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Adolescence is a pivotal stage vulnerable to mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. Although self-acceptance and social comparison are known to affect adolescent mental health, their interactive and moderating roles are not fully understood.
To explore the role of self-acceptance, social comparison and attributional style in predicting these mental health outcomes among adolescents in clinical settings.
A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 242 adolescents. Participants completed measures assessing self-acceptance, social comparison, attributional style and mental health outcomes (depression and anxiety). Mediation models and multi-group analysis were used to examine the relationships among these variables.
Our findings demonstrated a significant relationship between self-acceptance, social comparison, depression and anxiety (rs = 0.32–0.88). Specifically, lower self-acceptance and higher social comparison were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Additionally, individuals with external attributional tendencies reported higher depression (Cohen's d = 0.61) and anxiety (d = 0.58) compared with those with internal tendencies. Mediation modelling showed that social comparison is a mediator between self-acceptance and depression (effect size −0.04, 95% CI −0.08 to −0.01) and anxiety (effect size −0.06, 95% CI −0.10 to −0.02). Crucially, multi-group analysis showed that the impact of social comparison on mental health outcomes varied significantly based on attributional style.
These findings underscore the importance of considering self-acceptance, social comparison and attributional style in understanding and addressing mental health challenges during adolescence. This could inform the development of targeted interventions to promote mental health and well-being among adolescents. However, further research is needed to confirm these findings in diverse populations and to explore the underlying mechanisms in greater detail.
The third-order law links energy transfer rates in the inertial range of magneto- hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with third-order structure functions. Anisotropy, a typical property in the solar wind, challenges the applicability of the third-order law with the isotropic assumption. To shed light on the energy transfer process in the presence of anisotropy, we conducted direct numerical simulations of forced MHD turbulence with normal and hyper-viscosity under various strengths of the external magnetic field ($B_0$), and calculated three forms of third-order structure function with or without averaging of the azimuthal or polar angles with respect to $B_0$ direction. Correspondingly, three estimated energy transfer rates were obtained. The result shows that the peak of normalized third-order structure function occurs at larger scales closer to the $B_0$ direction, and the maximum of longitudinal transfer rates shifts away from the $B_0$ direction at larger $B_0$. Compared with normal viscous cases, hyper-viscous cases can attain better separated inertial range, thus facilitating the estimation of the energy cascade rates. We find that the widespread use of the isotropic form of the third-order law in estimating the energy transfer rates is questionable in some cases, especially when the anisotropy arising from the mean magnetic field is inevitable. In contrast, the direction-averaged third-order structure function properly accounts for the effect of anisotropy and predicts the energy transfer rates and inertial range accurately, even at very high $B_0$. With limited statistics, the third-order structure function shows a stronger dependence on averaging of azimuthal angles than the time, especially for high $B_0$ cases. These findings provide insights into the anisotropic effect on the estimation of energy transfer rates.
Tokamak start-up is strongly dependent on the state of the initial plasma formed during plasma breakdown. To acquire a better understanding of the process and to estimate the influence of the impurity of beryllium on the ohmic heating tokamak start-up process, one-dimensional particle-in-cell coupled with a Monte Carlo collision method has been developed. The main aim is to investigate the plasma performance under various amounts of beryllium with different discharge parameters. Tokamak breakdown with the impurity of beryllium in the ohmic heating strategy has been simulated. The simulation results show that with the impurity of beryllium, the increase of plasma density is suppressed compared with the case without beryllium. The breakdown time is delayed by the impurity. Moreover, the successful breakdown has a much higher requirement on discharge parameters with a low electric field operational scenario, since in the low electric field discharge the influence of beryllium impurity is greater. As the plasma density increases, the effect of beryllium impurity on plasma becomes more critical. It indicates that impurities cannot be neglected in the high plasma density.
There is a strong association between soya food consumption and health, but there are few studies on the association with muscular strength, especially in adolescent groups. This study was conducted to understand the status of soya food consumption and its association with muscular strength among secondary school students in southern China. A stratified whole-group sampling method was used to investigate and test the status of soya food consumption and muscular strength of 13 220 secondary school students in southern China. Linear regression analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to analyse the correlations between soya food consumption and muscular strength. Logistic regression analysis showed that compared with secondary school students with soya food consumption ≥ 3 times/week, male students with soya food consumption ≤ 1 time/week (OR = 1·896, 95 % CI: 1·597,2·251) and female students with soya food consumption ≤ 1 time/week (OR = 2·877, 95 % CI: 2·399, 3·449) students had a higher risk of developing lower grip strength (P < 0·001). The frequency of soya food consumption among secondary school students in southern China was 49·00 %, 28·77 % and 22·23 % for ≥ 3 times/week, 2–3 times/week and ≤ 1 time/week, respectively. There is a positive association between soya food consumption and muscle strength among secondary school students in southern China. In the future, increasing the consumption of soybean products can be considered for the improvement of muscle strength.
In order to solve the problems of low loading capacity and low driving efficiency for the powered exoskeleton, this paper presents a bionic multi-chamber pneumatic actuator based on muscle scale mechanism. Firstly, the bionic muscle scale mechanism and multi-chamber structure design for the novel pneumatic actuator are introduced. Afterward, the driving characteristics of the multi-chamber actuator are analyzed theoretically, including analysis of output force and analysis of energy efficiency. Then, the load matching control strategy for the novel actuator is optimized, and the load matching performance, displacement tracking accuracy, and energy efficiency are studied by simulation. Finally, the prototype of the multi-chamber actuator is developed, and the exoskeleton testing platform is built, experiment and discussion are conducted for the driving characteristics, which realized the high energy efficiency and the feasibility of load matching.
To be successfully used in daily life situations, exoskeletons should be effective across multimodal scenarios, including walking on various terrains, and transitions between locomotion modes such as walking-to-stop. Correct continuous gait phase estimation is essential for high-level walking assistance control. Despite the impressive advances in gait phase estimation for a variety of locomotion modes, transition gait phase estimation is rarely researched, leading to the jittering of exoskeletons during walking-to-stop transitions. We propose an optimized phase oscillator (PO-opt) that estimates the gait phase correctly during transition gaits in multimodal locomotion, which is beneficial to eliminating the jittering. In the phase plane, a lateral axis extreme difference (LAED) is adopted to classify transition gaits. The threshold of LAED for transition gaits in multimodal locomotion was preliminarily determined by simulation, which was then applied and validated in experiments. Simulation results indicated that a threshold of 15.0 was suitable for transition gaits classification during treadmill walking, free walking, and ramp ascent/descent, while results of the experiment showed that a threshold between 6.5 and 10.5 was applicable for treadmill walking, free walking, and stair ascent/descent. In particular, the jittering elimination rates for 3, 4, and 5 km/h treadmill walking were improved from 29%, 21%, and 4% (PO model) to 100%, respectively, when the threshold of LAED was set at 15.0 in PO-opt model. The results indicated a significant increase in the rate of jittering elimination when the PO-opt model was applied. The model holds great promise in real-world applications for prostheses and other types of exoskeletons.
A continuous-wave (CW) single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Raman laser at 1240 nm with power of up to 20.6 W was demonstrated in a free-running diamond Raman oscillator without any axial-mode selection elements. The SLM operation was achieved due to the spatial-hole-burning free nature of Raman gain and was maintained at the highest available pump power by suppressing the parasitic stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). A folded-cavity design was employed for reducing the perturbing effect of resonances at the pump frequency. At a pump power of 69 W, the maximum Stokes output reached 20.6 W, corresponding to a 30% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency from 1064 to 1240 nm. The result shows that parasitic SBS is the main physical process disturbing the SLM operation of Raman oscillator at higher power. In addition, for the first time, the spectral linewidth of a CW SLM diamond Raman laser was resolved using the long-delayed self-heterodyne interferometric method, which is 105 kHz at 20 W.
SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spreads among humans via social networks, with social mixing and network characteristics potentially facilitating transmission. However, limited data on topological structural features has hindered in-depth studies. Existing research is based on snapshot analyses, preventing temporal investigations of network changes. Comparing network characteristics over time offers additional insights into transmission dynamics. We examined confirmed COVID-19 patients from an eastern Chinese province, analyzing social mixing and network characteristics using transmission network topology before and after widespread interventions. Between the two time periods, the percentage of singleton networks increased from 38.9$ \% $ to 62.8$ \% $$ (p<0.001) $; the average shortest path length decreased from 1.53 to 1.14 $ (p<0.001) $; the average betweenness reduced from 0.65 to 0.11$ (p<0.001) $; the average cluster size dropped from 4.05 to 2.72 $ (p=0.004) $; and the out-degree had a slight but nonsignificant decline from 0.75 to 0.63 $ (p=0.099). $ Results show that nonpharmaceutical interventions effectively disrupted transmission networks, preventing further disease spread. Additionally, we found that the networks’ dynamic structure provided more information than solely examining infection curves after applying descriptive and agent-based modeling approaches. In summary, we investigated social mixing and network characteristics of COVID-19 patients during different pandemic stages, revealing transmission network heterogeneities.
The age-related heterogeneity in major depressive disorder (MDD) has received significant attention. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such heterogeneity still need further investigation. This study aimed to explore the common and distinct functional brain abnormalities across different age groups of MDD patients from a large-sample, multicenter analysis.
The analyzed sample consisted of a total of 1238 individuals including 617 MDD patients (108 adolescents, 12–17 years old; 411 early-middle adults, 18–54 years old; and 98 late adults, > = 55 years old) and 621 demographically matched healthy controls (60 adolescents, 449 early-middle adults, and 112 late adults). MDD-related abnormalities in brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns were investigated in each age group separately and using the whole pooled sample, respectively.
We found shared FC reductions among the sensorimotor, visual, and auditory networks across all three age groups of MDD patients. Furthermore, adolescent patients uniquely exhibited increased sensorimotor-subcortical FC; early-middle adult patients uniquely exhibited decreased visual-subcortical FC; and late adult patients uniquely exhibited wide FC reductions within the subcortical, default-mode, cingulo-opercular, and attention networks. Analysis of covariance models using the whole pooled sample further revealed: (1) significant main effects of age group on FCs within most brain networks, suggesting that they are decreased with aging; and (2) a significant age group × MDD diagnosis interaction on FC within the default-mode network, which may be reflective of an accelerated aging-related decline in default-mode FCs.
To summarize, these findings may deepen our understanding of the age-related biological and clinical heterogeneity in MDD.
This study aims to explore the association between coffee consumption and the prevalence of hearing loss in American adults based on a national population-based survey.
Cross-sectional analysis of reported audiometric status and coffee intake from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Multivariate logistic regression, forest plots and restricted cubic spline (RCS) analyses were used to explore the associations and dose–response relationships between coffee consumption frequency and hearing loss.
This study included 1894 individuals aged ≥ 20 from the 2003–2006 NHANES.
In this study, the prevalence of speech-frequency hearing loss (SFHL) and high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL) among the participants was 35·90 % and 51·54 %, respectively. Compared with those who no consumed coffee, non-Hispanic White who consumed ≥ 4 cups/d had higher prevalence of SFHL (OR: 1·87; 95 % CI: 1·003. 3·47). And a positive trend of coffee consumption frequency with the prevalence of HFHL was found (Ptrend = 0·001). This association of HFHL was similar for participants aged 20–64 (Ptrend = 0·001), non-Hispanic White (Ptrend = 0·002), non-noise exposure participants (Ptrend = 0·03) and noise-exposed participants (Ptrend = 0·003). The forest plots analysis found that the association between 1 cup-increment of daily coffee consumption and the prevalence of HFHL was statistically significant in males. RCS model supported a positive linear association of coffee consumption with SFHL (P for overall association = 0·02, P for nonlinearity = 0·48) and a positive non-linear association of coffee consumption with HFHL (P for overall association = 0·001, P for nonlinearity = 0·001).
Our findings suggested that coffee consumption was associated with higher prevalence of hearing loss. Further cohort studies in larger population are needed to investigate these findings.
The discharged capillary plasma channel has been extensively studied as a high-gradient particle acceleration and transmission medium. A novel measurement method of plasma channel density profiles has been employed, where the role of plasma channels guiding the advantages of lasers has shown strong appeal. Here, we have studied the high-order transverse plasma density profile distribution using a channel-guided laser, and made detailed measurements of its evolution under various parameters. The paraxial wave equation in a plasma channel with high-order density profile components is analyzed, and the approximate propagation process based on the Gaussian profile laser is obtained on this basis, which agrees well with the simulation under phase conditions. In the experiments, by measuring the integrated transverse laser intensities at the outlet of the channels, the radial quartic density profiles of the plasma channels have been obtained. By precisely synchronizing the detection laser pulses and the plasma channels at various moments, the reconstructed density profile shows an evolution from the radial quartic profile to the quasi-parabolic profile, and the high-order component is indicated as an exponential decline tendency over time. Factors affecting the evolution rate were investigated by varying the incentive source and capillary parameters. It can be found that the discharge voltages and currents are positive factors quickening the evolution, while the electron-ion heating, capillary radii and pressures are negative ones. One plausible explanation is that quartic profile contributions may be linked to plasma heating. This work helps one to understand the mechanisms of the formation, the evolutions of the guiding channel electron-density profiles and their dependences on the external controllable parameters. It provides support and reflection for physical research on discharged capillary plasma and optimizing plasma channels in various applications.
The intense engagement between Africa and China has attracted considerable attention in popular and scholarly literature. One line of study explores textual representation of the Chinese presence in Africa, using media content analysis to support complex understandings of the differentiated, contested and fluid nature of the China–Africa relationship (Wasserman 2015; Wekesa 2013; Van Staden and Wu 2019). The focus on text does, however, leave open the question of how significant imagery is in framing or counterframing the representation of China and Chinese people in Africa. Our intention in this chapter is to explore the significance of images, but to do so in a way that avoids constructing the debate simply in terms of text or image. William Mitchell (1994, 4) bridges the conventional binary of the ‘text’ and the ‘image’ through the figure of the ‘image-text’. As Mitchell (2012, 5) explains, word and image ‘complement and supplement one another, simultaneously completing and extending … woven together to create a reality’.
Attention to visual imagery is not absent within the China–Africa literature. Tu Huynh (2008) offers a pioneering exploration of the imaging through postcards of indentured Chinese mineworkers on the goldfields of the Witwatersrand in the early twentieth century (see also chapter 11), while Ruth Simbao (2012) makes effective use of a photographic still of an African wearing an American suit and the mask of a Chinese president to discuss the ambivalence of imperialism in Africa. Malcolm Corrigall (2015) explores the Chinese Camera Club of South Africa in the 1950s and 1960s, revealing a complex, intersectional sense of belonging and identity that was simultaneously local and Chinese (see also chapter 3 in this volume). Romain Dittgen and Ross Anthony (2018) have used cartoons in the African media in exploring how the persistent trope of the ‘Yellow Peril’ is embedded in contemporary South African consciousness. In taking this further, we track the evolving visual representations of China and the Chinese people in the specific setting of South Africa, with an emphasis on the ambivalence, ambiguities and contradictions in their representation.
Though fortunate that a considerable scholarship on the long history of the Chinese presence in South Africa now exists, providing contextual material to draw on, our main sources of original material were, however, South African newspapers, magazines and books, with the occasional film clip.
The phase summation effect in sum-frequency mixing process is utilized to avoid a nonlinearity obstacle in the power scaling of single-frequency visible or ultraviolet lasers. Two single-frequency fundamental lasers are spectrally broadened by phase modulation to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering in fiber amplifier and achieve higher power. After sum-frequency mixing in a nonlinear optical crystal, the upconverted laser returns to single frequency due to phase summation, when the phase modulations on two fundamental lasers have a similar amplitude but opposite sign. The method was experimentally proved in a Raman fiber amplifier-based laser system, which generated a power-scalable sideband-free single-frequency 590 nm laser. The proposal manifests the importance of phase operation in wave-mixing processes for precision laser technology.
There is still controversy about optimal dietary iodine intake as the Universal Salt Iodization policy enforcement in China. A modified iodine balance study was thus conducted to explore the suitable iodine intake in Chinese adult males using the iodine overflow hypothesis. In this study, thirty-eight apparently healthy males (19·1 (sd 0·6) years) were recruited and provided with designed diets. After the 14-d iodine depletion, daily iodine intake gradually increased in the 30-d iodine supplementation, consisting of six stages and each of 5 d. All foods and excreta (urine, faeces) were collected to examine daily iodine intake, iodine excretion and the changes of iodine increment in relation to those values at stage 1. The dose–response associations of iodine intake increment with excretion increment were fitted by the mixed effects models, as well as with retention increment. Daily iodine intake and excretion were 16·3 and 54·3 μg/d at stage 1, and iodine intake increment increased from 11·2 μg/d at stage 2 to 118·0 μg/d at stage 6, while excretion increment elevated from 21·5 to 95·0 μg/d. A zero iodine balance was dynamically achieved as 48·0 μg/d of iodine intake. The estimated average requirement and recommended nutrient intake were severally 48·0 and 67·2 μg/d, which could be corresponded to a daily iodine intake of 0·74 and 1·04 μg/kg per d. The results of our study indicate that roughly half of current iodine intakes recommendation could be enough in Chinese adult males, which would be beneficial for the revision of dietary reference intakes.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
The association between time to positivity (TTP) of blood culture and the clinical prognosis of patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection (BSI) remains unclear. A retrospective study of 148 inpatients with BSI caused by K. pneumoniae was performed at Shanghai Tongji Hospital, China, from October 2016–2020. The total in-hospital fatality rate was 32%. The median TTP was 11.0 (7.7–16.1) h and the optimal cutoff for prediction of in-hospital mortality was 9.4 h according to the ROC curve. Early TTP (<9.4 h) was a risk factor for in-hospital mortality by univariate analysis (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.2–5.0, P = 0.01), but not by multivariate analysis (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.0–7.4, P = 0.06). Old age, serum creatinine, white blood cells, and C-reactive protein values were risk factors for in-hospital mortality by multivariate analysis. Early TTP was not a risk factor for septic shock (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 0.6–5.1, P = 0.27) or ICU admission (OR = 1.0, 95% CI 1.0–1.0, P = 0.32). In conclusion, the in-hospital fatality rate of patients with K. pneumoniae BSI was relatively high and associated with an early TTP of blood cultures. However, no increased risk of mortality, septic shock or ICU admission was evident in early TTP patients.
High-power continuous-wave single-frequency Er-doped fiber amplifiers at 1560 nm by in-band and core pumping of a 1480 nm Raman fiber laser are investigated in detail. Both co- and counter-pumping configurations are studied experimentally. Up to 59.1 W output and 90% efficiency were obtained in the fundamental mode and linear polarization in the co-pumped case, while less power and efficiency were achieved in the counter-pumped setup for additional loss. The amplifier performs indistinguishably in terms of laser linewidth and relative intensity noise in the frequency range up to 10 MHz for both configurations. However, the spectral pedestal is raised in co-pumping, caused by cross-phase modulation between the pump and signal laser, which is observed and analyzed for the first time. Nevertheless, the spectral pedestal is 34.9 dB below the peak, which has a negligible effect for most applications.
With the disease spectrum changing in China, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become the main chronic disease which affects people’s health severely, bring patients serious economic burden of disease. For T2DM patients, reliable quality of evidence in decision-making are significant, improving the efficiency of the adjustment of the National Reimbursement Drug List (NRDL). Based on the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS), we aimed to evaluate the quality of all published pharmacoeconomic evaluations on T2DM drugs in 2020 NRDL.
Because the 2020 NRDL came into effect on 1 March 2021, we searched all published pharmacoeconomic evaluations about T2DM drugs in 2020 NRDL before March 2021 in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan fang Data, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), PubMed, and Web of Science. According to the criterion of inclusion and exclusion, all documents were screened and then relevant basic information of targeted documents was extracted. The quality was evaluated by calculating the final scores based on CHEERS. Two reviewers assessed each publication’s quality using the CHEERS instrument and summarized study quality.
A total of 910 papers were searched, and 24 papers were included. These involved six T2DM drugs, specifically IDegAsp, exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin. The average score was 18.31, the standard deviation was 3.67, and the average scoring rate was 77.41 percent. Among all items, “characterizing heterogeneity” scored 0.04, least satisfied with requirements. “Setting and location”, “choice of health outcomes” and “assumptions” scored one, most satisfied with requirements. Among the average scores of all parts, “results” scored lowest at 0.55, and “methods” scored highest at 0.85. The Wilcoxon sum-rank tests showed that score rate which represented reporting quality of economic evaluation (EE) was significantly related to “journal type”, “EEs type”, “model choice” and “study perspective”.
The methodological quality of pharmacoeconomic evaluations about T2DM drugs in 2020 NRDL needs to be improved. Improving the quality of literature is the basic guarantee of scientific decision-making in national medical insurance negotiation.
Genetic mutations of fused in sarcoma (FUS) causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may disrupt mRNA splicing events. For example, the FUS c.1394-2delA variant was reported in two western ALS patients, but its molecular mechanism is unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate FUS splice site mutations in Chinese ALS patients.
Sanger sequencing was used to identify FUS splicing mutations in Chinese ALS patients. We combined a deep learning tool (SpliceAI), RNA sequencing, and RT-PCR/RT-qPCR to analyze the effect of FUS c.1394-2delA mutation on RNA splicing and expression. AlphaFold was used to predict the protein structure of mutant FUS. In transfected cell lines, we used immunofluorescence to assess cytoplasmic mislocalization of mutant FUS protein.
We identified a de novo FUS splice acceptor site mutation (c.1394-2delA, p. Gly466Valfs*14) in one Chinese sporadic ALS patient, which is linked to exon 14 skipping, and upregulated total FUS mRNA expression. The FUS splice site mutation was predicted to be translated into a truncated protein product at C-terminal. In vitro studies revealed that the FUS mutation increased cytoplasmic mislocalization in both HEK293T and SH-SY5Y cells.
We identified a de novo FUS splicing mutation (c.1394-2delA, p. Gly466Valfs*14) in 1 out of 233 Chinese ALS patients. It caused abnormal RNA splicing, upregulated gene expression, truncated FUS translation, and cytosolic mislocalization. Our findings suggested that FUS splice site mutation is rare in Chinese ALS patients and extended our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of the FUS c.1394-2delA mutation.