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Childhood trauma influences the clinical features of schizophrenia. In this study, we examined how childhood trauma and perceived stress are associated with clinical manifestations and subcortical gray matter volumes (GMVs) in patients with schizophrenia.
We recruited 127 patients with schizophrenia and 83 healthy controls for assessment of early childhood trauma, perceived stress, and clinical symptoms. With structural brain imaging, we identified the GMVs of subcortical structures and examined the relationships between childhood trauma, perceived stress, clinical symptoms, and subcortical GMVs.
Compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia showed higher levels of childhood trauma and perceived stress. Patients with schizophrenia showed significantly smaller amygdala and hippocampus GMVs as well as total cortical GMVs than age-matched controls. Childhood trauma score was significantly correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms, depression, perceived stress, and amygdala GMVs. Perceived stress was significantly correlated with clinical symptoms, depression, and hippocampus and amygdala GMVs. Further, the association between childhood trauma (emotional neglect) and stress coping ability was mediated by right amygdala GMV in patients with schizophrenia.
Patients with schizophrenia had more exposure to early-life trauma and poorer stress coping. Both childhood trauma and perceived stress were associated with smaller amygdala volumes. The relationship between early-life trauma and perceived stress was mediated by right amygdala GMV in patients with schizophrenia. These findings together suggest the long-term effects of childhood trauma on perceived stress and the subcortical volumetric correlates of the effects in schizophrenia.
Aberrations in how people form expectations about rewards and how they respond to receiving rewards are thought to underlie major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the underlying mechanism linking the appetitive reward system, specifically anticipation and outcome, is still not fully understood. To examine the neural correlates of monetary anticipation and outcome in currently depressed subjects with MDD, we performed two separate voxel-wise meta-analyses of functional neuroimaging studies using the monetary incentive delay task. During reward anticipation, the depressed patients exhibited an increased response in the bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC) extending to the anterior cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and the postcentral gyrus, but a reduced response in the mesolimbic circuit, including the left striatum, insula, amygdala, right cerebellum, striatum, and IFG, compared to controls. During the outcome stage, MDD showed higher activity in the left inferior temporal gyrus, and lower activity in the mesocortical pathway, including the bilateral MCC, left caudate nucleus, precentral gyrus, thalamus, cerebellum, right striatum, insula, IFG, middle frontal gyrus, and temporal pole. Our findings suggest that cMDD may be characterised by state-dependent hyper-responsivity in cortical regions during the anticipation phase, and hypo-responsivity of the mesocortico-limbic circuit across the two phases of the reward response. Our study showed dissociable neural circuit responses to monetary stimuli during reward anticipation and outcome, which help to understand the dysfunction in different aspects of reward processing, particularly motivational v. hedonic deficits in depression.
Aiming at the problem of low accuracy of robot joint fault diagnosis, a fault diagnosis method of robot joint based on BP neural network is designed. In this paper, the UR10 robot is taken as the research object, and the end pose data of the robot are collected in real time. By injecting different joint errors and changing the sampling frequency, the joint fault database is collected and established, and the BP neural network is used for training to obtain the robot neural network fault diagnosis model. The fault diagnosis model can output the joint fault of the input end pose data. And we analyzed the influence of different joint angle errors and different training sets on the accuracy of joint fault diagnosis of the robot. The results show that when the sampling frequency is 250 Hz, the simulation result of joint fault diagnosis accuracy with the fault degree of 0.5° is 99.17%, and the experimental result is 97.87%. Compared with traditional data-driven methods, it has higher accuracy and diagnostic efficiency, and compared with existing machine learning methods, it also achieves a high accuracy while reducing the network complexity. The effectiveness of the BP neural network robot joint fault diagnosis method is verified by experiments.
The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically impacted many aspects of society and has indirectly produced various psychological consequences. This systematic review aimed to estimate the worldwide prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to identify protective or risk factors contributing to child PTSD.
We conducted a systematic literature search in the PubMed, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, WanFang, CNKI, and VIP databases. We searched for studies published between January 1, 2020 and May 26, 2021, that reported the prevalence of child PTSD due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as factors contributing to child PTSD. Eighteen studies were included in our systematic review, of which 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis.
The estimated prevalence of child PTSD after the COVID-19 outbreak was 28.15% (95% CI: 19.46–36.84%, I2 = 99.7%). In subgroup analyses for specific regions the estimated prevalence of post-pandemic child PTSD was 19.61% (95% CI: 11.23–27.98%) in China, 50.8% (95% CI: 34.12–67.49%) in the USA, and 50.08% in Italy (95% CI: 47.32–52.84%).
Factors contributing to child PTSD were categorized into four aspects: personal factors, family factors, social factors and infectious diseases related factors. Based on this, we presented a new framework summarizing the occurrence and influence of the COVID-19 related child PTSD, which may contribute to a better understanding, prevention and development of interventions for child PTSD in forthcoming pandemics.
Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) is a transmembrane protein and the precursor of irisin, which serves as a systemic exerkine/myokine with multiple origins. Since its discovery in 2012, this hormone-like polypeptide has rapidly evolved to a component significantly involved in a gamut of metabolic dysregulations and various liver diseases. After a decade of extensive investigation on FNDC5/irisin, we are still surrounded by lots of open questions regarding its diagnostic and therapeutic values. In this review, we first concentrated on the structure–function relationship of FNDC5/irisin. Next, we comprehensively summarised the current knowledge and research findings regarding pathogenic roles/therapeutic applications of FNDC5/irisin in the context of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, fibrosis, liver injury due to multiple detrimental insults, hepatic malignancy and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Moreover, the prominent molecules involved in the underlying mechanisms and signalling pathways were highlighted. As a result, emerging evidence reveals FNDC5/irisin may act as a proxy for diagnosing liver disease pathology, a sensitive biomarker for assessing damage severity, a predisposing factor for surveilling illness progression and a treatment option with protective/preventive impact, all of which are highly dependent on disease grading and contextually pathological features.
Considering the influence of body’s growth and development on thyroid volume (TVOL), whether five existed corrected methods could be applied to correct TVOL remains unclear, in terms of Chinese children’s increased growth and development trends. This study aimed to compare the applicability of five correction methods: Body Surface Area corrected Volume (BSAV), Body Mass Indicator corrected Volume (BMIV), Weight and Height corrected Volume Indicator (WHVI), Height corrected Volume Indicator 1 (HVI1) and Height corrected Volume Indicator 2 (HVI2) and to establish the reference values for correction methods. The data of Iodine Nutrition and Thyroid Function Survey were used to analyse the differences in TVOL between normal and abnormal thyroid function children. Data of National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Survey were used to compare five correction methods and to establish their reference values. The median urinary iodine concentrations of children surveyed were 256·1 μg/l in 2009 and 192·6 μg/l in 2019. No significant difference was found in TVOL and thyroid goitre rate between children with normal and abnormal thyroid function. In the determination of goitre, HVI1, HVI2, BSAV and BMIV all showed high agreement with TVOL, while the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of WHVI was relatively low for children aged 8 (AUC = 0·8993) and 9 (AUC = 0·8866) years. Most differences of TVOL between light and heavy weight, short and tall height children can be eliminated by BSAV. BSAV was the best corrected method in this research. Reference values were established for corrected TVOL in Chinese children aged 8–10 years by sex.
This article explores how the Chinese government aims to maintain social stability by encouraging citizens to become volunteers. We propose that a new type of governance, namely, “state-enlisted voluntarism,” is being deployed in which public security volunteers are mobilized and monitored by the state. Analysis based on ten-year nationwide empirical data gathered from local areas in China suggests that the government intentionally enlists citizens into its hierarchical system to strengthen its administrative capacity and maintain a stable society without the risk of domestic threats. We find that direct enlistment approaches empower citizens as state proxies, and that indirect enlistment approaches ensure that various social stakeholders are comprehensively controlled. In general, the Chinese government has four reasons to institutionalize the state enlistment of voluntarism: to increase human resources at the grassroots; transform social organizations into subordinates; frame policy innovations as political credits; and to avoid blame. Our findings also suggest that China's party-state system mobilizes citizens into implementation-oriented activities rather than engages them in policymaking to maintain social stability at the grassroots.
We examined whether physical activity (PA) explains the association between dietary inflammatory potential and osteoarthritis (OA) in the elderly. A total of 1249 elderly people (≥65 years) were eligible for this study from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2011 to 2016. The semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and Global PA Questionnaire (GPAQ) were used to evaluate the diet and PA of the elderly, respectively. The multivariable logistic regression model estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between Energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII) and OA. The interaction of E-DII and PA on depressive events was tested, and the mediation analysis of PA was performed. The average E-DII in this study was +0.68 (SE 0.08), and the score ranges from -5.32 (most anti-inflammatory) to +4.26 (most pro-inflammatory). In comparison with the first quartile, the elderly from the second quartile (OR: 1.16 [95% CI: 1.06, 1.68]) to the fourth quartile (OR: 1.64 [95% CI: 1.13, 2.37]) had a higher risk of OA before adjustment for PA. An interaction was observed between E-DII and PA in terms of the risk of OA (PInteraction < 0.001). The whole related part was mediated by PA (20.08%). Our findings indicated that the higher pro-inflammatory potential of diet was associated with a higher risk of OA, and low PA was an important part of the mediating factor in the relationship between systemic low-grade dietary inflammation and the risk of OA.
Many studies have substantiated the perceptual symbol system, which assumes a routine generation of perceptual information during language comprehension, but little is known about the processing format in which the perceptual information of different dimensions is conveyed simultaneously during sentence comprehension. The current study provides the first experimental evidence of how multidimensional perceptual information (color and shape) was processed during online sentence comprehension in Mandarin. We designed three consecutive sentence–picture verification tasks that only differed in the delay of the display of pictures preceded by declarative sentences. The processing was analyzed in three stages based on time intervals (i.e., 0ms, +750ms, +1500ms). The response accuracy and response time data were reported. The initial stage (i.e., ISI=0ms) attested the match effect of color and shape, but the simulated representation of color and shape did not interact. In the intermediate stage (i.e., ISI=750ms), the routinely simulated color and shape interacted, but the match facilitation was found only in cases where one perceptual information was in mismatch while the other was not. In the final stage (i.e., ISI=1500ms), the match facilitation of one particular perceptual property was influenced by a mismatch with the other perceptual property. These results suggested that multiple perceptual information presented simultaneously was processed in an additive manner to a large extent before entering into the final stage, where the simulated perceptual information was integrated in a multiplicative manner. The results also suggested that color and shape were comparable to object recognition when conjointly conveyed. In relation to other evidence from behavioral and event-related potential studies on sentence reading in the discussion, we subscribed to the idea that the full semantic integration became available over time.
Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) (DXWR) is the northernmost distributed wild rice found in the world. Similar to other populations of O. rufipogon, DXWR contains a large number of agronomically valuable genes, which makes it a natural gene pool for rice breeding. Molecular markers, especially simple repeat sequence (SSR) markers, play important roles in plant breeding. Although a large number of SSR markers have been developed, most of them are derived from the genome coding sequences, rarely from non-coding sequences. Meanwhile, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are derived from the transcription of non-coding sequences, play vital roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. In our previous study, we obtained 1655 lncRNA transcripts from DXWR using strand-specific RNA sequencing. In this study, 1878 SSR loci were detected from the lncRNA sequences of DXWR, and 1258 lncRNA-derived-SSR markers were developed on the genome-wide scale. To verify the validity and applicability of these markers, 72 pairs of primers were randomly selected to test 44 rice accessions. The results showed that 42 (58.33%) pairs of primers have abundant polymorphism among these rice materials; the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.04 to 0.87 with an average of 0.50; the genetic diversity index of SSR loci varied from 0.04 to 0.88 with an average of 0.56; and the number of alleles per marker ranged from 2 to 11 with an average of 4.36. Thus, we concluded that these lncRNA-derived-SSR markers are a very useful source for future basic and applied research.
Excessive iodine can lead to goiters. However, the relationship between the water iodine concentration (WIC) and goiter rate (GR) is unclear. This study aims to explore the factors that influence children’s GR in areas with high WIC and analyse the threshold value of the GR increase associated with the WIC. According to the monitoring of the areas with high WIC in China in 2018–2020, a total of 54 050 children in eight high water iodine provinces were chosen. Drinking water, urine and edible salt samples of children were collected. The thyroid volume (Tvol) was measured. A generalised additive model (GAM) was used to analyse the relationship between the WIC and GR in children. Among the 54 050 children in areas with high WIC, the overall GR was 3·34 %, the median of water iodine concentration was 127·0 µg/l, the median of urinary iodine concentration was 318 µg/l and the non-iodised salt coverage rate (NISCR) was 63·51 %. According to the GAM analysis results, water iodine and urinary iodine are factors that influence the Tvol and GR, while the NISCR affects only the GR. When the WIC was more than 420 µg/l or the urinary iodine concentration was more than 800 µg/l, the GR increased rapidly. When the NISCR reached more than 85 %, the GR was the lowest. Thus, in areas with high WIC, WIC more than 420 µg/l may increase the risk of goiter, and the NISCR should be increased to over 85 % to avoid goiters in children.
Epidemiological studies have shown that higher intake of flavonoid is inversely associated with CHD risk. However, which flavonoid subclass could reduce CHD risk has remained controversial. The present meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies aimed to quantitatively assess the associations between flavonoid subclasses and CHD risk. A systematic literature search was implemented from PubMed and Web of Science databases up to March 2021, and eligible studies were identified. Multivariate-adjust relative risks (RR) with corresponding 95 % CI were pooled by using a random-effects model. A restricted cubic spline regression model was performed for non-linear dose–response analysis. A total of 19 independent prospective cohort studies with 894 471 participants and 34 707 events were included. The results showed that dietary intakes of anthocyanins (RR = 0·90; 95 % CI: 0·83, 0·98), proanthocyanidins (RR = 0·78; 95 % CI: 0·65, 0·94), flavonols (RR = 0·88; 95 % CI: 0·79, 0·98), flavones (RR = 0·94; 95 % CI: 0·89, 0·99) and isoflavones (RR = 0·90; 95 % CI: 0·83, 0·98) were negatively associated with CHD risk. Dose–response analysis showed that increment of 50 mg/d anthocyanins, 100 mg/d proanthocyanidins, 25 mg/d flavonols, 5 mg/d flavones and 0·5 mg/d isoflavones were associated with 5 % reduction in CHD risk, respectively. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were used to further support these associations. The present results indicate that dietary intakes of fruits and vegetables abundant five flavonoid subclasses, namely anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavones and isoflavones, are associated with a lower risk of CHD.
The policy of Universal Salt Iodisation (USI) could reduce population’s thyroid volume (TVOL) in iodine deficiency areas. Conversely, the improved growth and developmental status of children might increase the TVOL accordingly. Whether the decreased TVOL by USI conceals the increase effect of height and weight on TVOL is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between height, weight, iodine supplementation and TVOL. Five national Iodine Deficiency Disorder surveys were matched into four pairs according to the purpose of analysis. County-level data of both detected by paired surveys were incorporated; 1:1 random pairing method was used to match counties or individuals. The difference of TVOL between different height, weight, different iodine supplementation measures groups and the association between TVOL and them were studied. The mean height and weight of children aged 8–10 years increased from 129·9 cm and 26·9 kg in 2002 to 136·2 cm and 32·1 kg in 2019, while the median TVOL decreased from 3·10 ml to 2·61 ml. Iodine supplementation measures can affect TVOL; after excluding iodine effects, the median TVOL was increased with the height and weight. On the other side, after excluding the influence of height and weight, the median TVOL remained decreased. Only age, weight and salt iodine were significantly associated with TVOL in multiple linear models. Development of height and weight in children is the evidence of improved nutrition. The decreased TVOL caused by iodised salt measures conceals the increase effect of height and weight on TVOL. Age, weight and salt iodine affect TVOL significantly.
The present study evaluated whether fat mass assessment using the triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness provides additional prognostic value to the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) framework in patients with lung cancer (LC). We performed an observational cohort study including 2672 LC patients in China. Comprehensive demographic, disease and nutritional characteristics were collected. Malnutrition was retrospectively defined using the GLIM criteria, and optimal stratification was used to determine the best thresholds for the TSF. The associations of malnutrition and TSF categories with survival were estimated independently and jointly by calculating multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Malnutrition was identified in 808 (30·2 %) patients, and the best TSF thresholds were 9·5 mm in men and 12 mm in women. Accordingly, 496 (18·6 %) patients were identified as having a low TSF. Patients with concurrent malnutrition and a low TSF had a 54 % (HR = 1·54, 95 % CI = 1·25, 1·88) greater death hazard compared with well-nourished individuals, which was also greater compared with malnourished patients with a normal TSF (HR = 1·23, 95 % CI = 1·06, 1·43) or malnourished patients without TSF assessment (HR = 1·31, 95 % CI = 1·14, 1·50). These associations were concentrated among those patients with adequate muscle mass (as indicated by the calf circumference). Additional fat mass assessment using the TSF enhances the prognostic value of the GLIM criteria. Using the population-derived thresholds for the TSF may provide significant prognostic value when used in combination with the GLIM criteria to guide strategies to optimise the long-term outcomes in patients with LC.
Catastrophe insurance markets fail to provide sufficient protections against natural catastrophes, whereas they have the capacity to absorb the losses. In this paper, we assume the catastrophic risks are dependent and extremely heavy-tailed, and insurers have limited liability to cover losses up to a certain amount. We provide a comprehensive study to show that the diversification in the catastrophe insurance markets can be transited from suboptimal to preferred by increasing the number of insurers in the market. This highlights the importance of coordination among insurers and the government intervention in encouraging insurers to participate in the catastrophe insurance market to exploit risk sharing. Simulation studies are provided to illuminate the key findings of our results.
A deep ice core was drilled at Dome A, Antarctic Plateau, East Antarctica, which started with the installation of a casing in January 2012 and reached 800.8 m in January 2017. To date, a total of 337 successful ice-core drilling runs have been conducted, including 118 runs to drill the pilot hole. The total drilling time was 52 days, of which eight days were required for drilling down and reaming the pilot hole, and 44 days for deep ice coring. The average penetration depths of individual runs were 1 and 3.1 m for the pilot hole drilling and deep ice coring, respectively. The quality of the ice cores was imperfect in the brittle zone (650−800 m). Some of the troubles encountered are discussed for reference, such as armoured cable knotting, screws falling into the hole bottom, and damaged parts, among others.
Upper Ordovician strata exposed from the Baiyanhuashan section is the most representative Late Ordovician unit in the northwestern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). In total, 1,215 conodont specimens were obtained from 24 samples through the Wulanhudong and Baiyanhuashan formations at the Baiyanhuashan section. Thirty-six species belonging to 17 genera, including Tasmanognathus coronatus new species, are present. Based on this material, three conodont biozones—the Belodina confluens Biozone, the Yaoxianognathus neimengguensis Biozone, and the Yaoxianognathus yaoxianensis Biozone—have been documented, suggesting that the Baiyanhuashan conodont fauna has a stratigraphic range spanning the early to middle Katian. The Baiyanhuashan conodont fauna includes species both endemic to North China and widespread in tropical zones, allowing a reassessment of the previous correlations of the Katian conodont zonal successions proposed for North China with those established for shallow-water carbonate platforms at low latitudes.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: The knowledge acquired from my research can inform the development of early diagnostic methods for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: In the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high but the neural mechanisms are unclear. We examined whether older people with HIV (PWH) with minimal cognitive impairment have reduced functional connectivity in frontostriatal circuits compared to controls. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 99 PWH (mean age 56.6 years, 75% male, 62% Black, mean duration of HIV-infection 26.2 years ±9.3, 90% viral load <50 copies, 98% on stable cART) and 38 demographically-comparable controls (mean age 54.5 years, 71% male, 58% Black) participated in a cross-sectional study. A 7-domain neuropsychological battery and an Activities of Daily Living index were used to determine HAND diagnoses: 32 PWH met criteria for asymptomatic to mild HAND. Motor skill was assessed using the Grooved Pegboard Test by measuring performance speed. Structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI were collected. Seed-to-voxel analyses were conducted using 4 distinct regions in the striatum as seed regions. We used a voxel threshold of p<0.001 and cluster threshold of p<0.05 (FDR-corrected) after controlling for demographic variables. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Compared to controls, PWH had lower resting state functional connectivity between the default mode region of the striatum (i.e., medial caudate) and bilateral superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor cortex and paracingulate gyrus (p<0.05; cluster size: 567 voxels). Also, compared to controls, PWH had reduced resting state functional connectivity between the motor division of the striatum (i.e., posterior putamen) and anterior cingulate cortex and left supplementary motor cortex (p<0.05, cluster size: 405 voxels). Performance speed on the Grooved Pegboard motor test negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the motor region of the striatum and supplementary motor frontal regions in all participants (Spearman’s rho=-0.18, p=0.04). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our results support the hypothesis that frontostriatal abnormalities are widely present in PWH and might play a key role in HAND development. Our data suggest that dysfunction within the frontostriatal circuits may be involved in motor impairment in PWH, and ongoing inflammation may contribute to motor impairment and frontostriatal injury.
The tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest with a highly selective and sensitive chemosensory system involved in complex physiological behaviors such as searching for food sources, feeding, courtship, and oviposition. However, effective management strategies for controlling the insect pest populations under threshold levels are lacking. Therefore, there is an urgent need to formulate eco-friendly pest control strategies based on the disruption of the insect chemosensory system. In this study, we identified 158 putative chemosensory genes based on transcriptomic and genomic data for S. litura, including 45 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs, nine were new), 23 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 60 odorant receptors (ORs, three were new), and 30 gustatory receptors (GRs, three were new), a number higher than those reported by previous transcriptome studies. Subsequently, we constructed phylogenetic trees based on these genes in moths and analyzed the dynamic expression of various genes in head capsules across larval instars using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Nine genes–SlitOBP8, SlitOBP9, SlitOBP25, SlitCSP1, SlitCSP7, SlitCSP18, SlitOR34, SlitGR240, and SlitGR242–were highly expressed in the heads of 3- to 5-day-old S. litura larvae. The genes differentially expressed in olfactory organs during larval development might play crucial roles in the chemosensory system of S. litura larvae. Our findings substantially expand the gene inventory for S. litura and present potential target genes for further studies on larval feeding in S. litura.