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Hyper-redundant robots have good prospects for applications in confined space due to their high flexibility and slim body size. However, the super-redundant structure brings great challenges for its inverse kinematics with shape constraints. Unfortunately, traditional Jacobian pseudo-inverse-based inverse kinematics method and forward and backward reaching inverse kinematics (FABRIK) method are difficult to constrain the arm shape and realize trajectory tracking in confined spaces. To solve this problem, we propose a shape-controllable FABRIK method to satisfy the given path and shape constraints. Firstly, the kinematic model of the hyper-redundant robot is established, and the canonical FABRIK method is introduced. Based on the preliminary works, the single-layer improved FABRIK method is developed to solve the position and pointing inverse kinematics considering path environment and joint angle constraints instead of two-layer geometric iterations. For tracking the desired end roll angles, the polygonal virtual arm is designed. The real arm roll angle is achieved by controlling its winding on the virtual arm. In this way, the shape can be controlled. Finally, we compare the proposed method with other three approaches by simulations. Results show that the proposed method is more efficient and the arm shape is controllable.
In response to the large number of obsessive compulsive disorder problems among consumers, many cultural and creative products have used psychological knowledge to improve the packaging design.
Subjects and Methods
The study recruited 100 volunteers as research objects and randomly divided them into a control group and an experimental group. The control group was oriented to the initial packaging of a certain cultural and creative product, while the experimental group was oriented to the packaging of a certain cultural and creative product combined with the concept of cognitive psychology, including the principle of easy understanding and acceptance and the principle of participation. The Yale-Brown OCD severity Scale was used to evaluate the study, and Eviews 11 was used for statistical analysis.
Over the course of the study, the compulsion rating scale score changed from 14 to 13 in the control group, while the compulsion rating scale score changed from 13 to 8 in the experimental group. In the experimental group, the symptoms of OCD patients were significantly relieved (P<0.05). The experimental results show that the application of cognitive psychology to the packaging design of cultural and creative products has a significant impact on consumers’ compulsive psychology.
Introducing the concept of cognitive psychology into the packaging of cultural and creative products can effectively affect the compulsive psychological symptoms of consumers, and provide a potential therapeutic method with research value.
SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spreads among humans via social networks, with social mixing and network characteristics potentially facilitating transmission. However, limited data on topological structural features has hindered in-depth studies. Existing research is based on snapshot analyses, preventing temporal investigations of network changes. Comparing network characteristics over time offers additional insights into transmission dynamics. We examined confirmed COVID-19 patients from an eastern Chinese province, analyzing social mixing and network characteristics using transmission network topology before and after widespread interventions. Between the two time periods, the percentage of singleton networks increased from 38.9$ \% $ to 62.8$ \% $$ (p<0.001) $; the average shortest path length decreased from 1.53 to 1.14 $ (p<0.001) $; the average betweenness reduced from 0.65 to 0.11$ (p<0.001) $; the average cluster size dropped from 4.05 to 2.72 $ (p=0.004) $; and the out-degree had a slight but nonsignificant decline from 0.75 to 0.63 $ (p=0.099). $ Results show that nonpharmaceutical interventions effectively disrupted transmission networks, preventing further disease spread. Additionally, we found that the networks’ dynamic structure provided more information than solely examining infection curves after applying descriptive and agent-based modeling approaches. In summary, we investigated social mixing and network characteristics of COVID-19 patients during different pandemic stages, revealing transmission network heterogeneities.
The age-related heterogeneity in major depressive disorder (MDD) has received significant attention. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such heterogeneity still need further investigation. This study aimed to explore the common and distinct functional brain abnormalities across different age groups of MDD patients from a large-sample, multicenter analysis.
The analyzed sample consisted of a total of 1238 individuals including 617 MDD patients (108 adolescents, 12–17 years old; 411 early-middle adults, 18–54 years old; and 98 late adults, > = 55 years old) and 621 demographically matched healthy controls (60 adolescents, 449 early-middle adults, and 112 late adults). MDD-related abnormalities in brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns were investigated in each age group separately and using the whole pooled sample, respectively.
We found shared FC reductions among the sensorimotor, visual, and auditory networks across all three age groups of MDD patients. Furthermore, adolescent patients uniquely exhibited increased sensorimotor-subcortical FC; early-middle adult patients uniquely exhibited decreased visual-subcortical FC; and late adult patients uniquely exhibited wide FC reductions within the subcortical, default-mode, cingulo-opercular, and attention networks. Analysis of covariance models using the whole pooled sample further revealed: (1) significant main effects of age group on FCs within most brain networks, suggesting that they are decreased with aging; and (2) a significant age group × MDD diagnosis interaction on FC within the default-mode network, which may be reflective of an accelerated aging-related decline in default-mode FCs.
To summarize, these findings may deepen our understanding of the age-related biological and clinical heterogeneity in MDD.
The incidence of adolescent depressive disorder is globally skyrocketing in recent decades, albeit the causes and the decision deficits depression incurs has yet to be well-examined. With an instrumental learning task, the aim of the current study is to investigate the extent to which learning behavior deviates from that observed in healthy adolescent controls and track the underlying mechanistic channel for such a deviation.
We recruited a group of adolescents with major depression and age-matched healthy control subjects to carry out the learning task with either gain or loss outcome and applied a reinforcement learning model that dissociates valence (positive v. negative) of reward prediction error and selection (chosen v. unchosen).
The results demonstrated that adolescent depressive patients performed significantly less well than the control group. Learning rates suggested that the optimistic bias that overall characterizes healthy adolescent subjects was absent for the depressive adolescent patients. Moreover, depressed adolescents exhibited an increased pessimistic bias for the counterfactual outcome. Lastly, individual difference analysis suggested that these observed biases, which significantly deviated from that observed in normal controls, were linked with the severity of depressive symoptoms as measured by HAMD scores.
By leveraging an incentivized instrumental learning task with computational modeling within a reinforcement learning framework, the current study reveals a mechanistic decision-making deficit in adolescent depressive disorder. These findings, which have implications for the identification of behavioral markers in depression, could support the clinical evaluation, including both diagnosis and prognosis of this disorder.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
With the dangerous and troublesome nature of hollow defects inside building structures, hollowness inspection has always been a challenge in the field of construction quality assessment. Several methods have been proposed for inspecting hollowness inside concrete structures. These methods have shown great advantages compared to manual inspection but still lack autonomy and have several limitations. In this paper, we propose a range-point migration-based non-contact hollowness inspection system with sensor fusion of ultra-wide-band radar and laser-based depth camera to extract both outer surface and inner hollowness information accurately and efficiently. The simulation result evaluates the performance of the system based on the original range-point migration algorithm, and our proposed one and the result of our system show great competitiveness. Several simulation experiments of structures that are very common in reality are carried out to draw more convincing conclusions about the system. At the same time, a set of laboratory-made concrete components were used as experimental objects for the robotic system. Although still accompanied by some problems, these experiments demonstrate the availability of an automated hollow-core detection system.
An increasing number of studies have evaluated the association between ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption and metabolic disorders. However, the association between UPF intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unclear. In this study, we analysed data from 6545 participants who were recruited in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2011–2018. UPF were defined in light of the NOVA food classification system and divided into quartiles based on its proportion of total weight intake. Complex logistic regression models were used to assess the association between UPF and NAFLD. Mediation analyses were conducted to reveal underlying mediators. We found that NAFLD patients consumed more UPF than controls (925·92 ± 18·08 v. 812·70 ± 14·32 g/d, P < 0·001). Dietary intake of UPF (% weight) was negatively related to the Healthy Eating Index-2015 score (Spearman r = −0·32, P < 0·001). In the multivariable model, the highest quartile compared with the lowest, the OR (95 % CI) were 1·83 (1·33, 2·53) for NAFLD (OR per 10 % increment: 1·15; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·22; P for trend < 0·001) and 1·52 (1·12, 2·07) for insulin resistance (OR per 10 % increment: 1·11; 95 % CI: 1·05, 1·18; P for trend = 0·002). Mediation analyses revealed that poor diet quality, high saturated fat and refined grain intake partly mediated the association between UPF and NAFLD. In conclusion, high UPF intake was associated with an increased risk of NAFLD in US adults. Further prospective studies are needed to verify these findings.
In this work, a confined-doped fiber with the core/inner-cladding diameter of 40/250 μm and a relative doping ratio of 0.75 is fabricated through a modified chemical vapor deposition method combined with the chelate gas deposition technique, and subsequently applied in a tandem-pumped fiber amplifier for high-power operation and transverse mode instability (TMI) mitigation. Notably, the impacts of the seed laser power and mode purity are preliminarily investigated through comparative experiments. It is found that the TMI threshold could be significantly affected by the seed laser mode purity. The possible mechanism behind this phenomenon is proposed and revealed through comprehensive comparative experiments and theoretical analysis. Finally, a maximum output power of 7.49 kW is obtained with the beam quality factor of approximately 1.83, which is the highest output power ever reported in a forward tandem-pumped confined-doped fiber amplifier. This work could provide a good reference and practical solution to improve the TMI threshold and realize high-power high-brightness fiber lasers.
The effect of sheared E × B flow on the blob dynamics in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of HL-2A tokamak has been studied during the plasma current ramp-up in ohmically heated deuterium plasmas by the combination of poloidal and radial Langmuir probe arrays. The experimental results indicate that the SOL sheared E × B flow is substantially enhanced as the plasma current exceeds a certain value and the strong sheared E × B flow has the ability to slow the blob radial motion via stretching its poloidal correlation length. The locally accumulated blobs are suggested to be responsible for the increase of plasma density just outside the Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS) observed in this experiment. The results presented here reveal the significant role played by the strong sheared E × B flow on the blob dynamics, which provides a potential method to control the SOL width by modifying the sheared E × B flow in future tokamak plasmas.
An experimental investigation of the stereocamera's systematic error is carried out to optimize three-dimensional (3-D) dust observation on the HL-2A tokamak. It is found that a larger 3-D region occupied by all calibration points is able to reduce the 3-D reconstruction systematic error of the stereocamera. In addition, the 3-D reconstruction is the most accurate around the region where the calibration points are located. Based on these experimental results, the design of the stereocamera on the HL-2A tokamak is presented, and a set of practical procedures to optimize the 3-D reconstruction accuracy of the stereocamera are proposed.
This article introduces the 2D multilayer Laue lens (MLL) nanofocusing optics recently developed for high-resolution hard X-ray microscopy. The new optics utilized a micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS)-based template to accommodate two linear MLL optics in a pre-aligned configuration. Angular misalignment between the two lenses was controlled in tens of millidegrees, and the lateral position error was on a micrometer scale. Using the developed 2D MLLs, an astigmatism-free point focus of approximately 14 nm by 13 nm in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, at 13.6 keV photon energy was obtained. The success of 2D MLL optics with an approaching 10 nm resolution is a significant step forward for the development of high-resolution hard X-ray microscopy and applications of MLL optics in the hard X-ray community.
COVID-19 has long-term impacts on public mental health, while few research studies incorporate multidimensional methods to thoroughly characterise the psychological profile of general population and little detailed guidance exists for mental health management during the pandemic. This research aims to capture long-term psychological profile of general population following COVID-19 by integrating trajectory modelling approaches, latent trajectory pattern identification and network analyses.
Longitudinal data were collected from a nationwide sample of 18 804 adults in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak in China. Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 and Insomnia Severity Index were used to measure depression, anxiety and insomnia, respectively. The unconditional and conditional latent growth curve models were fitted to investigate trajectories and long-term predictors for psychological symptoms. We employed latent growth mixture model to identify the major psychological symptom trajectory patterns, and ran sparse Gaussian graphical models with graphical lasso to explore the evolution of psychopathological network.
At 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak, psychological symptoms generally alleviated, and five psychological symptom trajectories with different demographics were identified: normal stable (63.4%), mild stable (15.3%), mild-increase to decrease (11.7%), mild-decrease to increase (4.0%) and moderate/severe stable (5.5%). The finding indicated that there were still about 5% individuals showing consistently severe distress and approximately 16% following fluctuating psychological trajectories, who should be continuously monitored. For individuals with persistently severe trajectories and those with fluctuating trajectories, central or bridge symptoms in the network were mainly ‘motor abnormality’ and ‘sad mood’, respectively. Compared with initial peak and late COVID-19 phase, aftermath of initial peak might be a psychologically vulnerable period with highest network connectivity. The central and bridge symptoms for aftermath of initial peak (‘appetite change’ and ‘trouble of relaxing’) were totally different from those at other pandemic phases (‘sad mood’).
This research identified the overall growing trend, long-term predictors, trajectory classes and evolutionary pattern of psychopathological network of psychological symptoms in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak. It provides a multidimensional long-term psychological profile of the general population after COVID-19 outbreak, and accentuates the essentiality of continuous psychological monitoring, as well as population- and time-specific psychological management after COVID-19. We believe our findings can offer reference for long-term psychological management after pandemics.
Pregnancy is a complex biological process. The establishment and maintenance of foetal–maternal interface are pivotal events. Decidual immune cells and inflammatory cytokines play indispensable roles in the foetal–maternal interface. The disfunction of decidual immune cells leads to adverse pregnancy outcome. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a common inflammatory cytokine, has critical roles in different stages of normal pregnancy process. However, the relationship between the disorder of TNF-α and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), spontaneous abortion (SA), preterm birth and so on, is still indefinite. In this review, we thoroughly reviewed the effect of TNF-α disorder on pathological conditions. Moreover, we summarized the reports about the adverse pregnancy outcomes (PE, IUGR, SA and preterm birth) of using anti-TNF-α drugs (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) currently in the clinical studies. Overall, IUGR, SA and preterm birth are the most common adverse pregnancy outcomes of anti-TNF-α drugs. Our review may provide insight for the immunological treatment of pregnancy-related complication, and help practitioners make informed decisions based on the current evidences.
The aim of this work was to develop a table-top exercise (TTX) program for mass-casualty incident (MCI) response based on a real incident to evaluate the program.
The TTX program was developed based on the 8 TTX design steps. Convenience sampling was adopted to recruit recently graduated physicians in China. After the TTX training, the participants completed a self-designed questionnaire, as well as the Simulation Design Scale (SDS) and Educational Practices in Simulation Scale (EPSS).
In total, 148 valid questionnaires were collected. The difficulty score of the TTX program was 3.69 ± 0.8. The participants evaluated the program highly, with a score of 4.72 ± 0.54 out of 5. Both the SDS and the EPSS had average scores higher than 4.5. Guided reflection/feedback (M = 4.68, SD = 0.41) and fidelity (M =4.66, SD = 0.57) were the 2 highest-rated SDS subscales. For the EPSS, diverse ways of learning and collaboration were the 2 highest-rated subscales. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that the participants’ evaluations of the TTX training course were related to the EPSS score, the difficulty rating, the evaluation of the instructional props, and the degree of participant involvement (F = 24.385, P < 0.001).
A TTX program for MCIs was developed based on the 2014 Shanghai New Year Crush. The TTX kit is practical and sophisticated, and it provides an effective strategy for MCI training.
Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LWM-GSs) play a crucial role in determining wheat flour processing quality. In this work, 35 novel LMW-GS genes (32 active and three pseudogenes) from three Aegilops umbellulata (2n = 2x = 14, UU) accessions were amplified by allelic-specific PCR. We found that all LMW-GS genes had the same primary structure shared by other known LMW-GSs. Thirty-two active genes encode 31 typical LMW-m-type subunits. The MZ424050 possessed nine cysteine residues with an extra cysteine residue located in the last amino acid residue of the conserved C-terminal III, which could benefit the formation of larger glutenin polymers, and therefore may have positive effects on dough properties. We have found extensive variations which were mainly resulted from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (InDels) among the LMW-GS genes in Ae. umbellulata. Our results demonstrated that Ae. umbellulata is an important source of LMW-GS variants and the potential value of the novel LMW-GS alleles for wheat quality improvement.