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Aberrant DNA methylation patterns in sperm are a cause of embryonic failure and infertility, and could be a critical factor contributing to male recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The purpose of this study was to reveal the potential effects of sperm DNA methylation levels in patients with male RSA. We compared sperm samples collected from fertile men and oligoasthenospermia patients. Differentially methylated sequences were identified by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) methods. The DNA methylation levels of the two groups were compared and qRT-PCR was used to validate the expression of genes showing differential methylation. The results indicated that no difference in base distribution was observed between the normal group and the patient group. However, the chromosome methylation in these two groups was markedly different. One site was located on chromosome 8 and measured 150 bp, while the other sites were on chromosomes 9, 10, and X and measured 135 bp, 68 bp, and 136 bp, respectively. In particular, two genes were found to be hypermethylated in these patients, one gene was DYDC2 (placed in the differential methylation region of chromosome 10), and the other gene was NXF3 (located on chromosome X). Expression levels of DYDC2 and NXF3 in the RSA group were significantly lower than those in the normal group (P < 0.05). Collectively, these results demonstrated that changes in DNA methylation might be related to male RSA. Our findings provide important information regarding the potential role of sperm DNA methylation in human development.
Muscle-reducing obesity is the most common form of obesity in the elderly, so it is more difficult for the elderly to lose weight. The efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) for weight loss in the elderly remains controversial. This study aimed to explore the effect and safety of LCD on weight loss in overweight and obese elderly people.
Materials and Methods:
Obese or overweight elderly (> 60 years old) with a BMI greater than 24 were recruited to use a restricted LCD for 1–3 months for weight loss intervention. According to the time, participants were divided into short-time group (< 30 days), medium-time group (< 31–60 days) and long-time group (> 60 days). The enrolled subjects were given an energy-restricted LCD for weight reduction intervention (1200–1400 kcal/d, carbohydrate accounts for 15–20% of energy). The primary outcome was change in body composition included weight, BMI, fat mass, and waist circumference, and there were other secondary outcomes including blood sugar, blood lipid and uric acid.
Results and Discussion:
Thirty-two obese or overweight elderly completed a LCD for 1–3 months, mean age were 64.9 ± 4.2 years, median intervention time was 56 (range: 26,100); mean BMI was 29.62 ± 3.70kg/m2. After LCD intervention, the average body weight of the three groups decreased by 2.92 ± 0.77 kg, 5.57 ± 1.99 kg and 10.48 ± 2.63 kg; the average BMI decreased by 1.43 ± 0.34 kg/m, 2.18 ± 0.99 kg/m and 3.18 ± 1.77 kg/m; the average body fat decreased by 2.28 ± 0.43 kg, 4.07 ± 2.08 kg and 7.05 ± 2.53 kg; and the average muscle decreased by 0.68 ± 0.76 kg, 1.32 ± 0.78 kg and 2.45 ± 2.03 kg (P < 0.05). The average muscle loss was less than 20% of the total weight loss. Covariance analysis adjusted by sex and age showed that the percentage changes of body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were significant different among the three groups (p < 0.05), which had linear trends with the intervention time, while the percentage of muscle and body fat decreased was not significantly different among the three groups, and did not increase with the intervening time (p > 0.05). Symptoms of patients with hypertension or sleep apnea syndrome were alleviated. There were no serious adverse events during weight loss.LCD with restricted energy is a safe and effective weight-loss intervention for overweight or obese elderly people. It can significantly reduce BMI and body fat without losing more muscle with the increase of weight loss time.
The associations between grains and carbohydrate intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus are controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between grains, carbohydrate intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in China.
Materials and Methods
This was a 1:2 (sex/age) matched case-control study, participants were adults. Cases were diabetics diagnosed within 3 months and the controls were without disorder of glucose metabolism. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect information on their socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and dietary intakes using structured questionnaires. Grains were divided into whole, refined and common grain, and the carbohydrate intake was also calculated. The study participants were divided into quartiles (Q1 (lowest), Q2, Q3, and Q4) by food and nutrients intakes separately. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to explore the association of foods and nutrients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after adjusting for potential confounders. Trend test were performed by treating quartiles variables as continuous variables.
Results and Discussion
Our study enrolled 384 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (males 162, females 222) and 768 controls (males 324, females 444). Multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis(Ver. 21.0; PSS Inc.,Chicago,IL,USA) showed that moderate amount intake of total cereals was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The adjusted OR of the second quartile (Q2, 223g/d) and the third quartile (Q3, 255g/d) were 0.60(95%CI:0.38–0.93) and 0.51(95%CI:0.33–0.79), respectively, compared with the lowest quartile (Q1, 165g/d), but this inverse association was not found in the highest quartile (Q4, 307g/d) and the OR was 0.74(95%CI:0.47–1.15). There was significant negative association between whole grains intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus with the OR of the highest intake 0.48(95%CI:0.31–0.77) compared with the lowest intake(Ptrend = 0.001).No association was found between refined grains intake intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and neither did common grain intake. Higher carbohydrate intake may have a beneficial effect on type 2 diabetes mellitus. The best effect was found in the second quartile intake (Q2, 264g/d), with an adjusted OR of 0.56 (95%CI:0.37–0.84) compared with the lowest quartile intake (Q1, 220g/d).The OR of Q3 (285g/d) and Q4 (334g/d) were 0.69 (95%CI:0.48–1.00) and 0.66 (95CI:0.44–1.00) respectively(Ptrend p = 0.017).
Moderate amount of total cereals intake may benefit to type 2 diabetes mellitus, however, much lower and higher intake can increase the risk. Higher intake of whole grains was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrate intake was negative associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Previous studies have investigated the association between dietary inflammatory potential and the development of cancer. For breast cancer the results have been equivocal. The present study aimed to investigate whether higher Dietary Inflammatory IndexTM (DII) scores were associated with increased risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 867 cases and 824 controls were recruited into the present case–control study from September 2011 to February 2016. DII scores were computed based on baseline dietary intake assessed by a validated 81-item FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI were assessed by multivariable logistic regression after adjusting for various potential confounders. DII scores in this study ranged from −5·87 (most anti-inflammatory score) to +5·71 (most proinflammatory score). A higher DII score was associated with a higher breast cancer risk (adjusted ORquartile 4 v. 1 2·28; 95 % CI 1·71, 3·03; adjusted ORcontinuous 1·40; 95 %CI 1·25, 1·39). In stratified analyses, positive associations also were observed except for underweight women or women with either oestrogen receptor+ or progesterone receptor+ status (but not both). Results from this study indicated that higher DII scores, corresponding to more proinflammatory diets, were positively associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese women.
Yang L, Ruan L-M, Ye H-H, Cui H-B, Mu Q-T, Lou Y-R, Ji Y-X, Li W-Z, Sun D-H, Chen X-B. Depression is associated with lower circulating endothelial progenitor cells and increased inflammatory markers.
Objective: To test the hypothesis that depression status in subjects without cardiovascular diseases (CVD) or diabetes is associated with depletion of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and impaired endothelial function.
Method: Thirty depressive persons with the first episode of depression (case group) diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and 30 healthy people (control group) were investigated. The depression status was estimated using Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression from which the criteria of depression are determined to be >21 score. EPCs labeled with CD34-ECD, CD133-phycoerythrin and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR)-fluorescein isothiocyanate antibodies were counted by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of patients and control subjects. Mononuclear cells that were positive for CD34/KDR, CD133/KDR and CD34/CD133/KDR within the lymphocyte population were characterised as different phenotypes of EPCs.
Results: There were no significant differences in baseline clinical characteristics between patients and healthy individuals (all p > 0.05). However, patients with depression had significantly lower levels of circulating CD34+CD133+KDR+ EPCs (132.20 ± 17.27 vs. 225.93 ± 9.88, p = 0.000) and endothelial colony-forming units (26.40 ± 3.79 vs. 36.60 ± 2.88, p = 0.000) than that of healthy subjects. Furthermore, CD34+CD133+KDR+ EPCs had a negative correlation with tumour necrosis factor-α (Spearman's ρ = 0.433, p = 0.000) and interleukin-6 (Spearman's ρ = 0.441, p = 0.032).
Conclusion: Our result shows that depression was associated with lower levels of circulating EPCs, which may contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
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