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COVID-19 lockdowns increased the risk of mental health problems, especially for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, despite its importance, little is known about the protective factors for ASD children during the lockdowns.
Based on the Shanghai Autism Early Developmental Cohort, 188 ASD children with two visits before and after the strict Omicron lockdown were included; 85 children were lockdown-free, while 52 and 51 children were under the longer and the shorter durations of strict lockdown, respectively. We tested the association of the lockdown group with the clinical improvement and also the modulation effects of parent/family-related factors on this association by linear regression/mixed-effect models. Within the social brain structures, we examined the voxel-wise interaction between the grey matter volume and the identified modulation effects.
Compared with the lockdown-free group, the ASD children experienced the longer duration of strict lockdown had less clinical improvement (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.19–0.79], p = 0.001) and this difference was greatest for social cognition (2.62 [0.94–4.30], p = 0.002). We found that this association was modulated by parental agreeableness in a protective way (−0.11 [−0.17 to −0.05], p = 0.002). This protective effect was enhanced in the ASD children with larger grey matter volumes in the brain's mentalizing network, including the temporal pole, the medial superior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus.
This longitudinal neuroimaging cohort study identified that the parental agreeableness interacting with the ASD children's social brain development reduced the negative impact on clinical symptoms during the strict lockdown.
The burden of mental disorders is increasing worldwide, thus, affecting society and healthcare systems. This study investigated the independent influences of age, period and cohort on the global prevalence of mental disorders from 1990 to 2019; compared them by sex; and predicted the future burden of mental disorders in the next 25 years.
The age-specific and sex-specific incidence of mental disorders worldwide was analysed according to the general analysis strategy used in the Global Burden of Disease Study in 2019. The incidence and mortality trends of mental disorders from 1990 to 2019 were evaluated through joinpoint regression analysis. The influences of age, period and cohort on the incidence of mental disorders were evaluated with an age–period–cohort model.
From 1990 to 2019, the sex-specific age-standardized incidence and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) rate decreased slightly. Joinpoint regression analysis from 1990 to 2019 indicated four turning points in the male DALY rate and five turning points in the female DALY rate. In analysis of age effects, the relative risk (RR) of incidence and the DALY rate in mental disorders in men and women generally showed an inverted U-shaped pattern with increasing age. In analysis of period effects, the incidence of mental disorders increased gradually over time, and showed a sub-peak in 2004 (RR, 1.006 for males; 95% CI, 1.000–1.012; 1.002 for women, 0.997–1.008). Analysis of cohort effects showed that the incidence and DALY rate decreased in successive birth cohorts. The incidence of mental disorders is expected to decline slightly over the next 25 years, but the number of cases is expected to increase.
Although the age-standardized burden of mental disorders has declined in the past 30 years, the number of new cases and deaths of mental disorders worldwide has increased, and will continue to increase in the near future. Therefore, relevant policies should be used to promote the prevention and management of known risk factors and strengthen the understanding of risk profiles and incidence modes of mental disorders, to help guide future research on control and prevention strategies.
Sichuan cuisine was previously fitted into the Chinese Heart-Healthy Diet (CHH) trial to verify the antihypertensive effect. Whether the modified Sichuan diet lessens cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not fully explored. We aimed to estimate the effects of the Sichuan version of CHH diet (CHH diet-SC) on the 10-year risk of CVD and vascular age. A single-blinded randomised controlled feeding trial was conducted. General CVD prediction model was used in manners of intention-to-treat and per-protocol set. After a 7-d run-in period, fifty-three participants with pre- and grade I hypertension from local communities were randomised and provided with either CHH diet-SC (n 27) or a control diet (n 26) for 4 weeks. Mean absolute and relative estimated CVD risks were reduced by 4·5 % and 27·9 % in the CHH diet-SC group, and the between-group relative risk reduction was 19·5 % (P < 0·001) using linear mixed-effects models. The sensitivity analysis with datasets and models showed consistent results, and pre-specified factors were not associated with the intervention effects. The vascular age of CHH-SC group was theoretically 4·4 years younger than that of the control group after intervention. Compared with a typical diet, adopting the CHH diet-SC over 1 month significantly reduced 10-year CVD risks and vascular ages among local adults with mild hypertension.
In the context of China's rising global role, the question of where its academia is moving to becomes a matter of concern. Embedded in the literature on academic (de)colonization and intellectual pluralism, research was conducted by Chinese educational scholars on the status quo of educational studies on and in mainland China within the world system of knowledge production. We report its major findings in order to respond to continuing struggles within the contemporary Chinese academic society and between global “centres” and “peripheries.” Drawing on semi-structured interviews conducted with both overseas ethnic Chinese and non-Chinese education researchers, as well as bibliographic and content analyses among relevant academic publications, its findings indicate the growing but still limited global impact of educational studies on/in China especially theoretically and epistemologically, tensions between “centres” and “peripheries” within the world knowledge system, as well as tensions between internationalization and local knowledge. Suggestions for future directions have been concluded based on empirical data.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in online gaming behaviour among college students. This study aimed to examine the impact of online self-help interventions consisting of different components within the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) framework on college students’ gaming disorder and gaming frequency. Additionally, it evaluated the effectiveness of both interventions in addressing psychological distress among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. One intervention was a full ACT program, which consists of six core components, while the other intervention focused on the engaged components of ACT (specifically targeting value-based actions). The study employed a 2 conditions (Full ACT vs. Engaged ACT) × 3 times (pre-, mid- and post-program) design to examine the effectiveness of these interventions. Each intervention consisted of 10 sessions, delivered at a frequency of five sessions per week over a 2-week period for both groups. The participants in this study were enrolled in two online classes. Participants with gaming disorder scores in the top 20% were selected and assigned to either the Full group (N = 49) or the Engaged group (N = 41) for the interventions. The study assessed outcome variables, including gaming disorder, psychological flexibility, daily gaming hours, weekly gaming days and psychological distress, at pre-intervention, mid-intervention, post-intervention and one-month follow-up for both groups. No significant differences were observed between the two groups on these outcomes at the pre-intervention stage. The findings of this study indicate that both interventions effectively reduced gaming disorder and weekly gaming frequency, while enhancing psychological flexibility. Nonetheless, the Engaged group exhibited a significant reduction in daily gaming hours. There was no substantial change in psychological distress in either group during and after the intervention. The implications and limitations of this study were also reported.
The association between early reproductive events and health status in later life has always been of interest across disciplines. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was an association between the number of children born in the early years of elderly women and their depression in later life based on a sample of older women aged 65 years and above with at least one child in rural China. Data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey in 2018, this study used the ordinary least square method to conduct empirical research. This study has found a significant correlation between an increase in the number of children and depression in older rural women. When considering the sex of the child, the number of daughters had a greater and more significant impact on depression. Number of children may exacerbate depression of older women through declining self-rated health and reduced social activity, while increased inter-generational support alleviated depression. The association between number of children born and depression also existed in urban older women, though not significant. Therefore, it is suggested to accelerate the improvement of supporting policies related to childbirth, developing a healthy and scientific fertility culture, and improving rural maternal and child health services. Women should be assisted in balancing their roles in the family and in society, and in particular in sharing the burden of caring for children. Targeted efforts to increase old-age protection for older people.
Available data suggest that the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines might decrease in the immunocompromised population, but data on vaccine immunogenicity and safety among people living with HIV (PLWH) are still lacking. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare the immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines in PLWH with healthy controls. We comprehensively searched the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE. The risk ratio (RR) of seroconversion after the first and second doses of a COVID-19 vaccine was separately pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Seroconversion rate was lower among PLWH compared with healthy individuals after the first (RR = 0.77, 95% conﬁdent interval (CI) 0.64–0.92) and second doses (RR = 0.97, 95%CI 0.95–0.99). The risk of total adverse reactions among PLWH is similar to the risk in the healthy group, after the first (RR = 0.87, 95%CI 0.70–1.10) and second (RR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.65–1.07) doses. This study demonstrates that the immunogenicity and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in fully vaccinated HIV-infected patients were generally satisfactory. A second dose was related to seroconversion enhancement. Therefore, we considered that a booster dose may provide better seroprotection for PLWH. On the basis of a conventional two-dose regimen for COVID-19 vaccines, the booster dose is very necessary.
Despite observed ethnic differences in eating patterns and obesity, evidence in China is limited. This study examined ethnic differences in eating patterns and their associations with weight outcomes among multi-ethnic adults in West China. A cross-sectional survey collected self-reported data on demographics, eating behaviours, weight and height in 2021. Principal component analysis and multivariate regression were conducted to identify eating patterns and examine their associations with weight outcomes. In total, 4407 subjects aged ≥ 18 years were recruited across seven provinces in West China. Four eating patterns were identified: ‘meat-lover’ – characterised by frequent consumption of meat and dairy products, ‘indulgent’ – by frequent intakes of added salt, sugar, alcohol and pickled food, ‘diversified-eating’ – by frequently consuming food with diversified cooking methods and eating out and ‘nutri-health-concerned’ – by good food hygiene behaviours and reading food labels. Ethnic differences in eating patterns were observed. Compared with Han, Hui were less likely to exhibit meat-lover or diversified-eating patterns; Tibetans were less likely to have meat-lover or nutri-health-concerned patterns; Mongolians were more likely to have indulgent pattern. BMI was positively associated with meat-lover pattern in both genders (exp(β): 1·029; 95 % CI: 1·001, 1·058 for men; 1·018; 1·000, 1·036 for women) and negatively associated with nutri-health-concerned pattern in women (0·983; 0·966, 1·000). Mongolians were two times more likely to be overweight/obese than Han (OR: 3·126; 1·688, 5·790). Considerable ethnic differences existed in eating patterns in West China. Mongolians were more likely to be overweight/obese, which was associated with their indulgent eating patterns. Ethnic-specific healthy eating intervention programs are needed.
The logarithmic law of the wall does not capture the mean flow when a boundary layer is subjected to a strong pressure gradient. In such a boundary layer, the mean flow is affected by the spatio-temporal history of the imposed pressure gradient; and accounting for history effects remains a challenge. This work aims to develop a universal mean flow scaling for boundary layers subjected to arbitrary adverse or/and favourable pressure gradients. We derive from the Navier–Stokes equation a velocity transformation that accounts for the history effects and maps the mean flow to the canonical law of the wall. The transformation is tested against channel flows with a suddenly imposed adverse or favourable pressure gradient, boundary layer flows subjected to an adverse pressure gradient, and Couette–Poiseuille flows with a streamwise pressure gradient. It is found that the transformed velocity profiles follow closely the equilibrium law of the wall.
Radar-based hand gesture recognition is a potential noncontact human–machine interaction technique. To enhance the recognition performance of hand gesture, a multidomain fusion-based recognition method using frequency-modulated continuous wave radar is proposed in this article. The received raw echo data of gestures is preprocessed to obtain the range–time matrix, Doppler–time matrix, and range–Doppler–frame tensor. The obtained three-domain radar data corresponding to each gesture are input into the three-channel convolutional neural network for feature extraction. In particular, the extracted features from three-domain data are fused with learnable weight matrices to obtain the final gesture classification results. The experimental results have shown that the classification accuracy of the proposed multidomain fusion network based on learning weight matrix-based fusion is 98.45%, which improves the classification performance compared with the classic average-based fusion and concatenation fusion.
Nonlinear compression has become an obligatory technique along with the development of ultrafast lasers in generating ultrashort pulses with narrow pulse widths and high peak power. In particular, techniques of nonlinear compression have experienced a rapid progress as ytterbium (Yb)-doped lasers with pulse widths in the range from hundreds of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds have become mainstream laser tools for both scientific and industrial applications. Here, we report a simple and stable nonlinear pulse compression technique with high efficiency through cascaded filamentation in air followed by dispersion compensation. Pulses at a center wavelength of 1040 nm with millijoule pulse energy and 160 fs pulse width from a high-power Yb:CaAlGdO4 regenerative amplifier are compressed to 32 fs, with only 2.4% loss from the filamentation process. The compressed pulse has a stable output power with a root-mean-square variation of 0.2% over 1 hour.
SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spreads among humans via social networks, with social mixing and network characteristics potentially facilitating transmission. However, limited data on topological structural features has hindered in-depth studies. Existing research is based on snapshot analyses, preventing temporal investigations of network changes. Comparing network characteristics over time offers additional insights into transmission dynamics. We examined confirmed COVID-19 patients from an eastern Chinese province, analyzing social mixing and network characteristics using transmission network topology before and after widespread interventions. Between the two time periods, the percentage of singleton networks increased from 38.9$ \% $ to 62.8$ \% $$ (p<0.001) $; the average shortest path length decreased from 1.53 to 1.14 $ (p<0.001) $; the average betweenness reduced from 0.65 to 0.11$ (p<0.001) $; the average cluster size dropped from 4.05 to 2.72 $ (p=0.004) $; and the out-degree had a slight but nonsignificant decline from 0.75 to 0.63 $ (p=0.099). $ Results show that nonpharmaceutical interventions effectively disrupted transmission networks, preventing further disease spread. Additionally, we found that the networks’ dynamic structure provided more information than solely examining infection curves after applying descriptive and agent-based modeling approaches. In summary, we investigated social mixing and network characteristics of COVID-19 patients during different pandemic stages, revealing transmission network heterogeneities.
This paper studies the synchronization control of the blanket remote maintenance robot (BRMR) of the China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). First, the general state space mathematical model of BRMR was established by using a physical-based method. Second, based on the receding horizon optimization of model predictive control (MPC) and cross-coupling error reduction in cross-coupling control (CCC), the innovative MPC-CCC controller was proposed to realize the single-system and multisystem error convergence and high accuracy transportation of blanket through the high accuracy synchronization control of BRMR. Third, to verify the control effectiveness of the MPC-CCC controller, two types of simulations and experiments were implied compared with the original proportional-integral (PI) controller in Mover. Results showed that simulation and experiments were highly consistent. It is found that the use of an MPC-CCC controller can result in up to a 70% reduction in displacement error and up to a 59% reduction in synchronization error compared to the PI controller. And the accuracy of the MPC-CCC controller satisfies the real requirement of the maintenance process of the blanket. This work provides the theoretical basis and practical experience for the highly stable, safe, and efficient maintenance of blankets in the future.
This study aims to explore the association between coffee consumption and the prevalence of hearing loss in American adults based on a national population-based survey.
Cross-sectional analysis of reported audiometric status and coffee intake from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Multivariate logistic regression, forest plots and restricted cubic spline (RCS) analyses were used to explore the associations and dose–response relationships between coffee consumption frequency and hearing loss.
This study included 1894 individuals aged ≥ 20 from the 2003–2006 NHANES.
In this study, the prevalence of speech-frequency hearing loss (SFHL) and high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL) among the participants was 35·90 % and 51·54 %, respectively. Compared with those who no consumed coffee, non-Hispanic White who consumed ≥ 4 cups/d had higher prevalence of SFHL (OR: 1·87; 95 % CI: 1·003. 3·47). And a positive trend of coffee consumption frequency with the prevalence of HFHL was found (Ptrend = 0·001). This association of HFHL was similar for participants aged 20–64 (Ptrend = 0·001), non-Hispanic White (Ptrend = 0·002), non-noise exposure participants (Ptrend = 0·03) and noise-exposed participants (Ptrend = 0·003). The forest plots analysis found that the association between 1 cup-increment of daily coffee consumption and the prevalence of HFHL was statistically significant in males. RCS model supported a positive linear association of coffee consumption with SFHL (P for overall association = 0·02, P for nonlinearity = 0·48) and a positive non-linear association of coffee consumption with HFHL (P for overall association = 0·001, P for nonlinearity = 0·001).
Our findings suggested that coffee consumption was associated with higher prevalence of hearing loss. Further cohort studies in larger population are needed to investigate these findings.
The discharged capillary plasma channel has been extensively studied as a high-gradient particle acceleration and transmission medium. A novel measurement method of plasma channel density profiles has been employed, where the role of plasma channels guiding the advantages of lasers has shown strong appeal. Here, we have studied the high-order transverse plasma density profile distribution using a channel-guided laser, and made detailed measurements of its evolution under various parameters. The paraxial wave equation in a plasma channel with high-order density profile components is analyzed, and the approximate propagation process based on the Gaussian profile laser is obtained on this basis, which agrees well with the simulation under phase conditions. In the experiments, by measuring the integrated transverse laser intensities at the outlet of the channels, the radial quartic density profiles of the plasma channels have been obtained. By precisely synchronizing the detection laser pulses and the plasma channels at various moments, the reconstructed density profile shows an evolution from the radial quartic profile to the quasi-parabolic profile, and the high-order component is indicated as an exponential decline tendency over time. Factors affecting the evolution rate were investigated by varying the incentive source and capillary parameters. It can be found that the discharge voltages and currents are positive factors quickening the evolution, while the electron-ion heating, capillary radii and pressures are negative ones. One plausible explanation is that quartic profile contributions may be linked to plasma heating. This work helps one to understand the mechanisms of the formation, the evolutions of the guiding channel electron-density profiles and their dependences on the external controllable parameters. It provides support and reflection for physical research on discharged capillary plasma and optimizing plasma channels in various applications.
Iodine is a vital trace element in the human body and is associated with several important coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. We aimed to explore the correlation between urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and CAD. Data from 15 793 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2018) were analysed. We conducted multivariable logistic regression models and fitted smoothing curves to study the correlation between UIC and CAD. Furthermore, we performed subgroup analysis to investigate possible effect modifiers between them. We found a J-shaped association between UIC and CAD, with an inflection point at Lg UIC = 2·65 μg/l. This result indicated a neutral association (OR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·68, 1·16) between UIC and CAD as Lg UIC < 2·65 μg/l, but the per natural Lg [UIC] increment was OR 2·29; 95 % CI 1·53, 3·43 as Lg UIC ≥ 2·65 μg/l. An interaction between diabetes and UIC might exist. The increase in UIC results in an increase in CAD prevalence (OR 1·84, 95 % CI 1·32, 2·58) in diabetes but results in little to no difference in non-diabetes (OR 0·98, 95 % CI 0·77, 1·25). The J-shaped correlation between UIC and CAD and the interaction between diabetes and UIC should be confirmed in a prospective study with a series of UIC measurements. If excessive iodine precedes CAD, then this new finding could guide clinical practice and prevent iodine deficiency from being overcorrected.
Preterm birth is a global health problem and associated with increased risk of long-term developmental impairments, but findings on the adverse outcomes of prematurity have been inconsistent.
Data were obtained from the baseline session of the ongoing longitudinal Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. We identified 1706 preterm children and 1865 matched individuals as Control group and compared brain structure (MRI data), cognitive function and mental health symptoms.
Results showed that preterm children had higher psychopathological risk and lower cognitive function scores compared to controls. Structural MRI analysis indicated that preterm children had higher cortical thickness in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal and occipital gyrus; smaller volumes in the temporal and parietal gyrus, cerebellum, insula and thalamus; and smaller fiber tract volumes in the fornix and parahippocampal-cingulum bundle. Partial correlation analyses showed that gestational age and birth weight were associated with ADHD symptoms, picvocab, flanker, reading, fluid cognition composite, crystallized cognition composite and total cognition composite scores, and measures of brain structure in regions involved with emotional regulation, attention and cognition.
These findings suggest a complex interplay between psychopathological risk and cognitive deficits in preterm children that is associated with changes in regional brain volumes, cortical thickness, and structural connectivity among cortical and limbic brain regions critical for cognition and emotional well-being.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Clinical tissue specimens are primarily destined for formalin fixed, paraffin embedded processing to create a basis for diagnosis by microscopic examination. Innovations in specimen processing are required to expand its availability for inclusion as the substrate in assays that can contribute to the further development of Precision Medicine. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Transurethral resection of bladder tumors were selected for testing based on availability and tissue composition. A wash step was used to generate daughter aliquots composed of dislodged cells and a solution with prior contact to the parent tissue. This wash step served two purposes: 1) reduce the amount of contaminating material from spreading to other cases, a problem known to be associated with this type of specimen; and 2) create aliquots from which additional informative data could be generated. These daughter aliquots were then examined to determine their value as a source for exosome profiling, metabolomic studies, molecular characterization and organoid development. The parent tissue was not compromised, was able to undergo conventional processing and yielded results equivalent to unwashed specimens. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Exosomes secreted by the tumor cells were identified to be present in the daughter aliquots by a combination of their isolation using CD31 and detection of miR-21 expression. These exosomes were confirmed to be not related to fragmented cells from testing for beta-tubulin. A global/discovery-based approach using mass spectrometry provided insights into early characterization of metabolomic profiles present in these tumor cells. Ample amounts of high quality DNA (226 ng/ul concentrations; 11.3 ug total) were recovered from the dislodged, excess cells in the wash for molecular studies. Finally, from viable cells recovered in one of the daughter wash aliquots, the ability to grow organoids was proven to be possible and reproducible. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these results, the value of the clinical specimen can be markedly expanded for utilization in research and possible clinical use without detracting from the parent tissue. This non-destructive, easy to adopt wash procedure can potentially lead to an influx of data that may ultimately prove useful in improving patient care.
We aimed to investigate the association of metabolic obesity phenotypes with all-cause mortality risk in a rural Chinese population. This prospective cohort study enrolled 15 704 Chinese adults (38·86 % men) with a median age of 51·00 (interquartile range: 41·00–60·00) at baseline (2007–2008) and followed up during 2013–2014. Obesity was defined by waist circumference (WC: ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR: ≥ 0·5). The hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % CI for the risk of all-cause mortality related to metabolic obesity phenotypes were calculated using the Cox hazards regression model. During a median follow-up of 6·01 years, 864 deaths were identified. When obesity was defined by WC, the prevalence of participants with metabolically healthy non-obesity (MHNO), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), metabolically unhealthy non-obesity (MUNO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) at baseline was 12·12 %, 2·80 %, 41·93 % and 43·15 %, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity and education, the risk of all-cause mortality was higher with both MUNO (HR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·26) and MUO (HR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·27) v. MHNO, but the risk was not statistically significant with MHO (HR = 0·99, 95 % CI 0·89, 1·10). This result remained consistent when stratified by sex. Defining obesity by WHtR gave similar results. MHO does not suggest a greater risk of all-cause mortality compared to MHNO, but participants with metabolic abnormality, with or without obesity, have a higher risk of all-cause mortality. These results should be cautiously interpreted as the representation of MHO is small.
Since globalization, using second languages (L2) to make decisions about future is more common than ever. In this study, we tested the merged effect of two language features, i.e., the future-time reference (FTR) and L2, on intertemporal decision and its indirect mediators, future orientation, and subjective future perception. As a pair of languages with different FTR, English (strong-FTR) has a clear grammatical separation between present and future, while Chinese (weak-FTR) does not. Here, Chinese first language (L1) speakers made intertemporal decisions using either Chinese (L1) or English (L2). Across three studies (N = 1022) and an internal meta-analysis, we found that using a strong-FTR L2 did not change participants’ intertemporal preference but did reduce their future orientation. These findings highlight a holistic perspective merging language features, outcome variables and measurement methods. These findings also imply a need for caution to use second language as nudge strategy in intertemporal decision-making.