To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the etiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) as well as 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8.96 years (interquartile range 8.29 to 9.53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.85; P<0.001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HRs for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0.84 (0.73 to 0.96), 0.84 (0.77 to 0.92), and 0.71 (0.62 to 0.80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (P for interaction=0.078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14% to 84% through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation
To explore the characteristics of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the squeaking silkmoths Rhodinia, a genus of wild silkmoths in the family Saturniidae of Lepidoptera, and reveal phylogenetic relationships, the mitogenome of Rhodinia fugax Butler was determined. This wild silkmoth spins a green cocoon that has potential significance in sericulture, and exhibits a unique feature that its larvae can squeak loudly when touched. The mitogenome of R. fugax is a circular molecule of 15,334 bp long and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an A + T-rich region, consistent with previous observations of Saturniidae species. The 370-bp A + T-rich region of R. fugax contains no tandem repeat elements and harbors several features common to the Bombycidea insects, but microsatellite AT repeat sequence preceded by the ATTTA motif is not present. Mitogenome-based phylogenetic analysis shows that R. fugax belongs to Attacini, instead of Saturniini. This study presents the first mitogenome for Rhodinia genus.
Epidemiological studies have shown that higher intake of flavonoid is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. However, which flavonoid subclass could reduce CHD risk has remained controversial. The present meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies aimed to quantitatively assess the associations between flavonoid subclasses and CHD risk. A systematic literature search was implemented from PubMed and Web of Science databases up to Mar. 2021, and eligible studies were identified. Multivariate-adjust relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled by using a random-effects model. A restricted cubic spline regression model was performed for non-linear dose-response analysis. A total of 19 independent prospective cohort studies with 894,471 participants and 34,707 events were included. The results showed that dietary intakes of anthocyanins (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98), proanthocyanidins (RR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.94), flavonols (RR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98), flavones (RR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99) and isoflavones (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98) were negatively associated with CHD risk. Dose-response analysis showed that increment of 50 mg/d anthocyanins, 100 mg/d proanthocyanidins, 25 mg/d flavonols, 5 mg/d flavones and 0.5 mg/d isoflavones were associated with 5% reduction in CHD risk, respectively. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were used to further support these associations. The present results indicate that dietary intakes of fruits and vegetables abundant five flavonoid subclasses, namely anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavones and isoflavones, are associated with a lower risk of CHD.
During emergency responses, public health leaders frequently serve in incident management roles that differ from their routine job functions. Leaders’ familiarity with incident management principles and functions can influence response outcomes. Therefore, training and exercises in incident management are often required for public health leaders. To describe existing methods of incident management training and exercises in the literature, we queried 6 English language databases and found 786 relevant articles. Five themes emerged: (1) experiential learning as an established approach to foster engaging and interactive learning environments and optimize training design; (2) technology-aided decision support tools are increasingly common for crisis decision-making; (3) integration of leadership training in the education continuum is needed for developing public health response leaders; (4) equal emphasis on competency and character is needed for developing capable and adaptable leaders; and (5) consistent evaluation methodologies and metrics are needed to assess the effectiveness of educational interventions.
These findings offer important strategic and practical considerations for improving the design and delivery of educational interventions to develop public health emergency response leaders. This review and ongoing real-world events could facilitate further exploration of current practices, emerging trends, and challenges for continuous improvements in developing public health emergency response leaders.
To explore whether emotional expressivity and the patterns of language use could predict benefits from expressive writing (EW) of breast cancer (BC) patients in a culture that strongly discourages emotional disclosure.
Data were obtained from a recent trial in which we compared the health outcomes between a prolonged EW group (12 sessions) and a standard EW group (four sessions) (n = 56 per group) of BC patients receiving chemotherapy. The Chinese texts were tokenized using the THU Lexical Analyser for Chinese. Then, LIWC2015 was used to quantify positive and negative affect word use.
Our first hypothesis that BC patients with higher levels of emotional expressivity tended to use higher levels of positive and negative affect words in texts was not supported (r = 0.067, p = 0.549 and r = 0.065, p = 0.559, respectively). The level of emotional expressivity has a significant effect on the quality of life (QOL), and those who used more positive or fewer negative affective words in texts had a better QOL (all p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was identified in physical and psychological well-being (all p > 0.05). Furthermore, the patterns of affective word use during EW did not mediate the effects of emotional expressivity on health outcomes (all p > 0.05).
Our findings suggest that the level of emotional expressivity and the pattern of affective word use could be factors that may moderate the effects of EW on QOL, which may help clinicians identify the individuals most likely to benefit from such writing exercises in China.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute hemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60.4 ± 12.83 years; 66.8% male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (p = 0.012 and < 0.001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.28-4.17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
Though schizophrenia (SZ) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are conceptualized as distinct clinical entities, they do have notable symptom overlap and a tight association. Graph-theoretical analysis of the brain connectome provides more indicators to describe the functional organization of the brain, which may help us understand the shared and disorder-specific neural basis of the two disorders.
To explore the static and dynamic topological organization of OCD and SZ as well as the relationship between topological metrics and clinical variables.
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 31 OCD patients, 49 SZ patients, and 45 healthy controls (HC) were involved in this study (Table 1). Using independent component analysis to obtain independent components (ICs) (Figure 1), which were defined as nodes for static and dynamic topological analysis.
Static analysis showed the global efficiency of SZ was higher than HC. For nodal degree centrality, OCD exhibited decreased degree centrality in IC59 (located in visiual network) (P = 0.03) and increased degree centrality in IC38 (located in salience network) (P = 0.002) compared with HC. Dynamic analysis showed OCD exhibited decreased dynamics of degree centrality in IC38 (P = 0.003) compared with HC, which showed a negative correlation with clinical scores in OCD. While SZ showed decreased dynamics of degree centrality in IC76 (located in sensory motor network) compared with OCD (P=0.009), which showed a positive correlation with clinical scores in SZ (Figure 2).
These changes are suggestive of disorder-specific alternation of static and dynamic brain topological organization in OCD and SZ.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are both severe psychiatric disorders. Though these two disorders have distinct typical symptoms, there are partial polygenic overlap and comorbidity between the two disorders. However, few studies have explored the shared and disorder-specific brain function underlying the neural pathophysiology of the two disorders, especially in the aspect of dynamics.
To explore the abnormal characteristics of the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) in OCD and SZ as well as the association between dFC metrics and symptom severity.
The resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 31 patients with OCD, 49 patients with SZ, and 45 healthy controls were analyzed using independent component analysis to obtain independent components (ICs) and assigned them into eight brain networks (Figure 1), then used the sliding-window approach to generate dFC matrices. Using k-means clustering, we obtained three reoccurring dFC states (Figure 2), and state transition metrics were obtained
In a sparsely connected state (state 1), SZ showed both increased fractional time and mean dwell time than controls (P=0.047 and P=0.033) and OCD (P=0.001 and P=0.003). In a state characterized by negative FC between networks (state 2), OCD showed both increased fractional time and mean dwell time than controls (P=0.032 and P=0.013) and SZ (P=0.005 and P=0.003). Moreover, the fractional time of state 2 was positively correlated with anxiety scores in OCD (r=0.535, P=0.021, FDR corrected) (Figure 3).
OCD and SZ patients showed distinct alternations of brain functional dynamics.
This paper is concerned with spreading phenomena of the classical two-species Lotka-Volterra reaction-diffusion system in the weak competition case. More precisely, some new sufficient conditions on the linear or nonlinear speed selection of the minimal wave speed of travelling wave fronts, which connect one half-positive equilibrium and one positive equilibrium, have been given via constructing types of super-sub solutions. Moreover, these conditions for the linear or nonlinear determinacy are quite different from that of the minimal wave speeds of travelling wave fronts connecting other equilibria of Lotka-Volterra competition model. In addition, based on the weighted energy method, we give the global exponential stability of such solutions with large speed $c$. Specially, when the competition rate exerted on one species converges to zero, then for any $c>c_0$, where $c_0$ is the critical speed, the travelling wave front with the speed $c$ is globally exponentially stable.
This paper presents a method to solve the kinematics of a rigid-flexible and variable-diameter continuous manipulator. The multi-segment underwater manipulator is driven by McKibben water hydraulic artificial muscle (WHAM). Considering the effect of elasticity and friction, we optimized the static mathematical model of WHAM. The kinematic model of the manipulator with load is established based on the hypothesis of piecewise constant curvature (PCC). We developed an optimization algorithm to calculate the length of the WHAMs according to the principle of minimum strain energy and obtain the configuration space parameters of the kinematic model. Based on the infinitesimal method, the homogeneous transformation matrices of the variable-diameter bending sections are computed, and the terminal position and attitude are obtained. In this paper, we studied the working space of the manipulator by quantitative analysis of the impact factors including pressure and load. A deep neural network (DNN) with six hidden layers is designed to solve inverse kinematics. The forward kinematic results are used to train and test the DNN, and the correlation coefficient between the output and target samples reaches 0.945. We carried out an underwater experiment and verified the effectiveness of the kinematic modeling and solution method.
Inflammation is a central mechanism in metabolic disorders associated with morbidity and mortality and dietary factors can modulate inflammation. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between an empirically developed, food-based dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score and the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality, using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2014. EDIP score was derived by entering thirty-nine predefined commonly consumed food groups into the reduced rank regression models followed by stepwise linear regression, which was most predictive of two plasma inflammation biomarkers including C-reactive protein and leucocyte count among 25 500 US adults. This score was further validated in a testing set of 9466 adults. Deaths from baseline until 31 December 2015 were identified through record linkage to the National Death Index. During a median follow-up of 7·8 years among 40 074 participants, we documented 4904 deaths. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of EDIP score, those in the highest quintile had a higher risk of overall death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·19, 95 % CI 1·08, 1·32, Ptrend = 0·002), and deaths from cancer (HR = 1·41, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·74, Ptrend = 0·017) and CVD (HR = 1·22, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·53, Ptrend = 0·211). When stratified by age, the association of EDIP with overall mortality was stronger among individuals under 65 years of age (Pinteraction = 0·001). Diets with a higher inflammatory potential were associated with increased risk of overall and cancer-specific mortality. Interventions to reduce the adverse effect of pro-inflammatory diets may potentially promote health and longevity.