To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Learn how to analyse and manage evolutionary and sequential user behaviours in modern networks, and how to optimize network performance by using indirect reciprocity, evolutionary games, and sequential decision making. Understand the latest theory without the need to go through the details of traditional game theory. With practical management tools to regulate user behaviour, and simulations and experiments with real data sets, this is an ideal tool for graduate students and researchers working in networking, communications, and signal processing.
The association between blood transfusion and ventilator-associated events (VAEs) has not been fully understood. We sought to determine whether blood transfusion increases the risk of a VAE.
Nested case-control study.
This study was based on a registry of healthcare-associated infections in intensive care units at West China Hospital system.
1,657 VAE cases and 3,293 matched controls were identified.
For each case, 2 controls were randomly selected using incidence density sampling. We defined blood transfusion as a time-dependent variable, and we used weighted Cox models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for all 3 tiers of VAEs.
Blood transfusion was associated with increased risk of ventilator-associated complication-plus (VAC-plus; HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.22–1.77; P <.001), VAC-only (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01–1.65; P = .038), infection-related VAC-plus (IVAC-plus; HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.33–2.39; P < .001), and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP; HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.10–3.99; P = .024). Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion was also associated with increased risk of VAC-plus (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.08–1.65; P = .007), IVAC-plus (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.22–2.36; P = .002), and PVAP (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.17–5.28; P = .018). Compared to patients without transfusion, the risk of VAE was significantly higher in patients with RBC transfusions of >3 units (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.25–2.40; P = .001) but not in those with RBC transfusions of 0–3 units.
Blood transfusions were associated with increased risk of all tiers of VAE. The risk was significantly higher among patients who were transfused with >3 units of RBCs.
Circadian rhythms, metabolic processes, and dietary intake are inextricably linked. Timing of food intake is a modifiable temporal cue for the circadian system and may be influenced by numerous factors, including individual chronotype—an indicator of an individual’s circadian rhythm in relation to the light-dark cycle. This scoping review examines temporal patterns of eating across chronotypes and assesses tools that have been used to collect data on temporal patterns of eating and chronotype. A systematic search identified thirty-six studies in which aspects of temporal patterns of eating including meal timings; meal skipping; energy distribution across the day; meal frequency; time interval between meals, or meals and wake/sleep times; midpoint of food/energy intake; meal regularity; and duration of eating window were presented in relation to chronotype. Findings indicate that compared to morning chronotypes, evening chronotypes tend to skip meals more frequently, have later mealtimes, and distribute greater energy intake towards later times of the day. More studies should explore the difference in meal regularity and duration of eating window amongst chronotypes. Currently, tools used in collecting data on chronotype and temporal patterns of eating are varied, limiting the direct comparison of findings between studies. Development of a standardised assessment tool will allow future studies to confidently compare findings to inform the development and assessment of guidelines that provide recommendations on temporal patterns of eating for optimal health.
New zircon U–Pb ages and whole-rock chemical data from four adakitic and two non-adakitic igneous rocks as tectonic blocks in the southern West Junggar accretionary complexes, northwestern China and one gabbro enclave in adakitic block provide further constraints on the initial subduction and following rollback process of the Junggar Ocean as part of southern Palaeo-Asian Ocean. The oldest adakitic monzonite in Tangbale is intruded by the non-adakitic quartz monzonite at 549 Ma, and the youngest adakitic diorite in Tierekehuola formed at 520 Ma. The Ediacaran–Cambrian magmatism show a N-wards younger trend. The high-SiO2 adakitic rocks have high Sr (300–663 ppm) and low Y (6.68–12.2 ppm), with Sr/Y = 40–84 and Mg no. = 46–60, whereas the non-adakitic rocks have high Y (13.2–22.7 ppm) and Yb (2.32–2.92 ppm), with Mg no. = 36–40. The gabbro has high MgO (14.81–15.11 wt%), Co (45–48 ppm), Cr (1120–1360 ppm) and Ni (231–288 ppm), with Mg no. = 72–73. All the samples show similar large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and Nb, Ta, Ti and varying Zr and Hf depletion, suggesting that they were formed in a subduction-related setting. The adakitic rocks were produced by partial melting of subducted oceanic slab, but the melts were modified by mantle wedge and slab-derived fluids; the non-adakitic rocks were likely derived from partial melts of the middle-lower arc crust; and the gabbro originated from the mantle wedge modified by slab-derived fluids. The magmatism could have been generated during the Ediacaran initial subduction and Cambrian slab rollback of the Junggar Ocean.
This article discusses the stochastic behavior and reliability properties for the inactivity times of failed components in coherent systems under double monitoring. A mixture representation of reliability function is obtained for the inactivity times of failed components, and some stochastic comparison results are also established. Furthermore, some sufficient conditions are developed in terms of the aging properties of the inactivity times of failed components. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.
Understanding core statistical properties and data features in mortality data are fundamental to the development of machine learning methods for demographic and actuarial applications of mortality projection. The study of statistical features in such data forms the basis for classification, regression and forecasting tasks. In particular, the understanding of key statistical structure in such data can aid in improving accuracy in undertaking mortality projection and forecasting when constructing life tables. The ability to accurately forecast mortality is a critical aspect for the study of demography, life insurance product design and pricing, pension planning and insurance-based decision risk management. Though many stylised facts of mortality data have been discussed in the literature, we provide evidence for a novel statistical feature that is pervasive in mortality data at a national level that is as yet unexplored. In this regard, we demonstrate in this work a strong evidence for the existence of long memory features in mortality data, and second that such long memory structures display multifractality as a statistical feature that can act as a discriminator of mortality dynamics by age, gender and country. To achieve this, we first outline the way in which we choose to represent the persistence of long memory from an estimator perspective. We make a natural link between a class of long memory features and an attribute of stochastic processes based on fractional Brownian motion. This allows us to use well established estimators for the Hurst exponent to then robustly and accurately study the long memory features of mortality data. We then introduce to mortality analysis the notion from data science known as multifractality. This allows us to study the long memory persistence features of mortality data on different timescales. We demonstrate its accuracy for sample sizes commensurate with national-level age term structure historical mortality records. A series of synthetic studies as well a comprehensive analysis of real mortality death count data are studied in order to demonstrate the pervasiveness of long memory structures in mortality data, both mono-fractal and multifractal functional features are verified to be present as stylised facts of national-level mortality data for most countries and most age groups by gender. We conclude by demonstrating how such features can be used in kernel clustering and mortality model forecasting to improve these actuarial applications.
Considerable research has been conducted on the advancement of mobile technologies to facilitate vocabulary learning and acquisition in a second language (L2). However, whether mobile platforms lead to a comprehensive mastery of both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge has seldom been addressed in previous literature. This study investigated English vocabulary learning from engagement with mobile-based word cards and paper word cards in the context of the Chinese university classroom. A total of 85 undergraduate students were recruited to take part in the study. The students were divided into two groups, a mobile learning group and a paper-based learning group, and tested on two word knowledge components: receptive knowledge of the form–meaning connection and productive knowledge of collocations. Both the digital and non-digital word cards enhanced L2 vocabulary learning, and the results showed that the mobile application (app) promoted greater gains than physical word cards.
To examine the association between sleep duration in different stages of life and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).
Design, setting, and participants:
A total of 2472 healthy elderly and 505 patients with aMCI in China were included in this study. The study analyzed the association between aMCI and sleep duration in different stages of life.
We compared sleep duration in different stages of life and analyzed the association between Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores and sleep duration by curve estimation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between aMCI and sleep duration.
In the analysis, there were no results proving that sleep duration in youth (P = 0.719, sleep duration < 10 hours; P = 0.999, sleep duration ≥ 10 hours) or midlife (P = 0.898, sleep duration < 9 hours; P = 0.504, sleep duration ≥ 9 hours) had a significant association with aMCI. In the group sleeping less than 7 hours in late life, each hour more of sleep duration was associated with approximately 0.80 of the original risk of aMCI (P = 0.011, odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.68–0.95).
Among the elderly sleeping less than 7 hours, there is a decreased risk of aMCI for every additional hour of sleep.
In order to improve the working performance of the lower limb rehabilitation robot and the safety of the trained object, the mechanical characteristics of a cable-driven lower limb rehabilitation robot (CDLR) are studied. The dynamic model of the designed CDLR was established. Four kinds of cable tension optimization algorithms were proposed to obtain a good rehabilitation training effect, and the quality of the feasible workspace of the CDLR was analyzed. Finally, a real-time evaluation index of the cable tension optimization algorithms was given to measure the calculation speed of the optimization algorithms. The numerical research results were provided to confirm the characteristics of the four kinds of the optimization algorithms. The research results provide a basis for the follow-up research on the safety and compliance control strategy of the CDLR system.
People with serious mental illness are at great risk of suicide, but little is known about the suicide rates among this population. We aimed to quantify the suicide rates among people with serious mental illness (bipolar disorder, major depression, or schizophrenia).
PubMed and Web of Science were searched to identify studies published from 1 January 1975 to 10 December 2020. We assessed English-language studies for the suicide rates among people with serious mental illness. Random-effects meta-analysis was used. Changes in follow-up time and the suicide rates were presented by a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing (LOESS) curve. Suicide rate ratio was estimated for assessments of difference in suicide rate by sex.
Of 5014 identified studies, 41 were included in this analysis. The pooled suicide rate was 312.8 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 230.3–406.8). Europe was reported to have the highest pooled suicide rate of 335.2 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 261.5–417.6). Major depression had the highest suicide rate of 534.3 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 30.4–1448.7). There is a downward trend in suicide rate estimates over follow-up time. Excess risk of suicide in males was found [1.90 (95% CI 1.60–2.25)]. The most common suicide method was poisoning [21.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 3.7–50.4)].
The suicide rates among people with serious mental illness were high, highlighting the requirements for increasing psychological assessment and monitoring. Further study should focus on region and age differences in suicide among this population.
In this paper, a general method for synthesizing dispersive coupling matrix (DCM) of coupled-resonator bandpass filters with the general dispersion is proposed. Compared to the dispersion-less coupling matrix synthesized by classic approaches, the DCM incorporates the identity of the physical realization and provides an accurate description of the filter. Moreover, the DCM can accurately describe the complex resonators and coupling elements with intentional strong dispersion. A DCM consists of two parts: the frequency-invariant part that corresponds to the coupling matrix at the center frequency and the frequency-variant part that reflects the dispersion of the physical realization. By iteratively adjusting the transmission zeros governed by the given filter topology and ignoring the transmission zeros brought by the dispersion, the synthesis method can directly obtain the frequency-invariant part so that the overall DCM leads to an equal-ripple response. To illustrate the general synthesis method, two design examples are presented, which include a filter with unintentional weak dispersion and a filter with intentional strong dispersion. The examples are validated by EM simulation, demonstrating the effectiveness, accuracy, and generality of the proposed synthesis framework. Key words: dispersive coupling matrix, filter synthesis, microwave bandpass filter
Frozen embryo transfer (FET) has been adopted by growing number of reproductive medicine centers due to the improved outcome compared with fresh embryo transfer. However, few studies have focused on the impact of embryo cryopreservation duration on pregnancy-related complications and neonatal birthweight. Thus, a retrospective cohort study including all FET cycles with livebirth deliveries in a university affiliated hospital from May 2010 to September 2017 was conducted. These deliveries were grouped by the cryopreservation duration of the transferred embryo (≤3 months, 4–6 months, 7–12 months, and >12 months). The associations between embryo cryopreservation duration and pregnancy-related complications were evaluated among the groups using multinomial logistic regression. Neonatal birthweight was compared according to the stratification of singletons and multiples using multinomial and multilevel logistic regression, respectively. Among all 12,158 FET cycles, a total of 3864 livebirth deliveries comprising 2995 singletons and 1739 multiples were included. Compared with those within 3 months, women undergoing FET after a cryopreservation time longer than 3 months did not show any increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, or preterm birth. Furthermore, the risk of lower birthweight, macrosomia, small-for-gestational-age, or large-for-gestational-age for either singletons or multiples was not affected by long-term cryopreservation. In summary, embryo cryopreservation duration does not have negative effects on pregnancy-related complications or birthweight after FET.
The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between spicy food intake and serum lipids levels in Chinese rural population.
Information on spicy food flavor and intake frequency was obtained using a two-item questionnaire survey. Dietary data was collected using a validated thirteen-item food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected and measured for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were employed to examine the relationship between spicy food and serum lipids levels according to the spicy food flavor and intake frequency, respectively.
A cross-sectional study in Henan Province.
38238 participants aged 18–79 years old.
Spicy flavor and intake frequency were consistently associated with decreased TC and Non-HDL-C levels, but mildly associated with elevated TG levels. Each level increment in spicy flavor was inversely associated with High TC (odds ratio (OR): 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.93)” and High Non-HDL-C (OR: 0.88; 95%CI: 0.85-0.91), while positively associated with High TG (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.01-1.07). Similarly, one day increment in spicy food intake frequency was also inversely associated with High TC (OR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.91-0.94)” and High Non-HDL-C (OR: 0.91; 95%CI: 0.89-0.93), while positively associated with High TG (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.02-1.06).
Spicy food intake was mildly associated with increased risk of abnormal TG level, significantly associated with decreased risk of abnormal TC and Non-HDL levels. Spicy food intake may be contribute to the management of lipid levels.
Bacterial dysentery (BD) brings a major disease burden to developing countries. Exploring the influence of temperature and its interaction with other meteorological factors on BD is significant for the prevention and early warning of BD in the context of climate change. Daily BD cases and meteorological data from 2008 to 2018 were collected in all nine prefecture-level cities in Jilin Province. A one-stage province-level model and a two-stage city-specific multivariate meta-pooled level distributed lag non-linear model were established to explore the correlation between temperature and BD, then the weather-stratified generalised additive model was used to test the interaction. During the study period, a total of 26 971 cases of BD were developed. The one-stage and two-stage cumulative dose-response ‘J’ curves overlapped, and results showed a positive correlation between temperature and BD with a 1–6 days lag effect. Age group ⩾5 years was found to be more sensitive to the effects. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between temperature, humidity and precipitation (P = 0.004, 0.002, respectively) on BD under high temperature (>0 °C), reminding residents and policymakers to pay attention to the prevention of BD in situations with both high temperature and humidity, high temperature and precipitation during the temperate monsoon climate.
High-quality primary care reduces premature mortality in the general population, but evidence for psychiatric patients in China is scarce.
To confirm excess mortality in patients with severe mental illness (SMI), and to examine the impact of community-based mental healthcare and other risk factors on their mortality.
We included 93 655 patients in 2012 and 100 706 in 2013 from the national mental health surveillance system in Sichuan, China to calculate the standardised mortality ratio (SMR). A total of 112 576 patients were followed up from 2009 to 2014 for model analyses. We used growth models to quantify the patterns of change for community management measures, high-risk behaviour, disease stability and medication adherence of patients over time, and then used multilevel proportional hazard models to examine the association between change patterns of management measures and mortality.
The SMR was 6.44 (95% CI 4.94–8.26) in 2012 and 7.57 (95% CI 5.98–9.44) in 2013 among patients with SMI aged 15–34 years, and diminished with age. Unfavourable baseline socioeconomic status increased the hazard of death by 38–50%. Positive changes in high-risk behaviour, disease stability and medication adherence had a 54% (95% CI 47–60%), 69% (95% CI 63–73%) and 20% (4–33%) reduction in hazard of death, respectively, versus in those where these were unchanged.
High excess mortality was confirmed among younger patients with SMI in Sichuan, China. Our findings on the relationships between community management and socioeconomic factors and mortality can inform community-based mental healthcare policies to reduce excess mortality among patients with SMI.
Shear dilatation/contraction of granular materials has long been recognized as an important process in granular flows but a comprehensive theoretical description of this process for a wide range of shear rates is not yet available. In this paper, a theoretical formulation of dilatation/contraction is proposed for continuum modelling of granular flows, in which the dilatation/contraction effects consist of a frictional component, which results from the rearrangement of enduring-contact force chains among particles, and a collisional component, which arises from inter-grain collisions. In this formulation, a frictional solid pressure, which considers the rearrangement of contact force chains under shear deformation, is proposed for the frictional dilatation/contraction, while well-established rheological laws are adopted for the collisional inter-grain pressure to account for the collisional dilatancy effect. The proposed formulation is first verified analytically by describing the shear-weakening behaviour of granular samples in a torsional shear rheometer and by capturing the incipient failure of both dry and immersed granular slopes. The proposed dilatation/contraction formulation is then further validated numerically by integrating it into a two-fluid continuum model and applying the model to study the collapse of submerged granular columns, in which the dilatation/contraction plays a critical role.
A closed Quaternary saline paleolake, currently still a lake and named Dalangtan after one of its largest sub-basins, has widely distributed sediments in the western Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. Lacustrine salt minerals and fine sediments from this paleolake provide an environmental record for investigating paleoclimatic evolution in the Asian interior. However, detailed continuous Pliocene–Quaternary paleoclimatic records are broadly lacking from the NE Tibetan Plateau owing to poor exposure of the outcrops in section. For this study, we performed a detailed magnetostratigraphic dating and rock magnetic analysis on a 590-m-long core from the SG-5 borehole in the western Qaidam Basin. The results demonstrate that the lacustrine sediments in the SG-5 borehole were deposited more than ~3.0 Ma. Saline minerals began to increase at 1.2 Ma, and the magnetic susceptibility (χ) also changed at that time; the percentage frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility was relatively low and uniform throughout the whole core. These observations, combined with the χ, pollen, salt ion, and grain-size records from other boreholes, indicate that the western Qaidam Basin and the greater Asian interior had a significant climate transition at 1.2 Ma during an extreme drought.
The global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is greatly threatening the public health in the world. We reconstructed global transmissions and potential demographic expansions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 based on genomic information. We found that intercontinental transmissions were rare in January and early February but drastically increased since late February. After world-wide implements of travel restrictions, the transmission frequencies decreased to a low level in April. We identified a total of 88 potential demographic expansions over the world based on the star-radiative networks and 75 of them were found in Europe and North America. The expansion numbers peaked in March and quickly dropped since April. These findings are highly concordant with epidemic reports and modelling results and highlight the significance of quarantine validity on the global spread of COVID-19. Our analyses indicate that the travel restrictions and social distancing measures are effective in containing the spread of COVID-19.