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Across Eurasia, horse transport transformed ancient societies. Although evidence for chariotry is well dated, the origins of horse riding are less clear. Techniques to distinguish chariotry from riding in archaeological samples rely on elements not typically recovered from many steppe contexts. Here, the authors examine horse remains of Mongolia's Deer Stone-Khirigsuur (DSK) Complex, comparing them with ancient and modern East Asian horses used for both types of transport. DSK horses demonstrate unique dentition damage that could result from steppe chariotry, but may also indicate riding with a shallow rein angle at a fast gait. A key role for chariots in Late Bronze Age Mongolia helps explain the trajectory of horse use in early East Asia.
Grain-filling, as the final growth stage of rice, is sensitive to environmental temperature change. Previous studies mainly concerned about the effects of high temperature stress during grain-filling on rice growth, and most experiments were carried out with pot for cultivating rice and greenhouse for warming. This research investigated the response of rice grain-filling of superior spikelets (SS) and inferior spikelets (IS) of two japonica cultivars to elevated temperature during grain-filling stage under open-field warming conditions in lower reaches of Yangtze River Basin using free-air temperature enhancement facility. Results indicated that rice yield was not significantly changed by warming less than 4°C. SS and IS showed different responses to elevated temperature during the grain-filling stage, whereas there were similar trends between two cultivars and years. For SS, although elevated temperature enhanced its filling rate during the early grain-filling period, and caused a shorter grain-filling period and a lighter grain weight; for IS, elevated temperature improved its grain weight by enhancing its filling rate during middle and late grain-filling period due to the increased number of days with suitable temperature. For both SS and IS, key starch biosynthesis enzymes and indole-3-acetic acid content exhibited generally a similar dynamics trend with grain-filling rates, and these sink strength parameters presented higher levels under elevated temperature relative to natural temperature for IS during middle and late grain-filling period. Consequently, warming less than 4°C presented different influences on SS and IS; the improvement of IS filling under warming regime was associated with the intensification of grain sink strength.
As the key part for energy amplification of high-power laser systems, disk amplifiers must work in an extremely clean environment. Different from the traditional cleanliness control scheme of active intake and passive exhaust (AIPE), a new method of active exhaust and passive intake (AEPI) is proposed in this paper. Combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology, through the optimization design of the sizes, shapes, and locations of different outlets and inlets, the turbulence that is unfavorable to cleanliness control is effectively avoided in the disk amplifier cavity during the process of AEPI. Finally, the cleanliness control of the cavity of the disk amplifier can be realized just by once exhaust. Meanwhile, the micro negative pressure environment in the amplifier cavity produced during the exhaust process reduces the requirement for sealing. This method is simple, time saving, gas saving, efficient, and safe. It is also suitable for the cleanliness control of similar amplifiers.
The stability of a shale containing smectite with different exchangeable cations (Na+, Ca2+) was improved using optimum solutions containing polyether amine (PA), poly-alcohol (PO) or KCl. Two types of shale samples with Na+ and Ca2+ as the main exchangeable cations, respectively, were used and the optimized solutions were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), an adsorption test, an oedometer swelling test, and an immersion test. The use of KCl prevented intercalation of PA or PO and maintained the stability of the Na-smectite-bearing shale. PA or PO adsorption reduced water adsorption sites on the clay layer, and K+ reduced hydration of exchangeable Na+, resulting in good shale stability in mixed solutions of KCl+PA, and KCl+PO. More stable shale was achieved in KCl+ PA mixed solution, whereas in the KCl+ PO solution the transport of water or solute molecules in the shale was reduced. In the shale containing mainly Ca-smectite, PA, PO and KCl maintained shale stability when applied separately or in common, as PA or PO cannot exchange Ca2+ in the smectite interlayer. As a result, PA or PO should be used together with KCl during drilling in shale formations containing Na-smectite, whereas in shales with Ca-smectite, PA, PO or KCl may be used separately.
To better stabilize the hydrogen-terminated surface, a diamond based metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor with Zr-Si-N dielectric layer has been investigated. On the diamond epitaxial layer grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system, Pd films were patterned as the source and drain electrodes by photolithography and electron beam evaporation methods. Then, a Zr-Si-N dielectric layer and W metal film were fabricated as the gate structure by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The device illustrates p-type depletion mode, in which the threshold voltage, maximum transconductance, drain current maximum, capacitance and dielectric constant were calculated to be 3.0V, 1.27mS/mm, -5.16 mA/mm, 0.275μF/cm2 and 7.8, respectively. The result suggest that Zr-Si-N dielectric layer is shown to have the ability to protect the two-dimensional hole gas.
A self-made die with large cross section (180.2 × 22.2 mm) for equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was used to study the influence of two different pressing routes (CX and CY) on refining homogeneity of high-purity aluminum plates. Microstructures were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) methods, and micro-hardness and tensile tests were taken to evaluate deformation degree across the cross section and mechanical properties, respectively. The results indicate that pressing routes of ECAP have a great influence on structure homogeneity of plate samples. The route CY leads to fine grains with better homogeneity because the same deformation direction is taken through each pass. Coarse columnar crystals with 3–4 mm change to 68.6 μm nearly equiaxed grains and a strong cube texture forms after four CY passes, and corresponding mechanical properties increase by a factor compared to as-cast plate.
Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28 857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8–10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6·3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150–300 μg/l and 11·0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3·69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100–199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.
Legumes have been recommended as staple foods in the anticipation of disease prevention. However, the scientific evidence of their benefits, particularly on mental well-being, remains preliminary. We longitudinally assessed the association between legume consumption and the risk of severe depressed mood (SDM) among a national cohort.
The study included adults aged 25–74 years who were examined in 1971–1975 as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Legume consumption at baseline was obtained from a 3-month FFQ and categorised as infrequent (<1 time/week), moderate (1–2 times/week) and frequent (≥3 times/week). SDM was defined as Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score ≥22 or taking anti-depression medication after an average of 10·6 years of follow-up (from 8·0 to 12·5 years).
Among women, the proportion of individuals with SDM was 17·75 %. For premenopausal women (n 1778), a significant linear trend of deleterious effect from legume consumption was observed (P for trend = 0·0148). The relative risks (RR) for infrequent, moderate and frequent consumptions were 1 (reference), 1·24 (95 % CI = 0·91, 1·70) and 1·75 (1·12, 2·75), respectively. However, moderate consumption showed a significant protective effect (RR = 0·52 (0·27, 1·00)) among women undergoing the menopausal transition (n 454). No association was obtained from either postmenopausal women (n 601) or men (n 2036).
These findings suggest that gender and menopausal status were effect modifiers of the association between legume consumption and SDM. Detrimental effects of frequent consumption of legumes may exist among premenopausal women; moderate consumption, however, may protect perimenopausal women against SDM.
A series of bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics thin films Srm-3Bi4TimO3m+3(m=3, 4, 5, and 6) were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on (001) LaAlO3 single crystal substrate. XRD and Raman studies have been performed. The more sensitive Raman spectra lead to a different understanding on the layer structure of Sr3Bi4Ti6O21 from XRD. This can be attributed to the lager c-axis constant of Sr3Bi4Ti6O21 due to more layers. More layers lead to increasing disorder in the local scale of the average grain.
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