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Epidemiological studies on the association between the low carbohydrate diet (LCD) score and CVD risk factors have limited and inconsistent results. Data are from the baseline survey of Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases. A total of 4609 adults aged ≥ 18 years were included in the study. Dietary data were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate relationships of three LCD scores with low HDL-cholesterol, high LDL-cholesterol, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), high blood pressure and hyperuricaemia after adjusting for potential confounders. A higher LCD score was negatively associated with low HDL-cholesterol (OR: 0·65 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·83), P = 0·0001) and IFG (OR: 0·65 (95 % CI 0·51, 0·81), P = 0·001) after the final adjustment. However, there are sex differences in this result. Males in the highest quintile of the animal-based or plant-based LCD scores showed a decreased risk of low HDL-cholesterol, and females in the highest quintile of the animal-based or plant-based LCD scores showed a decreased risk of IFG than those in the lowest quintile of the LCD scores. These results suggest that sex differences should be considered when using LCD to treat dyslipidaemia and reduce fasting blood glucose.
The mumps resurgence has frequently been reported around the world in recent years, especially in many counties mumps vaccines have been widely used. This study aimed to describe the spatial epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Jiangsu, and provide a scientific basis for the implementation and adjustment of strategies to prevent and control mumps. The epidemiological characteristics were described with ratio or proportion. Spatial autocorrelation, Tango's flexible spatial scan statistics, and Kulldorff's elliptic spatiotemporal scan statistics were applied to identify the spatial autocorrelation, detect hot and cold spots of mumps incidence, and aggregation areas. A total of 172 775 cases were reported from 2004 to 2020 in Jiangsu. The general trend of mumps incidence is declining with a bimodal seasonal distribution identified mainly in summer and winter, respectively. Children aged 5–10 years old are the main risk group. A migration trend of hot spots from southeast to northwest over time was found. Similar high-risk aggregations were detected in the northwestern parts through spatial-temporal analysis with the most likely cluster time frame around 2019. Local medical and health administrations should formulate and implement targeted health care policies and allocate health resources more appropriately corresponding to the epidemiological characteristics of mumps.
Neuroimaging studies on major depressive disorder (MDD) have identified an extensive range of brain structural abnormalities, but the exact neural mechanisms associated with MDD remain elusive. Most previous studies were performed with voxel- or surface-based morphometry which were univariate methods without considering spatial information across voxels/vertices.
Brain morphology was investigated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and source-based morphometry (SBM) in 1082 MDD patients and 990 healthy controls (HCs) from the REST-meta-MDD Consortium. We first examined group differences in regional grey matter (GM) volumes and structural covariance networks between patients and HCs. We then compared first-episode, drug-naïve (FEDN) patients, and recurrent patients. Additionally, we assessed the effects of symptom severity and illness duration on brain alterations.
VBM showed decreased GM volume in various regions in MDD patients including the superior temporal cortex, anterior and middle cingulate cortex, inferior frontal cortex, and precuneus. SBM returned differences only in the prefrontal network. Comparisons between FEDN and recurrent MDD patients showed no significant differences by VBM, but SBM showed greater decreases in prefrontal, basal ganglia, visual, and cerebellar networks in the recurrent group. Moreover, depression severity was associated with volumes in the inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus, as well as the prefrontal network.
Simultaneous application of VBM and SBM methods revealed brain alterations in MDD patients and specified differences between recurrent and FEDN patients, which tentatively provide an effective multivariate method to identify potential neurobiological markers for depression.
The significance of spiritual care competence among nurses has been emphasized across countries and cultures in many studies. However, there were few studies on correlations among spiritual care competence, spiritual care perceptions, and spiritual health of nurses in China.
To investigate spiritual care competence, spiritual care perceptions, and spiritual health, and examine the correlations among spiritual care competence, spiritual care perceptions and spiritual health, and the mediating role of spiritual health between other two variables of Chinese nurses.
A cross-sectional and correlational design was implemented, and the STROBE Checklist was used to report the study. A convenience sample of 2,181 nurses were selected from 17 hospitals in 3 provinces, China. Participants provided data on sociodemographic by completing the Chinese Version of the Spiritual Care Competence Scale, the Chinese Version of the Spiritual Care-Giving Scale, and the Spiritual Health Scale Short Form. Descriptive statistics, univariate, multiple linear regression, and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze data.
The total scores of spiritual care competence, spiritual care perceptions, and spiritual health were 58.25 ± 16.21, 144.49 ± 16.87, and 84.88 ± 10.57, respectively, which both were moderate. Spiritual care competence was positively correlated with spiritual care perceptions (r = 0.653, p < 0.01) and spiritual health (r = 0.587, p < 0.01). And spiritual health played a mediating role between the other two variables (accounting for 35.6%).
Significance of results
The spiritual care competence, spiritual care perceptions, and spiritual health of Chinese nurses need to be improved. It is recommended that nursing managers should pay attention to spiritual care education of nurses, and improve spiritual care perceptions and spiritual health in multiple ways, so as to improve their spiritual care competence and to maximize the satisfy spiritual care needs of patients in China.
Due to less light scattering and a better signal-to-noise ratio in deep imaging, two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM) has been widely used in biomedical photonics since its advent. However, optical aberrations degrade the performance of TPFM in terms of the signal intensity and the imaging depth and therefore restrict its application. Here, we introduce adaptive optics based on the genetic algorithm to detect the distorted wavefront of the excitation laser beam and then perform aberration correction to optimize the performance of TPFM. By using a spatial light modulator as the wavefront controller, the correction phase is obtained through a signal feedback loop and a process of natural selection. The experimental results show that the signal intensity and imaging depth of TPFM are improved after aberration correction. Finally, the method was applied to two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging, which helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and the accuracy of lifetime analysis. Furthermore, the method can also be implemented in other experiments, such as three-photon microscopy, light-sheet microscopy, and super-resolution microscopy.
The present work was performed to analyse the association of dietary patterns with glycaemic control (Hb A1c < 7 %) in a large group of Chinese adults aged between 45 and 59 years.
Habitual dietary intakes in the preceding 12 months were assessed by well-trained interviewers using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Factor analysis with principal component method was used to obtain the dietary patterns, and the associations between dietary patterns and glycaemic control were determined using multivariable logistic regression models. Poor glycaemic control was defined as HbA1c ≥ 7·0.
Despite decades of research, data on the relationship between dietary patterns and glycaemic control (HbA1c < 7 %) in China are sparse.
A total of 1739 participants aged 45–59 years from Hangzhou were included in the final analysis.
Three dietary patterns were ascertained and labelled as traditional southern Chinese, Western and grains-vegetables patterns. After controlling of the possible confounders, participants in the highest quartile of Western pattern scores had greater OR for HbA1c ≥ 7·0 (OR = 1·05; (95 % CI 1·000, 1·095); P = 0·048) than did those in the lowest quartile. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of grains-vegetables pattern, participants in the highest quartile had lower OR for HbA1c ≥ 7·0 (OR = 0·82; (95 % CI 0·720, 0·949); P = 0·038). Besides, no significant relationship between the traditional southern Chinese pattern and HbA1c ≥ 7·0 was observed (P > 0·05).
This study indicated that the Western pattern was associated with a higher risk, and the grains-vegetables pattern was associated with a lower risk for HbA1c ≥ 7·0. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.
The commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software STAR-CCM+ was used to simulate the flow and breakup characteristics of a Liquid Jet Injected into the gaseous Crossflow (LJIC) under real engine operating conditions. The reasonable calculation domain geometry and flow boundary conditions were obtained based on a civil aviation engine performance model similar to the Leap-1B engine which was developed using the GasTurb software and the preliminary design results of its low-emission combustor. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model was applied to simulate the breakup feature of the near field of LJIC. The numerical method was validated and calibrated through comparison with the public test data at atmospheric conditions. The results showed that the numerical method can capture most of the jet breakup structure and predict the jet trajectory with an error not exceeding ±5%. The verified numerical method was applied to simulate the breakup of LJIC at the real engine operating condition. The breakup mode of LJIC was shown to be surface shear breakup at elevated condition. The trajectory of the liquid jet showed good agreement with Ragucci’s empirical correlation.
The goals of this study are to analyse the impacts of 1.5 and 2.0°C scenarios on UK winter wheat using a combination of Global Climate Models (GCMs), crop models, planting dates and cultivars; to evaluate the impact of increased air temperature on winter wheat phenology and potential yield; to quantify the underlying uncertainties due to the multiple sources of variability introduced by climate scenarios, crop models and agronomic management. The data used to calibrate and evaluate three crop models were obtained from a field experiment with two irrigation amounts and two wheat cultivars that have different phenology and growth habit. After calibration, the model was applied to fifty locations across the wheat-growing area of the UK to cover all the main growing regions, with most points located in the main growing areas. Four GCMs, with two cultivars and five planting dates, were simulated at the end of the century. Results of this study showed that the UK potential wheat yield will increase by 2–8% under projected climate. Farmers will need to close such a gap in the future because it will have implications in terms of food security. Future climatic conditions might increase such a gap. Adaptation measures (e.g. moving the optimal planting time), along with climate-ready varieties bred for future conditions and with precision agriculture techniques can help to reduce this gap and ensure that the future actual UK wheat production will be close to the potential.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
Self-efficacy is a pivotal factor in the etiology and prognosis of major depression. However, longitudinal studies on the relationship between self-efficacy and major depressive disorder (MDD) are scarce. The objectives were to investigate: (1) the associations between self-efficacy and the 1-year and 2-year risks of first onset of MDD and (2) the associations between self-efficacy and the 1-year and 2-year risks of the persistence/recurrence of MDD, in a sample of first-year university students.
We followed 8079 first-year university students for 2 years from April 2018 to October 2020. MDD was ascertained by the Chinese version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-3.0) based on self-report. Self-efficacy was measured by the 10-item General Self-efficacy (GSE) scale. Random effect logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the associations.
Among participants without a lifetime MDD, the data showed that participants with high baseline GSE scores were associated with a higher risk of first onset of MDD over 2 years [odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.08]. Among those with a lifetime MDD, participants with high baseline GSE scores were less likely to have had a MDD over 2 years (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88–0.99) compared to others.
A high level of GSE may be protective of the risk of persistent or recurrent MDD. More longitudinal studies in university students are needed to further investigate the impact of GSE on the first onset of MDD.
The association between blood transfusion and ventilator-associated events (VAEs) has not been fully understood. We sought to determine whether blood transfusion increases the risk of a VAE.
Nested case-control study.
This study was based on a registry of healthcare-associated infections in intensive care units at West China Hospital system.
1,657 VAE cases and 3,293 matched controls were identified.
For each case, 2 controls were randomly selected using incidence density sampling. We defined blood transfusion as a time-dependent variable, and we used weighted Cox models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for all 3 tiers of VAEs.
Blood transfusion was associated with increased risk of ventilator-associated complication-plus (VAC-plus; HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.22–1.77; P <.001), VAC-only (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01–1.65; P = .038), infection-related VAC-plus (IVAC-plus; HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.33–2.39; P < .001), and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP; HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.10–3.99; P = .024). Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion was also associated with increased risk of VAC-plus (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.08–1.65; P = .007), IVAC-plus (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.22–2.36; P = .002), and PVAP (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.17–5.28; P = .018). Compared to patients without transfusion, the risk of VAE was significantly higher in patients with RBC transfusions of >3 units (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.25–2.40; P = .001) but not in those with RBC transfusions of 0–3 units.
Blood transfusions were associated with increased risk of all tiers of VAE. The risk was significantly higher among patients who were transfused with >3 units of RBCs.
The global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is greatly threatening the public health in the world. We reconstructed global transmissions and potential demographic expansions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 based on genomic information. We found that intercontinental transmissions were rare in January and early February but drastically increased since late February. After world-wide implements of travel restrictions, the transmission frequencies decreased to a low level in April. We identified a total of 88 potential demographic expansions over the world based on the star-radiative networks and 75 of them were found in Europe and North America. The expansion numbers peaked in March and quickly dropped since April. These findings are highly concordant with epidemic reports and modelling results and highlight the significance of quarantine validity on the global spread of COVID-19. Our analyses indicate that the travel restrictions and social distancing measures are effective in containing the spread of COVID-19.
Anaemia is a global public health problem affecting women worldwide, and reproductive-age women are at increased risk. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study analysing the prevalence of overall anaemia and anaemia according to severity in Chinese pre-pregnant women to update current knowledge on anaemia epidemiology. Based on the National Free Preconception Check-up Projects supported by the Chinese government, 5 679 782 women participating in this project in 2017 were included in the present study. The cyanmethemoglobin method was applied to assess Hb concentrations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied for associated factors. The prevalence of anaemia among Chinese pre-pregnant women was 21·64 % (mild: 14·10 %, moderate: 7·17 % and severe : 0·37 %). The prevalence of overall and severe anaemia was the highest in Tibet and the lowest in Beijing among thirty-one provinces. Women’s age, region, ethnic origin, educational level, occupation and pregnancy history were all correlated with anaemia. Women with B blood type (adjusted OR (aOR) = 0·89), higher BMI (overweight: aOR = 0·84; obesity: aOR = 0·70) and alcohol consumption (aOR = 0·69) were less likely to have anaemia, while those with rhesus negative blood type (aOR = 1·10), history of anaemia (aOR = 2·60), older age at menarche (aOR = 1·19), heavy menstrual blood loss (aOR = 1·39), longer menstrual period (aOR = 1·09) and shorter menstrual cycle (aOR = 1·08) were more likely to suffer from anaemia. Meat or egg eaters were not significantly associated with severe anaemia. Anaemia is of moderate public health significance among Chinese pre-pregnant women. Interventions should be considered to prevent anaemia to the greatest extent possible to avoid potential harm in this population.
Echinococcus shiquicus is currently limited to the Qinghai–Tibet plateau, a large mountainous region in China. Although the zoonotic potential remains unknown, progress is being made on the distribution and intermediate host range. In this study, we report E. shiquicus within Gansu and Qinghai provinces in regions located not only around the central areas but also the southeast edge of the plateau and describe their genetic relationship with previous isolates from the plateau. From 1879 plateau pikas examined, 2.39% (95% CI 1.79–3.18) were infected with E. shiquicus. The highest prevalence of 10.26% (4.06–23.58) was recorded in Makehe town, Qinghai province. Overall the prevalence was marginally higher in Qinghai (2.5%, CI 1.82–3.43) than in Gansu (2%, CI 1.02–3.89). The cox1 and nad1 genes demonstrated high and low haplotype and nucleotide diversities, respectively. The median-joining network constructed by the cox1–nad1 gene sequences demonstrated a star-like configuration with a median vector (unsampled haplotype) occupying the centre of the network. No peculiar distinction or common haplotype was observed in isolates originating from the different provinces. The presence of E. shiquicus in regions of the southeast and northeast edges of the Qinghai–Tibet plateau and high genetic variation warrants more investigation into the haplotype distribution and genetic polymorphism by exploring more informative DNA regions of the mitochondrial genome to provide epidemiologically useful insight into the population structure of E. shiquicus across the plateau and its axis.
To investigate the clinical impact of ventilator-associated events (VAEs) on adverse prognoses and risk factors for mortality among intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) based on an ICU healthcare-associated infection (ICU-HAI) registry.
A cohort study was conducted based on an ICU-HAI registry including 30,830 patients between 2015 and 2018.
The study was conducted using data from 5 adult ICUs of a referral hospital.
Adult patients in the ICU-HAI registry who received ≥4 consecutive IMV days.
Clinical outcomes and mortality risk factors for VAEs were analyzed using propensity score matching (PSM), multivariate regression models, and sensitivity analyses.
Of 6,426 included patients, 1,803 developed 1,899 VAEs. After PSM, patients with VAEs did have prolonged length of stay in the ICU and in the hospital, increased hospitalization costs, longer days on mechanical ventilation, higher proportion of ≥9 days on mechanical ventilation, higher rate of failure in extubating mechanical ventilation, and excess all-cause mortality in the ICU. Older age (adjusted OR [aOR], 1.02), higher APACHE II score on ICU admission (aOR, 1.06), pneumonia (aOR, 1.49), blood transfusion (aOR 1.43), immunosuppressive drugs (aOR, 1.69), central-line catheter (aOR, 2.06), and ≥2 VAEs in the ICU (aOR, 1.99) were associated with higher risks for all-cause mortality in an ICU.
Patients with VAEs indeed had poorer clinical outcomes. Older age, higher APACHE II score on ICU admission, pneumonia, blood transfusion, immunosuppressive drugs, central-line catheter, and ≥2 VAEs in the ICU were risk factors for all-cause mortality of VAE patients in the ICU.
The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is one of the most dynamic components of the global climate system. Although poorly understood, knowledge of long-term spatial differences in EAWM variability during the glacial–interglacial cycles is important for understanding the dynamic processes of the EAWM. We reconstructed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the EAWM since the last glacial maximum (LGM) using a comparison of proxy records and long-term transient simulations. A loess grain-size record from northern China (a sensitive EAWM proxy) and the sea surface temperature gradient of an EAWM index in sediments of the southern South China Sea were compared. The data–model comparison indicates pronounced spatial differences in EAWM evolution, with a weakened EAWM since the LGM in northern China but a strengthened EAWM from the LGM to the early Holocene, followed by a weakening trend, in southern China. The model results suggest that variations in the EAWM in northern China were driven mainly by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, whereas orbital insolation and ice sheets were important drivers in southern China. We propose that the relative importance of insolation, ice sheets, and atmospheric CO2 for EAWM evolution varied spatially within East Asia.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REMs) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off this mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimensional particle-in-cell (2D-PIC) simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapidly expanding. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and the corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selectively adjusting of the corresponding spectra.
The FNDC5 gene encodes the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 that is a membrane protein mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, and the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism may be associated with liver disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the influence of the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the relationship between sarcopenia and the histological severity of NAFLD. A total of 370 adult individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD were studied. The association between the key exposure sarcopenia and the outcome liver histological severity was investigated by binary logistic regression. Stratified analyses were undertaken to examine the impact of FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the association between sarcopenia and the severity of NAFLD histology. Patients with sarcopenia had more severe histological grades of steatosis and a higher prevalence of significant fibrosis and definite non-alcoholic steatohepatitis than those without sarcopenia. There was a significant association between sarcopenia and significant fibrosis (adjusted OR 2·79, 95 % CI 1·31, 5·95, P = 0·008), independent of established risk factors and potential confounders. Among patients with sarcopenia, significant fibrosis occurred more frequently in the rs3480 AA genotype carriers than in those carrying the FNDC5 rs3480 G genotype (43·8 v. 17·2 %, P = 0·031). In the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis, there was a significant interaction between the FNDC5 genotype and sarcopenia status (P value for interaction = 0·006). Sarcopenia is independently associated with significant liver fibrosis, and the FNDC5 rs3480 G variant influences the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.
This chapter takes an in-depth understanding of the role played by Chinese courts in environmental governance over the past decades as a starting point to discussions about whether there exists a possibility of introducing climate change litigation in China. The chapter is therefore not focused on examining the feasibility of climate change litigation in Chinese courts, but on the role and inadequacies of courts in environmental and ecological protection. Such an exploration will undoubtedly be invaluable in determining the future possibility of Chinese courts as drivers of climate change litigation. The chapter adopts an empirical approach, drawing upon official resources and case analysis to highlight the dominance of administrative punishment and the inability of Chinese courts to provide victims with effective or meaningful relief, given that, in litigation, the number of criminal cases far eclipses civil ones. The chapter also seeks to argue that the judiciary does not have policy-making functions in China and environmental public interest litigation faces significant challenges.