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We aimed to explore and create an evaluation model to assess hospital response capability for a public health emergency (PHE).
Grounded theory was used to construct a comprehensive evaluation index system. Combining with the index system and previous studies and policy documents, we investigated surge capability of hospitals in a PHE. The factor analysis method was used to establish the model.
The comprehensive evaluation system with 11 primary and 30 secondary indicators was constructed. A total of 89 secondary and tertiary hospitals were surveyed in China. The evaluation model (C = 0.587C1 + 0.151C2 + 0.140C3 + 0.122C4) was established. Four factors were identified, namely, preparation factor, treatment factor, emergency awareness factor, and prehospital first-aid factor.
A public health emergency could bring huge losses and a capable hospital response was necessary. There was an urgent need to evaluate hospital capability for a PHE.
Low-temperature stress is an important limiting factor to tobacco growth in early spring of south China. In this study, a low-temperature-resistant agent (LTRA) was employed to examine its ameliorating effect on the inhibition of tobacco growth triggered by low-temperature stress. Results indicated that low-temperature stress of 12 °C for 6 days reduced root number and biomass of tobacco seedling by 27.4% and 24.1%, while treatment with LTRA could recover the inhibitory effect of low-temperature stress on tobacco growth significantly. The content of ascorbic acid and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase at low-temperature stress were 65.2%, 53.5% and 32.1% of those at normal temperature condition (26 °C), while the corresponding values with LTRA treatment were 89.2%, 88.9% and 74.2%, suggesting that LTRA treatment could enhance the activity of antioxidant enzyme and the synthesis of antioxidant compounds. Low-temperature stress increased the membrane permeability by 84.8%, while LTRA treatment recovered it by 77.4%. Furthermore, LTRA treatment contributed to increase chlorophyll synthesis and maintain the integrity of tobacco leaf structure. Effective component analysis indicated that the complex of ammonium calcium nitrate and glycine betaine was the main effective component of LTRA in maintaining membrane integrity. Its effective concentration was 1.0 g L−1. The above results suggested that LTRA could enhance the synthesis of chlorophyll, activate the activity of antioxidant enzyme, maintain the integrity of cell membrane, and thus elevate the tolerance of tobacco seedlings to low-temperature stress.
An energy measurement system in a Large-aperture high power laser experiment platform
is introduced. The entire measurement system includes five calorimeters, which carry
out the energy measurement of the fundamental frequency before the frequency
conversion unit, remaining fundamental frequency, remain second-harmonics, third
harmonics, as well as the energy balance measurement after the frequency conversion
unit. Combinational indirect calibration and direct calibration are employed to
calibrate the sampling coefficients of the calorimeters. The analysis of the data
showed that, regarding the energy balance coefficients, combinational calibration
approach gives a higher precision, and leads to an energy balance with 1%; and
regarding the energy sampling coefficients for the various wavelengths after the
frequency conversion, the results from direct and combinational calibration are
consistent. The uncertainties for all energy sampling coefficients are within 3%,
which guarantees the reliability of the energy measurement for the laser
Chinese Grouse Bonasa sewerzowi is threatened by human activity, especially during the breeding season, in the Lianhuashan Mountains, Gansu Province, north-western China. We conducted a series of simulations on the viability of this population using the computer program VORTEX. The simulations suggested that the population had an extinction probability of 17% in 100 years using data gathered from current field work. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the predicted population trend was most sensitive to chick mortality, offspring per female per year, and adult male mortality. The first two parameters are correlated with human activity such as nest loss due to egg collecting by local people. When we set initial population size to the same size as carrying capacity, 2,500 individuals would constitute a minimum viable population (MVP). This would require a forest area of about 3,780 ha, which is smaller than the size of the Lianhuashan reserve, but the current population does not constitute an MVP due to the small initial population size. Furthermore, we found that if chick mortality declined by 5% or the number of offspring produced per female increased by 5% (i.e. reducing nest loss) under the current situation, local reserve size and current population would constitute an MVP. Therefore, the most practical and simple conservation management tool would be to increase the breeding success of Chinese Grouse, especially by limiting human activity during the incubation period.
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