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The third-order law links energy transfer rates in the inertial range of magneto- hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with third-order structure functions. Anisotropy, a typical property in the solar wind, challenges the applicability of the third-order law with the isotropic assumption. To shed light on the energy transfer process in the presence of anisotropy, we conducted direct numerical simulations of forced MHD turbulence with normal and hyper-viscosity under various strengths of the external magnetic field ($B_0$), and calculated three forms of third-order structure function with or without averaging of the azimuthal or polar angles with respect to $B_0$ direction. Correspondingly, three estimated energy transfer rates were obtained. The result shows that the peak of normalized third-order structure function occurs at larger scales closer to the $B_0$ direction, and the maximum of longitudinal transfer rates shifts away from the $B_0$ direction at larger $B_0$. Compared with normal viscous cases, hyper-viscous cases can attain better separated inertial range, thus facilitating the estimation of the energy cascade rates. We find that the widespread use of the isotropic form of the third-order law in estimating the energy transfer rates is questionable in some cases, especially when the anisotropy arising from the mean magnetic field is inevitable. In contrast, the direction-averaged third-order structure function properly accounts for the effect of anisotropy and predicts the energy transfer rates and inertial range accurately, even at very high $B_0$. With limited statistics, the third-order structure function shows a stronger dependence on averaging of azimuthal angles than the time, especially for high $B_0$ cases. These findings provide insights into the anisotropic effect on the estimation of energy transfer rates.
Interactions between oblique second mode and oblique waves at a high-speed boundary at Mach 4.5 are studied using linear stability theory, nonlinear parabolized stability equations (NPSE) and direct numerical simulation (DNS). Parametric analysis based on the NPSE suggests that the oblique second mode can amplify both the oblique first and second modes, with the former experiencing a higher amplification. Our analysis reveals that the mean-flow distortion and difference mode contribute to this enhancement, with the latter exerting a key influence through the parametric resonance process. Kinetic energy transfer analysis demonstrates that the oblique waves gain energy from the mean flow, rather than from the oblique second mode. Furthermore, we find that the mechanism underlying the interaction between a pair of second oblique waves and a single oblique wave is similar to that between an oblique second mode and an oblique wave, as the steady modes generated by the pair of oblique second modes have a limited impact on the oblique wave. Finally, DNS confirms the validity of two transition paths proposed in this study based on the NPSE results. The first path suggests that a pair of low-amplitude second oblique waves alone are insufficient to cause oblique breakdown, but the introduction of a pair of low-amplitude damping first oblique modes could lead to boundary layer breakdown. The second path involves the formation of a domino-like effect through the combination of different types of oblique waves with the appropriate parameters. These two nonlinear paths can lead to a fully developed turbulent boundary layer.
With advancements in cancer treatments, the survival rates of patients with their first primary cancer (FPC) have increased, resulting in a rise in the number of patients with second primary cancer (SPC). However, there has been no assessment on the incidence of suicide among patients with SPC. This study assessed the occurrence of suicide among patients with SPC and compared them with that in patients with FPC.
This was a retrospective, population-based cohort study that followed patients with FPC and SPC diagnosed from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 17 registries database between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2019.
For patients with SPC, an age of 85+ years at diagnosis was associated with a higher incidence of suicide death (HR, 1.727; 95% CI, 1.075–2.774), while the suicide death was not considerably different in the chemotherapy group (P > 0.05). Female genital system cancers (HR, 3.042; 95% CI, 1.819–6.361) accounted for the highest suicide death among patients with SPC. The suicide death distribution of patients with SPC over time indicated that suicide events mainly occurred within 5 to 15 years of diagnosis. Compared with patients with FPC, patients with SPC in general had a lower risk of suicide, but increased year by year.
The risk of suicide was reduced in patients with SPC compared with patients with FPC, but increased year by year. Therefore, oncologists and related health professionals need to provide continuous psychological support to reduce the incidence of suicide. The highest suicide death was found among patients with female genital system cancer.
The age-related heterogeneity in major depressive disorder (MDD) has received significant attention. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such heterogeneity still need further investigation. This study aimed to explore the common and distinct functional brain abnormalities across different age groups of MDD patients from a large-sample, multicenter analysis.
The analyzed sample consisted of a total of 1238 individuals including 617 MDD patients (108 adolescents, 12–17 years old; 411 early-middle adults, 18–54 years old; and 98 late adults, > = 55 years old) and 621 demographically matched healthy controls (60 adolescents, 449 early-middle adults, and 112 late adults). MDD-related abnormalities in brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns were investigated in each age group separately and using the whole pooled sample, respectively.
We found shared FC reductions among the sensorimotor, visual, and auditory networks across all three age groups of MDD patients. Furthermore, adolescent patients uniquely exhibited increased sensorimotor-subcortical FC; early-middle adult patients uniquely exhibited decreased visual-subcortical FC; and late adult patients uniquely exhibited wide FC reductions within the subcortical, default-mode, cingulo-opercular, and attention networks. Analysis of covariance models using the whole pooled sample further revealed: (1) significant main effects of age group on FCs within most brain networks, suggesting that they are decreased with aging; and (2) a significant age group × MDD diagnosis interaction on FC within the default-mode network, which may be reflective of an accelerated aging-related decline in default-mode FCs.
To summarize, these findings may deepen our understanding of the age-related biological and clinical heterogeneity in MDD.
This research uses signaling theory to combine the perspective of investment results with existing venture capital (VC) standards and reexamines the factors that influence the attractiveness of innovative internet tech startups to VC from the perspective of equal opportunity startups. Taking the financing status of 310 startups in China's sharing economy as an example and using regression analysis, we empirically test the influence of entrepreneur and firm characteristics on attracting VC. Our results show that among founder characteristics, the entrepreneur's entrepreneurial experience alone is insufficient to attract VC. Industrial experience and political background have a positive influence on attracting VC. Among firm characteristics, market-entry order and business group (BG) affiliation positively influence attracting VC. This is a new and relevant discovery. In the Chinese market, investors are more inclined to provide financial support to entrepreneurs or startups that have already gained legitimacy from the government or business groups.
The phase summation effect in sum-frequency mixing process is utilized to avoid a nonlinearity obstacle in the power scaling of single-frequency visible or ultraviolet lasers. Two single-frequency fundamental lasers are spectrally broadened by phase modulation to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering in fiber amplifier and achieve higher power. After sum-frequency mixing in a nonlinear optical crystal, the upconverted laser returns to single frequency due to phase summation, when the phase modulations on two fundamental lasers have a similar amplitude but opposite sign. The method was experimentally proved in a Raman fiber amplifier-based laser system, which generated a power-scalable sideband-free single-frequency 590 nm laser. The proposal manifests the importance of phase operation in wave-mixing processes for precision laser technology.
Raman spectroscopic analysis was performed on columbite-(Mn) samples from a variety of previously studied rare-element pegmatites in Xinjiang, China, including the Jing'erquan No. 1 spodumene-subtype, Dakalasu No. 1 beryl–columbite-subtype and Kalu'an spodumene-subtype pegmatites, to quantify the relationship between the degree of metamictisation of columbite and Raman spectra. For all of the analysed columbites-(Mn), the position (p) and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the strongest band, A1g vibration mode related to the Nb/Ta–O bond, in the Raman spectra have a negative correlation. Combined with previously determined U–Pb isotopic data and major–minor-element data for the columbites-(Mn), the degree of metamictisation was quantified using the alpha-decay dose (D) and displacement per atom (dpa), both of which were corrected for effects caused by annealing. The results demonstrate that the columbite-(Mn) from Jing'erquan and Kalu'an are very crystalline, whereas those from Dakalasu are transitional between crystalline and amorphous stages. The main factor influencing the key parameters, i.e. band position and FWHM, of the strongest Raman band of columbite-(Mn) is metamictisation caused by radiation damage, whereas composition and crystal orientation have limited influence. A set of equations are established to quantify the degree of metamictisation of columbite using the band position and the full width at half maximum: FWHM = 8.309 × ln(aD) + 30.11 (R2 = 0.9861); p = –5.187 × ln(aD) + 867.09 (R2 = 0.966); FWHM = 8.1453 × ln(adpa) + 48.425 (R2 = 0.9822); and p = –5.078 × ln(adpa) + 855.67 (R2 = 0.9594).
The purpose of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) PCR re-positivity after recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients (n = 1391) from Guangzhou, China, who had recovered from COVID-19 were recruited between 7 September 2021 and 11 March 2022. Data on epidemiology, symptoms, laboratory test results and treatment were analysed. In this study, 42.7% of recovered patients had re-positive result. Most re-positive patients were asymptomatic, did not have severe comorbidities, and were not contagious. The re-positivity rate was 39%, 46%, 11% and 25% in patients who had received inactivated, mRNA, adenovirus vector and recombinant subunit vaccines, respectively. Seven independent risk factors for testing re-positive were identified, and a predictive model was constructed using these variables. The predictors of re-positivity were COVID-19 vaccination status, previous SARs-CoV-12 infection prior to the most recent episode, renal function, SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibody levels and white blood cell count. The predictive model could benefit the control of the spread of COVID-19.
Time preference reversal refers to systematic inconsistencies between preferences and bids for intertemporal options. From the two eye-tracking studies (N1 = 60, N2 = 110), we examined the underlying mechanisms of time preference reversal. We replicated the reversal effect in which individuals facing a pair of intertemporal options choose the smaller-sooner option but assign a higher value to the larger-later one. Results revealed that the mean fixation duration and the proportion of gaze time on the outcome attribute varied across the choice and bid tasks. In addition, time preference reversals correlated with individual differences in maximizing tendencies. Findings support the contingent weighting hypothesis and strategy compatibility hypothesis and allow for improved theoretical understanding of the potential mechanisms and processes involved in time preference reversals.
Genetic mutations of fused in sarcoma (FUS) causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may disrupt mRNA splicing events. For example, the FUS c.1394-2delA variant was reported in two western ALS patients, but its molecular mechanism is unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate FUS splice site mutations in Chinese ALS patients.
Sanger sequencing was used to identify FUS splicing mutations in Chinese ALS patients. We combined a deep learning tool (SpliceAI), RNA sequencing, and RT-PCR/RT-qPCR to analyze the effect of FUS c.1394-2delA mutation on RNA splicing and expression. AlphaFold was used to predict the protein structure of mutant FUS. In transfected cell lines, we used immunofluorescence to assess cytoplasmic mislocalization of mutant FUS protein.
We identified a de novo FUS splice acceptor site mutation (c.1394-2delA, p. Gly466Valfs*14) in one Chinese sporadic ALS patient, which is linked to exon 14 skipping, and upregulated total FUS mRNA expression. The FUS splice site mutation was predicted to be translated into a truncated protein product at C-terminal. In vitro studies revealed that the FUS mutation increased cytoplasmic mislocalization in both HEK293T and SH-SY5Y cells.
We identified a de novo FUS splicing mutation (c.1394-2delA, p. Gly466Valfs*14) in 1 out of 233 Chinese ALS patients. It caused abnormal RNA splicing, upregulated gene expression, truncated FUS translation, and cytosolic mislocalization. Our findings suggested that FUS splice site mutation is rare in Chinese ALS patients and extended our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of the FUS c.1394-2delA mutation.
Liriomyza trifolii is a significant pest of vegetable and ornamental crops across the globe. Microwave radiation has been used for controlling pests in stored products; however, there are few reports on the use of microwaves for eradicating agricultural pests such as L. trifolii, and its effects on pests at the molecular level is unclear. In this study, we show that microwave radiation inhibited the emergence of L. trifolii pupae. Transcriptomic studies of L. trifolii indicated significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ‘post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones’, ‘sensory perception of pain/transcription repressor complex/zinc ion binding’ and ‘insulin signaling pathway’ when analyzed with the Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, respectively. The top DEGs were related to reproduction, immunity and development and were significantly expressed after microwave radiation. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in the expression of genes encoding heat shock proteins or antioxidant enzymes in L. trifolii treated with microwave radiation as compared to the untreated control. The expression of DEGs encoding cuticular protein and protein takeout were silenced by RNA interference, and the results showed that knockdown of these two DEGs reduced the survival of L. trifolii exposed to microwave radiation. The results of this study help elucidate the molecular response of L. trifolii exposed to microwave radiation and provide novel ideas for control.
Family dysfunction plays an important role in cyberbullying and cybervictimization. However, little research has investigated the longitudinal relations and the mediating mechanisms between them during adolescence. This study examined the longitudinal relations between family dysfunction and cyberbullying and cybervictimization, along with whether depressive symptoms function as mediators between them at the within-person level. A total of 3,743 Chinese adolescents (46.2% females; Mage = 9.92 years; SD = 0.51) participated a five-wave longitudinal study with a 6-month time interval. The results of random intercept cross-lagged panel model found that: (1) family dysfunction directly predicted depressive symptoms and vice versa at the within-person level; (2) depressive symptoms directly predicted cyberbullying and cybervictimization at the within-person level, but not vice versa; (3) family dysfunction indirectly predicted cyberbullying and cybervictimization via depressive symptoms at the within-person level; (4) at the between-person level, there were significant associations among family dysfunction, depressive symptoms, cyberbullying and cybervictimization. The results are discussed on the basis of the mechanisms that lead to cyberbullying and cybervictimization.
Meristems in land plants share conserved functions but develop highly variable structures. Meristems in seed-free plants, including ferns, usually contain one or a few pyramid-/wedge-shaped apical cells (ACs) as initials, which are lacking in seed plants. It remained unclear how ACs promote cell proliferation in fern gametophytes and whether any persistent AC exists to sustain fern gametophyte development continuously. Here, we uncovered previously undefined ACs maintained even at late developmental stages in fern gametophytes. Through quantitative live-imaging, we determined division patterns and growth dynamics that maintain the persistent AC in Sphenomeris chinensis, a representative fern. The AC and its immediate progenies form a conserved cell packet, driving cell proliferation and prothallus expansion. At the apical centre of gametophytes, the AC and its adjacent progenies display small dimensions resulting from active cell division instead of reduced cell expansion. These findings provide insight into diversified meristem development in land plants.
In this work, a confined-doped fiber with the core/inner-cladding diameter of 40/250 μm and a relative doping ratio of 0.75 is fabricated through a modified chemical vapor deposition method combined with the chelate gas deposition technique, and subsequently applied in a tandem-pumped fiber amplifier for high-power operation and transverse mode instability (TMI) mitigation. Notably, the impacts of the seed laser power and mode purity are preliminarily investigated through comparative experiments. It is found that the TMI threshold could be significantly affected by the seed laser mode purity. The possible mechanism behind this phenomenon is proposed and revealed through comprehensive comparative experiments and theoretical analysis. Finally, a maximum output power of 7.49 kW is obtained with the beam quality factor of approximately 1.83, which is the highest output power ever reported in a forward tandem-pumped confined-doped fiber amplifier. This work could provide a good reference and practical solution to improve the TMI threshold and realize high-power high-brightness fiber lasers.
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent pipe flow subjected to streamwise-varying wall rotation are performed. This control method is able to achieve drag reduction and even relaminarize the flow under certain control parameters at friction Reynolds number $Re_\tau =180$. Two control parameters, which are velocity amplitude and wavelength, are considered. It is found that increasing the wavelength rather than increasing the amplitude seems to be a better choice to improve the control efficiency. An annular boundary layer, called the spatial Stokes layer (SSL), is formed by the wall rotation. Based on the thickness of the SSL, two types of drag-reduction scenarios can be identified roughly. When the thickness is low, the SSL acts as a spacer layer, inhibiting the formation of streamwise vortices and thereby reducing the shear stress. The flow structures outside the SSL are stretched in the streamwise direction due to the increased velocity gradient. Within the SSL, the turbulence intensity diminishes dramatically. When the thickness is large, a streamwise wavy pattern of near-wall streaks is formed. The streak orientation is dominated by the mean shear-strain vector outside the viscous sublayer, and there is a phase difference between the streak orientation and local mean velocity vector. The streamwise scales of near-wall flow structures are reduced significantly, resulting in the disruption of downstream development of flow structures and hence leading to the drag reduction. Furthermore, it is found that it requires both large enough thickness of the SSL and velocity amplitude to relaminarize the turbulence. The relaminarization mechanism is that the annular SSL can absorb energy continuously from wall-normal stress due to the rotational effect, thereby the turbulence self-sustaining process cannot be maintained. For the relaminarization cases, the laminar state is stable to even extremely large perturbations, which possibly makes the laminar state the only fixed point for the whole system.
This article introduces the 2D multilayer Laue lens (MLL) nanofocusing optics recently developed for high-resolution hard X-ray microscopy. The new optics utilized a micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS)-based template to accommodate two linear MLL optics in a pre-aligned configuration. Angular misalignment between the two lenses was controlled in tens of millidegrees, and the lateral position error was on a micrometer scale. Using the developed 2D MLLs, an astigmatism-free point focus of approximately 14 nm by 13 nm in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, at 13.6 keV photon energy was obtained. The success of 2D MLL optics with an approaching 10 nm resolution is a significant step forward for the development of high-resolution hard X-ray microscopy and applications of MLL optics in the hard X-ray community.
This paper presents a novel method to improve the working bandwidth and radiation intensity of piezoelectric antenna by using external circuit. This method makes the piezoelectric antenna combined with roles of high radiation intensity and multiple resonant frequencies without changing the structural size of the piezoelectric antenna. The experimental results show that, compared with the original piezoelectric antenna, the tuning range of the resonant frequency of the piezoelectric antenna caused by the series capacitance and inductance is +13.6 and −24%, respectively. The series inductance will produce new resonance frequency, which provides a new method for the multi-band operation of the piezoelectric antenna. The LLC (series and parallel circuit) composite circuit can increase the number of resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric antenna from 1 to 3, and the S11 at the resonant frequencies are all lower than −10 dB, and the radiated magnetic field of the piezoelectric antenna is increased by 42.3% at least. This method makes the piezoelectric antenna have the dual functions of high radiation intensity and multi-band, which has great significance for broadening the application field of piezoelectric antenna.
It has been suggested that added sugar intake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, previous studies only focused on sugar-sweetened beverages; the evidence for associations with total added sugars and their sources is scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of total added sugars, their physical forms (liquid v. solid) and food sources with risk of NAFLD among adults in Tianjin, China. We used data from 15 538 participants, free of NAFLD, other liver diseases, CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline (2013–2018 years). Added sugar intake was estimated from a validated 100-item FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography after exclusion of other causes of liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95 % CI for NAFLD risk with added sugar intake. During a median follow-up of 4·2 years, 3476 incident NAFLD cases were documented. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and its change from baseline to follow-up, lifestyle factors, personal and family medical history and overall diet quality, the multivariable HR of NAFLD risk were 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32) for total added sugars, 1·20 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·33) for liquid added sugars and 0·96 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·07) for solid added sugars when comparing the highest quartiles of intake with the lowest quartiles of intake. In this prospective cohort of Chinese adults, higher intakes of total added sugars and liquid added sugars, but not solid added sugars, were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.