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Various foods are associated with or protect against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was to examine the associations of foods and food patterns with the risk of T2DM in South China.
The dietary patterns were identified by a principal components factor analysis. Univariable and multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the associations between food groups and dietary patterns and the risk of T2DM.
A total of 384 patients with T2DM and 768 controls.
After adjustment for total energy intake, the standard intake of grains (228·3 ± 71·9 v. 238·8 ± 73·1 g/d, P = 0·025) and fruits (109 ± 90 v. 145 ± 108 g/d, P < 0·001) were lower in T2DM than in controls. Four dietary patterns were identified: (1) high light-coloured vegetables and low grains, (2) high fruits, (3) high red meat and low grains and (4) high dark-coloured vegetable. After adjustment for covariables, multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses showed significant dose-dependent inverse associations between total fruit intake, whole grains intake and the score of the high-fruit dietary pattern (all Pfor trend < 0·001) and the risk of T2DM. The adjusted OR (95 % CI) for T2DM comparing the extreme quartiles were 0·46 (0·29, 0·76) for total fruits, 0·48(0·31, 0·77) for whole grains and 0·42 (0·26, 0·68) for the high-fruit dietary pattern, respectively. Similar associations were observed for all subgroups of fruits (dark-colour and light-colour).
In South China, a diet rich in fruit and whole grains is associated with lower risk of T2DM.
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