family-related factors on this association by linear regression/mixed-effect models. Within the social brain structures, we examined the voxel-wise interaction between the grey matter volume and the identified modulation effects.
Compared with the lockdown-free group, the ASD children experienced the longer duration of strict lockdown had less clinical improvement (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.19–0.79], p = 0.001) and this difference was greatest for social cognition (2.62 [0.94–4.30], p = 0.002). We found that this association was modulated by parental agreeableness in a protective way (−0.11 [−0.17 to −0.05], p = 0.002). This protective effect was enhanced in the ASD children with larger grey matter volumes in the brain's mentalizing network, including the temporal pole, the medial superior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus.
This longitudinal neuroimaging cohort study identified that the parental agreeableness interacting with the ASD children's social brain development reduced the negative impact on clinical symptoms during the strict lockdown.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is thought to arise from dysconnectivity among interlinked brain regions resulting in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Cortical gyrification, a key morphological feature of human cerebral cortex, has been considered associated with developmental connectivity in early life. Monitoring cortical gyrification alterations may provide new insights into the developmental pathogenesis of OCD.
Sixty-two medication-naive patients with OCD and 59 healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study. Local gyrification index (LGI) was extracted from T1-weighted MRI data to identify the gyrification changes in OCD. Total distortion (splay, bend, or twist of fibers) was calculated using diffusion-weighted MRI data to examine the changes in white matter microstructure in patients with OCD.
Compared with HCs, patients with OCD showed significantly increased LGI in bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the right precuneus, where the mean LGI was positively correlated with anxiety score. Patients with OCD also showed significantly decreased total distortion in the body, genu, and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), where the average distortion was negatively correlated with anxiety scores. Intriguingly, the mean LGI of the affected cortical regions was significantly correlated with the mean distortion of the affected white matter tracts in patients with OCD.
We demonstrated associations among increased LGI, aberrant white matter geometry, and higher anxiety in patients with OCD. Our findings indicate that developmental dysconnectivity-driven alterations in cortical folding are one of the neural substrates underlying the clinical manifestations of OCD.
This study aimed to investigate the optimal frozen embryo transfer (FET) strategy for recurrent implantation failure (RIF) patients with three consecutive failed cleaved embryo implantations and no blastocyst preservation. This retrospective analysis was divided into three groups based on the FET strategy: thawed day 3 embryo transfer (D3 FET group); and extended culture of frozen–thawed day 3 embryos to day 5 blastocysts transfer (D3–D5 FET group); thawed blastocyst transfer (D5 FET group). Transplant cycle data were compared between the three groups. In total, 43.8% of vitrified–thawed cleavage embryos developed into blastocysts. Analysis of the three transplantation strategies showed that, compared with the D3 FET group, D3–D5 had a significantly better hCG-positivity rate and live-birth rate (P < 0.05). Pregnancy outcomes in the D3–D5 FET group and D5 FET group were similar regarding hCG-positivity rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and live-birth rate. Our findings propose two potentially valuable transfer strategies for patients experiencing repeated implantation failures. The D3–D5 FET approach presents a greater potential for selecting promising embryos in cases without blastocyst preservation; however, this strategy does entail the risk of cycle cancellation. Conversely, in instances where blastocyst preservation is an option, prioritizing consideration of the D5 FET strategy is recommended.
The COVID-19 pandemic led to an initial increase in the incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) from clinical cultures in South-East Asia hospitals, which was unsustained as the pandemic progressed. Conversely, there was a decrease in CRE incidence from surveillance cultures and overall combined incidence. Further studies are needed for future pandemic preparedness.
Acanthocephalans of the order Polymorphida mainly parasitic in birds and mammals, are of veterinary, medical and economic importance. However, the evolutionary relationships of its 3 families (Centrorhynchidae, Polymorphidae and Plagiorhynchidae) remain under debate. Additionally, some species of Polymorphida (i.e. Bolbosoma spp. and Corynosoma spp.) are recognized as zoonotic parasites, associated with human acanthocephaliasis, but the mitochondrial genomes for representatives of Bolbosoma and Corynosoma have not been reported so far. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genomes B. nipponicum and C. villosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) are reported for the first time, which are 14 296 and 14 241 bp in length, respectively, and both contain 36 genes [including 12 PCGs, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes] and 2 non-coding regions (NCR1 and NCR2). The gene arrangement of some tRNAs in the mitogenomes of B. nipponicum and C. villosum differs from that found in all other acanthocephalans, except Polymorphus minutus. Phylogenetic results based on concatenated amino acid (AA) sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) strongly supported that the family Polymorphidae is a sister to the Centrorhynchidae rather than the Plagiorhynchidae, and also confirmed the sister relationship of the genera Bolbosoma and Corynosoma in the Polymorphidae based on the mitogenomic data for the first time. Our present findings further clarified the phylogenetic relationships of the 3 families Plagiorhynchidae, Centrorhynchidae and Polymorphidae, enriched the mitogenome data of the phylum Acanthocephala (especially the order Polymorphida), and provided the resource of genetic data for diagnosing these 2 pathogenic parasites of human acanthocephaliasis.
Students’ attention deficit has a negative impact on their learning and development. In traditional teaching environments, students with attention deficit often face problems such as difficulty concentrating, distraction, difficulty maintaining sustained attention, and controlling attention. At the same time, teaching reform has become a focus of attention in the education industry, aiming to improve students’ learning outcomes and cultivate comprehensive development abilities.
Subjects and Methods
The study adopts an experimental group and a control group design. The experimental group received teaching reform measures, including improving teaching methods, increasing interaction and cooperative learning, etc; The control group continued to use traditional teaching methods. The study collected data on students’ attention deficit scores and academic performance, and used SPSS 22.0 statistical software for data processing and analysis to compare the differences between the experimental group and the control group.
The attention deficit score of the experimental group students was significantly reduced, and the SPSS22.0 statistical method verified that the difference between the experimental group and the control group was statistically significant (P<0.05). In addition, the academic performance of the experimental group students has also significantly improved, such as improving exam scores and increasing interest in learning.
The research results indicate that teaching reform has a positive impact on students’ attention deficit. Improving teaching methods and increasing interaction and collaborative learning can help improve students’ concentration and attention regulation abilities.
Key Education Reform Project of Hainan Provincial Department of Education (No. Hnjg2022ZD-4220); High-level Talents Project of Hainan Provincial Natural Science Foundation (No. 621RC602); Major Special Project of Sanya University (No. USY22XK-04); Key Research and Development Project of Hainan Province (No. ZDYF2023GXJS007); School-level Project of Sanya University (No. USYYB22-07).
The third-order law links energy transfer rates in the inertial range of magneto- hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with third-order structure functions. Anisotropy, a typical property in the solar wind, challenges the applicability of the third-order law with the isotropic assumption. To shed light on the energy transfer process in the presence of anisotropy, we conducted direct numerical simulations of forced MHD turbulence with normal and hyper-viscosity under various strengths of the external magnetic field ($B_0$), and calculated three forms of third-order structure function with or without averaging of the azimuthal or polar angles with respect to $B_0$ direction. Correspondingly, three estimated energy transfer rates were obtained. The result shows that the peak of normalized third-order structure function occurs at larger scales closer to the $B_0$ direction, and the maximum of longitudinal transfer rates shifts away from the $B_0$ direction at larger $B_0$. Compared with normal viscous cases, hyper-viscous cases can attain better separated inertial range, thus facilitating the estimation of the energy cascade rates. We find that the widespread use of the isotropic form of the third-order law in estimating the energy transfer rates is questionable in some cases, especially when the anisotropy arising from the mean magnetic field is inevitable. In contrast, the direction-averaged third-order structure function properly accounts for the effect of anisotropy and predicts the energy transfer rates and inertial range accurately, even at very high $B_0$. With limited statistics, the third-order structure function shows a stronger dependence on averaging of azimuthal angles than the time, especially for high $B_0$ cases. These findings provide insights into the anisotropic effect on the estimation of energy transfer rates.
The incidence of depression among college students is increasing year by year, which has a serious impact on social development. As a non-drug intervention, music therapy can affect individual psychological state through emotional catharsis, emotion regulation and other ways, which has attracted more and more attention in recent years, and is expected to provide an effective auxiliary means for the management of depression in college students.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 200 college students were randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group. The students in the control group maintained their usual learning lifestyle. The experimental group received 30 minutes of music therapy four times a week for a total of 8 weeks. Beck Depression Checklist was used to evaluate the degree of depression symptoms, and SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data.
The results showed that the mean score of depressive symptoms in the experimental group decreased from 28.4±5.2 before the intervention to 15.2±3.8 after the intervention, while the score of the control group decreased by less than 1 (P< 0.001). The BDI score of the music therapy group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P< 0.05), and the difference was statistically significant.
The results show that music therapy has a significant therapeutic effect on depression intervention of college students, which can effectively reduce the symptoms of depression and improve the emotional state of college students.
The present work aims at clarifying the effects of a solid boundary on the salt fingers in the wall-bounded double diffusive convection turbulence driven by the salinity and temperature differences between the top and bottom plates. The fluid properties are the same as the seawater, and two-dimensional direct numerical simulations are conducted over a wide range of the thermal and salinity Rayleigh numbers which measure the strength of driving salinity difference and stabilising temperature difference. We find that the bulk density ratio $\varLambda _b$, defined by the mean temperature and salinity gradients at the bulk, controls the flow morphology. As $\varLambda _b$ exceeds unity, the bulk flow shifts from wide convection rolls to slender salt fingers. Two different regimes are further identified for the cases of salt-finger type. One is the confined salt-finger regime where the characteristic height of salt fingers is comparable to the bulk height and the influences of the solid boundary are noticeable. The other is the free salt-finger regime where the salt fingers are much shorter than the bulk height. In this latter regime, the transport properties versus $\varLambda _b$ are in quantitative agreement with those obtained in the fully periodic domain (e.g. Traxler et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 677, 2011, pp. 530–553). For a limited range of density ratio at the highest salinity Rayleigh number considered here, multiple states can be obtained from different initial conditions. The large-scale secondary instability and spontaneous formation of staircase from finger layers are not observed in the current study.
Neocinnamomum plants are evergreen shrubs or small trees belonging to the Neocinnamomeae tribe of the Lauraceae family. Their seeds are rich in fatty acids, and their leaves are often used in traditional Chinese medicine. Presently, only a few studies have been performed on Neocinnamomum plants; therefore, the genome-based phylogeny among Neocinnamomum species has not been determined, which limits the germplasm innovation of this genus. In this study, by the Illumina (next-generation sequencing) and third-generation sequencing technologies, the whole genomes of seven Neocinnamomum species samples were sequenced, their nuclear DNA (nrDNA) sequences were assembled and characterized, and their phylogeny was reconstructed. The results revealed four hypervariable regions (i.e. transcribed spacer regions) in the nrDNA sequences, among which the highest degree of variation was observed in the external transcribed spacer (ETS) region localized behind the 26S gene. A total of 27 insertions/deletions and 184 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both localized mainly in the ETS and internal transcribed spacer regions, were identified. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the nrDNA sequences using the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods with Caryodaphnopsis henryi as the outgroup. The ML tree divided the seven Neocinnamomum species into four clades. Clade I consisted of Neocinnamomum caudatum var. macrocarpum and Neocinnamomum caudatum, clade II included Neocinnamomum delavayi and Neocinnamomum mekongense, clade III included Neocinnamomum fargesii and a branch species of N. delavayi and clade IV included Neocinnamomum lecomtei, constituting a monophyletic and basal group. The BI tree shared the same topological structure as the ML tree, and all the support values of the BI tree were one except for that of one Neocinnamomum species (0.98). The results of this study provide new evidence regarding the phylogenetic evolution of the Neocinnamomum plants.
The sediments of closed-basin lakes on the margin of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are valuable archives of past changes in hydroclimate and dust activity and thus potentially can help us to understand future climate changes. We present high-resolution, well-dated records of the grain size and carbonate mineralogy from Lake Bayanchagan, northern China, spanning the last 11.5 ka. Grain-size endmember (EM) analysis distinguished four EMs, each linked to different sediment transport processes. EM1 (0.4–0.6 μm) and EM3 (14–102 μm) reflect the strength of regional dust activity, whereas EM2 (1.3–31 μm) represents variations in local hydrodynamic conditions related to lake-level changes and EM4 (68–500 μm) is associated with local dust activity. Our results show that a high lake level and weakened dust activity occurred during 10–5.8 ka, as indicated by increased EM2 and decreased EM3, respectively. After 5.8 ka, EM2 decreased as the three other EMs increased, and dolomite appeared in the sediments while calcite decreased—indicating both a decline in lake level and strengthened dust activity. The fluctuations in lake level and dust activity are in good agreement with precipitation variations reconstructed from other records, which are in turn correlated to movement of the EASM rainfall belt, in response to temperature changes.
In the context of China's rising global role, the question of where its academia is moving to becomes a matter of concern. Embedded in the literature on academic (de)colonization and intellectual pluralism, research was conducted by Chinese educational scholars on the status quo of educational studies on and in mainland China within the world system of knowledge production. We report its major findings in order to respond to continuing struggles within the contemporary Chinese academic society and between global “centres” and “peripheries.” Drawing on semi-structured interviews conducted with both overseas ethnic Chinese and non-Chinese education researchers, as well as bibliographic and content analyses among relevant academic publications, its findings indicate the growing but still limited global impact of educational studies on/in China especially theoretically and epistemologically, tensions between “centres” and “peripheries” within the world knowledge system, as well as tensions between internationalization and local knowledge. Suggestions for future directions have been concluded based on empirical data.
Chronic total coronary occlusion is among the most complex coronary artery diseases. Elevated homocysteine is a risk factor for coronary artery diseases. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between homocysteine and chronic total coronary occlusion.
1295 individuals from Southwest China were enrolled in the study. Chronic total coronary occlusion was defined as complete occlusion of coronary artery for more than three months. Homocysteine was divided into quartiles according to its level. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models, receiver operating characteristic curves, and subgroup analysis were applied to assess the relationship between homocysteine and chronic total coronary occlusion.
Subjects in the higher homocysteine quartile had a higher rate of chronic total coronary occlusion (P < 0.001). After adjustment, the odds ratio for chronic total coronary occlusion in the highest quartile of homocysteine compared with the lowest was 1.918 (95% confidence interval 1.237–2.972). Homocysteine ≥ 15.2 μmol/L was considered an independent indicator of chronic total coronary occlusion (odds ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.23; P = 0.0265). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.659 (95% confidence interval, 0.618–0.701; P < 0.001). Stronger associations were observed in elderly and in those with hypertension and diabetes.
Elevated homocysteine is significantly associated with chronic total coronary occlusion, particularly in elderly and those with hypertension and diabetes.
Inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of chronic liver diseases, and diet can modulate inflammation. Whether an inflammatory dietary pattern is associated with higher risk of hepatic steatosis or fibrosis remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the associations between inflammatory dietary pattern and the odds of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis.
In this nationwide cross-sectional study, diet was measured using two 24-h dietary recalls. Empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score was derived to assess the inflammatory potential of usual diet, which has been validated to highly predict inflammation markers in the study population. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) were derived from FibroScan to define steatosis and fibrosis, respectively.
US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
4171 participants aged ≥18 years.
A total of 1436 participants were diagnosed with S1 steatosis (CAP ≥ 274 dB/m), 255 with advanced fibrosis (LSM ≥ 9·7 kPa). Compared with those in the lowest tertile of EDIP-adherence scores, participants in the highest tertile had 74 % higher odds of steatosis (OR: 1·74, 95 % CI (1·26, 2·41)). Such positive association persisted among never drinkers, or participants who were free of hepatitis B and/or C. Similarly, EDIP was positively associated with CAP in multivariate linear model (P < 0·001). We found a non-significant association of EDIP score with advanced fibrosis or LSM (P = 0·837).
Our findings suggest that a diet score that is associated with inflammatory markers is associated with hepatic steatosis. Reducing or avoiding pro-inflammatory diets intake might be an attractive strategy for fatty liver disease prevention.
Typical unconventional gas/liquid plays of China were studied using field-emission/focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for clay mineralogy and microstructural development. The SEM microstructural investigations of clay-rich shale and mudstone reservoirs provided significant information about clay mineral type, size, distribution and aggregates, which allows for interpretations regarding porosity preservation and petrophysical variability. The major clay-hosted porosity types are interparticle clay pores, intraparticle clay pores and aggregate pores. Interparticle clay pores occur in open spaces of the clay aggregates and include four subtypes: (1) elongated pores, (2) packed pores, (3) jagged pores and (4) card-house pores. Intraparticle clay pores are present within clay particles and have mostly secondary origin. These pores are diagenesis dependent and are restricted to secondary illite particles during the transformation of clay minerals from smectite to illite. Intraparticle clay pores constitute only isolated porosity and could not contribute to hydrocarbon molecule storage and migration. Aggregate pores were predominantly encountered in association with organic–clay and pyrite–clay aggregates. In places, organic–pyrite–clay aggregates can also display polymerization, but they do not contribute significantly to overall porosity and permeability. Combining SEM morphological analyses with the software ImageJ is critical in clay microstructure and porosity analyses via semi-quantitative characterization of the 3D pore surface, 2D pore profile, pore quantity, pore size, areal porosity, etc. These visual and semi-quantitative results highlight the significance of jagged pores and pyrite–clay aggregate pores in shale gas/liquid reservoirs because they may be important facilitators of gas storage and transmission.
Seed coat colour in adzuki bean is an important quality trait and closely associated with anthocyanin metabolism pathways. To further understand the inheritance of seed coat colour pattern, the inheritance between multiple seed coat colours and ivory seed were analysed using F1:2, F2:3 and F3:4 populations derived from five bi-parental crosses. The differences between ivory and red mottle on ivory are controlled by a single recessive R locus and RI locus, respectively. Green, light brown and golden are all dominant to red and governed by two loci. The B (brown) locus shows dominant epistasis over T locus. The R (red) locus was recessive epistasis to B (black), T (light brown), G (golden), GR (green) and RI (red mottle on ivory) loci. The new insight into the strong recessive epistasis of the R locus will be important for gene mapping and cloning, candidate gene functional validation and quality improvement in adzuki bean.
Background: Blood cultures are a fundamental tool in the diagnosis of infections, but they can lead to clinical confusion and waste resources when they yield false results. To optimize blood-culture orders at our institution, we developed an evidence-based clinical guideline (Fig. 1) to be used by frontline providers on nonneutropenic hospitalized adult inpatients. We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients with positive blood cultures to evaluate whether frontline providers and infectious diseases (ID) attending physicians were able to consistently interpret the guidelines to determine whether blood cultures were drawn appropriately. Methods: In total, 95 nonneutropenic adults with an initial positive blood culture collected while on an inpatient unit were identified through a query of the electronic medical record from January 2021 through June 2022. Patients with polymicrobial bacteremia and bacteremia due to Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and gram-positive rods were excluded. Moreover, 4 medical resident physicians reviewed all patients and 2 ID attending physicians reviewed one-quarter of cases; all were blinded to the culture results. Blood cultures were determined to be either appropriately or inappropriately performed based on our institution’s guideline. The free-marginal multirater κ statistics with 95% CIs were calculated to evaluate interrater agreement. Results: Baseline patient demographics are shown in Table 1. Immune compromise without neutropenia was noted in 21 of 95 patients. Most patients were at high risk for bacteremia (72%) per our institutional guideline, most of whom were septic (67.7%). Low risk for bacteremia was found in only 12.3% of reviews. Medical resident physicians, ID attending physicians, and all reviewers combined agreed on whether blood cultures were drawn appropriately or inappropriately (84.2%, 92%, and 86.4% agreement rates, respectively). The free-marginal κ statistic was highest for ID attending physicians (0.84; 95% CI, 0.62–0.78), followed by attending physicians and resident physicians combined (0.73; 95% CI, 0.56–0.90), and resident physicians alone (0.68; 95% CI, 0.58–0.78). In the 21 patients with immune compromise, the agreement rates on blood culture appropriateness remained high among all reviewers, resident physicians, and ID attending physicians were 86.6%, 90.5%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusions: In our retrospective study of nonneutropenic hospitalized adult inpatients, frontline providers and ID attending physicians interpreted blood-culture guidelines consistently, largely agreeing on which patients had cultures drawn appropriately. Agreement among ID attending physicians was excellent and remained substantial among medical resident physicians. Guidelines on the appropriate use of blood cultures are vital to limiting unnecessarily collected cultures, which can lead to extended length of stay and increase cost across hospital systems. Further analyses on the clinical impact of this guideline are ongoing.