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The discharged capillary plasma channel has been extensively studied as a high-gradient particle acceleration and transmission medium. A novel measurement method of plasma channel density profiles has been employed, where the role of plasma channels guiding the advantages of lasers has shown strong appeal. Here, we have studied the high-order transverse plasma density profile distribution using a channel-guided laser, and made detailed measurements of its evolution under various parameters. The paraxial wave equation in a plasma channel with high-order density profile components is analyzed, and the approximate propagation process based on the Gaussian profile laser is obtained on this basis, which agrees well with the simulation under phase conditions. In the experiments, by measuring the integrated transverse laser intensities at the outlet of the channels, the radial quartic density profiles of the plasma channels have been obtained. By precisely synchronizing the detection laser pulses and the plasma channels at various moments, the reconstructed density profile shows an evolution from the radial quartic profile to the quasi-parabolic profile, and the high-order component is indicated as an exponential decline tendency over time. Factors affecting the evolution rate were investigated by varying the incentive source and capillary parameters. It can be found that the discharge voltages and currents are positive factors quickening the evolution, while the electron-ion heating, capillary radii and pressures are negative ones. One plausible explanation is that quartic profile contributions may be linked to plasma heating. This work helps one to understand the mechanisms of the formation, the evolutions of the guiding channel electron-density profiles and their dependences on the external controllable parameters. It provides support and reflection for physical research on discharged capillary plasma and optimizing plasma channels in various applications.
A procedure was developed for large-scale fabrication of nanometer-sized structures of single crystalline silicon with well-defined dimensions and shapes. Near-field optical lithography was used to define the nanostructures in a thin film of positive-tone photoresist with an elastomeric phase mask. The nanostructures were then transferred into the underlying silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate through a reactive ion etching (RIE) process. With this method, we can routinely generate silicon nanostructures ∼130 nm in lateral dimension. They can be supported on the surface of a solid substrate as a patterned array, or released into a freestanding form. The lateral dimension of these silicon structures could be further reduced to as small as ∼40 nm using stress-limited oxidation at elevated temperatures. The flexibility of this approach was demonstrated by fabricating nanoscale wires, rods, rings, and interconnected triangles of silicon. Using a two-step exposure method, the silicon nanowires can be precisely “cut” into silicon nanorods with specific lengths.
This paper describes a procedure based on the Tollens' process for preparing crystalline nanoparticles of silver with well-controlled, uniform sizes. The starting reagents are similar to those commonly used for electroless deposition of silver and are commercially available from the Peacock Laboratories (Philadelphia, PA). Only under appropriate conditions, mixing of these reagents was able to generate stable dispersions of silver colloids, rather than thin films of silver coated on surfaces of objects immersed in the solution (including the inner surface of the container). We have demonstrated the capability and feasibility of this method by forming stable dispersions of highly monodispersed, single crystalline colloids of silver with dimensions in the range of 20-50 nm.
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