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This study investigates how venture capital firms (VCs) choose syndication partners. Exponential random graph models of Chinese VC syndication networks from 2006 to 2013 show that the homophily mechanism does not always determine VCs’ partner selection. In selecting partners, VCs have to strike a balance between reducing uncertainty and mobilizing heterogeneous resources. Therefore, decisions about partners depend on institutional uncertainty and VCs’ investment preferences. While VCs that focus on traditional business in an immature market are more likely to form homogeneous syndications, their peers that prefer to invest in innovative companies and that can rely on a stable market tend to syndicate with heterogeneous partners.
The development of high-yielding, short-duration super-rice hybrids is important for ensuring food security in China where multiple cropping is widely practiced and large-scale farming has gradually emerged. In this study, field experiments were conducted over 3 years to identify the yield formation characteristics in the shorter-duration (∼120 days) super-rice hybrid ‘Guiliangyou 2’ (G2) by comparing it with the longer-duration (∼130 days) super-rice hybrid ‘Y-liangyou 1’ (Y1). The results showed that G2 had a shorter pre-heading growth duration and consequently a shorter total growth duration compared to Y1. Compared to Y1, G2 had lower total biomass production that resulted from lower daily solar radiation, apparent radiation use efficiency (RUE), crop growth rate (CGR), and biomass production during the pre-heading period, but the grain yield was not significantly lower than that of Y1 because it was compensated for by the higher harvest index that resulted from slower leaf senescence (i.e., slower decline in leaf area index during the post-heading period) and higher RUE, CGR, and biomass production during the post-heading period. Our findings suggest that it is feasible to reduce the dependence of yield formation on growth duration to a certain extent in rice by increasing the use efficiency of solar radiation through crop improvement and also highlight the need for a greater fundamental understanding of the physiological processes involved in the higher use efficiency of solar radiation in super-rice hybrids.
Giardia duodenalis is a common zoonotic intestinal pathogen. It has been increasingly reported in humans and animals; however, genotyping information for G. duodenalis in captive animals is still limited. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis in captive animals in zoological gardens in Shanghai, China. A total of 678 fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from captive animals including non-human primates (NHPs) (n = 190), herbivores (n = 190), carnivores (n = 151), birds (n = 138) and reptiles (n = 9) in a zoo and were examined for the presence of G. duodenalis using nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR). All G. duodenalis positive samples were assayed with PCR followed by sequencing at β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. In this study, 42 specimens (6.2%) were tested G. duodenalis-positive of the 678 fecal samples examined based on a single locus. A total of 30 (4.4%), 30 (4.4%) and 22 (3.2%) specimens were successfully amplified and sequenced at gdh, tpi and bg loci, respectively. Assemblages A and B were identified with assemblage B dominating in NHPs. Sequence analysis demonstrated that one, two and five new isolates were identified at bg, gdh and tpi loci. DNA sequences and new assemblage-subtypes of zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages A and B were identified in the current study. Our data indicate the occurrence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis and the potential zoonotic transmission in captive animals in China.
This article centres on the evacuation of the Lahore Elementary Flying Training School, which was built in 1943 to train Chinese pilots and mechanics. It details the British and Chinese authorities’ concerns over the school and how the chaotic situation in India during the final days of the British Raj influenced its evacuation back to China. This article locates the story within the broad context of the British withdrawal from India and the Chinese Civil War, and it uses this case to uncover the links between the two most significant events in the history of modern India and China. In so doing, it puts forward an integrated framework for studying modern Indian and Chinese history.
This article investigates how the Chinese Expeditionary Force joined the Burma Campaign and retreated to India in 1942, and how the Chinese, American, and British authorities negotiated to determine the destiny of Chinese forces in India. This article argues that the choice of Ramgarh, a small town in northeast India, as the site of a training centre for the Chinese Expeditionary Force sheds light on a decades-long programme of colonial internment-camp building in British India, and illuminates the difficult relationship between Chinese and British authorities during World War II. In doing so, it also argues that the historiography of China's War of Resistance requires Southeast and South Asian perspectives.
Topological quantum materials are a class of compounds featuring electronic band structures, which are topologically distinct from common metals and insulators. These materials have emerged as exceptionally fertile ground for materials science research. The topologically nontrivial electronic structures of these materials support many interesting properties, ranging from the topologically protected states, manifesting as high mobility and spin-momentum locking, to various quantum Hall effects, axionic physics, and Majorana modes. In this article, we describe different topological matters, including topological insulators, Weyl semimetals, twisted graphene, and related two-dimensional Chern magnetic insulators, as well as their heterostructures. We focus on recent materials discoveries and experimental advancements of topological materials, and their heterostructures. Finally, we conclude with prospects for the discovery of additional topological materials for studying quantum processes, quasiparticles and their composites, as well as exploiting potential applications of these materials.
Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials hosting dislocations have attracted considerable research attention in recent years. In particular, screw dislocations can result in a spiral topology and an interlayer twist in the layered materials, significantly impacting the stacking order and symmetry of the layers. Moreover, the dislocations with large strain and heavily distorted atomic registry can result in a local modification of the structures around the dislocation. The dislocations thus provide a useful route to engineering optical, electrical, thermal, mechanical and catalytic properties of the 2D layered materials, which show great potential to bring new functionalities. This article presents a comprehensive review of the experimental and theoretical progress on the growth and properties of the dislocated 2D layered materials. It also offers an outlook on the future works in this promising research field.
High-yielding short-duration cultivars are required due to the development of mechanized large-scale double-season rice (i.e. early- and late-season rice) production in China. The objective of this study was to identify whether existing early-season rice cultivars can be used as resources to select high-yielding, short-duration (less than 115 days) cultivars of machine-transplanted late-season rice. Field experiments were conducted in Yongan, Hunan Province, China in the early and late rice-growing seasons in 2015 and 2016. Eight early-season rice cultivars (Liangyou 6, Lingliangyou 211, Lingliangyou 268, Xiangzaoxian 32, Xiangzaoxian 42, Zhongjiazao 17, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 819) with growth durations of less than 115 days were used in 2015, and four cultivars (Lingliangyou 268, Zhongjiazao 17, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 819) with good yield performance in the late season in 2015 were grown in 2016. All cultivars had a growth duration of less than 110 days when grown in the late season in both years. Zhongjiazao 17 produced the maximum grain yield of 9.61 Mg ha−1 with a daily grain yield of 108 kg ha−1 d−1 in the late season in 2015. Averaged across both years, Lingliangyou 268 had the highest grain yield of 8.57 Mg ha−1 with a daily grain yield of 95 kg ha−1 d−1 in the late season. The good yield performance of the early-season rice cultivars grown in the late season was mainly attributable to higher apparent radiation use efficiency. Growth duration and grain yield of early-season rice cultivars grown in the late season were not significantly related to those grown in the early season. Our study suggests that it is feasible to select high-yielding short-duration cultivars from existing early-season rice cultivars for machine-transplanted late-season rice production. Special tests by growing alternative early-season rice cultivars in the late season should be done to determine their growth duration and grain yield for such selection.
Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in humans and other mammals, and it causes major public and veterinary health problems worldwide. China is a major pig-raising country, and studies on Giardia in pigs have important public health significance. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Giardia and assess its genetic characterization. A total of 93 samples were collected from two farms in Shanghai. The presence of Giardia was determined using PCR and sequence analysis of glutamate dehydrogenase, beta-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase genes. The average prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 26.88% (25/93) in the pigs, with 28.13% (18/64) in farm 1 vs 24.14% (7/29) in farm 2. All the PCR-positive products were successfully sequenced, and assemblage E was more prevalent. Zoonotic assemblages A and B and canine-specific assemblage C were identified in farm 1, whereas, only assemblage E was detected in farm 2. Interestingly, two pig isolates showed 100% homology with human-derived isolates from Australia and China at the bg and tpi loci respectively. Pigs infected with Giardia infect humans by polluting the environment; whether pigs are a potential environmental source of the human pathogen in China requires more epidemiological data.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
To satisfy the needs of precise pin-point landing missions in deep space exploration, this paper proposes a method based on feature line extraction and matching to estimate the attitude and position of a lander during the descent phase. Linear equations for a lander's motion parameters are given by using at least three feature lines on the planetary surface and their two-dimensional projections. Then, by taking advantage of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), candidate solutions are obtained. Lastly, the unique lander's attitude and position relative to the landing site are selected from the candidate solutions. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is able to estimate a lander's attitude and position robustly and quickly. Without an extended Kalman filter, the average errors of attitude are less than 1° and the average errors of position are less than 10 m at an altitude of 2,000 m. With an extended Kalman filter, attitude errors are within 0·5° and position errors are within 1 m at an altitude of 247·9 m.
A method based on the Eulerian two-phase flow theory to numerically simulate three-dimensional rime ice accretions on an aircraft wing is presented in this paper. The governing equations for supercooled droplet motion under Eulerian framework are established using the droplet pseudo-fluid model. A permeable wall boundary condition is proposed to simulate the phenomenon of droplets impinging on the wing in solving the governing equations for droplets. The local droplet collection efficiency is readily obtained from the droplet flowfield solution in the control volume adjacent to the wing surface. The rime ice accretion can be simulated under the assumption that the droplets freeze immediately as they impinge on the wing surface since the environment temperature is low enough (typically below –15°C). A method to build the ice shape is proposed based on the assumption that ice grows in the direction normal to the wing surface. The rime ice accretion on a GLC-305 swept wing model under some specific conditions has been simulated to validate the present method. Furthermore, different flight conditions, namely, different angles of attack and different angles of sideslip, have been dealt with to investigate their effects on rime ice accretion as well as the corresponding aerodynamic effects.
We present a reconstructed lithologic column compiled from a series of lacustrine outcrops along a tributary of the Nyang River, a major tributary of the Yarlung-Tsangpo in southeast Tibet. The deposits were preserved between terraces at altitudes of 2950–3100 m asl. The stratigraphic record features at least two sets of coarsening-upward sequences depicting episodic aggradation and progradation of a glacially dammed lake related delta. Recognized facies changes illustrate the evolution cycles of depositional environments from pro-delta, delta front, to delta plain. Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dates reveal an aging-downward trend in stratigraphic order and provide an approximate timeline for the formation of glacially dammed lakes in late Pleistocene. This result reflects that the Zelunglung Glacier had progressively advanced to block the Yarlung-Tsangpo river and the dam materials had stepwise stacked up to an altitude of 3095 m asl during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 4 to 2.
This paper investigates the vision-based pose stabilization of an electrically driven nonholonomic mobile robot with parametric uncertainties in robot kinematics, robot dynamics, and actuator dynamics. A robust adaptive visual stabilizing controller is proposed with the utilization of adaptive control, backstepping, and dynamic surface control techniques. For the controller design, the idea of backstepping is used and the adaptive control approach is adopted to deal with all uncertainties. We also apply the dynamic surface control method to avoid the repeated differentiations of virtual controllers existing in the backstepping design procedure such that the control development is easier to be implemented. Moreover, to attenuate the effect of disturbances on control performance, smooth robust compensators are exploited. It is proved that all signals in the closed-loop system can be guaranteed to be uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller.
The Terracotta Army that protected the tomb of the Chinese emperor Qin Shihuang offers an evocative image of the power and organisation of the Qin armies who unified China through conquest in the third century BC. It also provides evidence for the craft production and administrative control that underpinned the Qin state. Bronze trigger mechanisms are all that remain of crossbows that once equipped certain kinds of warrior in the Terracotta Army. A metrical and spatial analysis of these triggers reveals that they were produced in batches and that these separate batches were thereafter possibly stored in an arsenal, but eventually were transported to the mausoleum to equip groups of terracotta crossbowmen in individual sectors of Pit 1. The trigger evidence for large-scale and highly organised production parallels that also documented for the manufacture of the bronze-tipped arrows and proposed for the terracotta figures themselves.
Lower Cretaceous pedogenic carbonates exposed in SE China have been dated by U–Pb isotope measurements on single zircons taken from intercalated volcanic rocks, and the ages integrated with existing stratigraphy. δ13C values of calcretes range from –7.0‰ to –3.0‰ and can be grouped into five episodes of increasing–decreasing values. The carbon isotope proxy derived from these palaeosol carbonates suggests pCO2 mostly in the range 1000–2000 parts per million by volume (ppmV) at S(z) (CO2 contributed by soil respiration) = 2500 ppmV and 25°C during the Hauterivian–Albian interval (c. 30 Ma duration). Such atmospheric CO2 levels are 4–8 times pre-industrial values, almost double those estimated by geochemical modelling and much higher than those established from stomatal indices in fossil plants. Rapid rises in pCO2 are identified for early Hauterivian, middle Barremian, late Aptian, early Albian and middle Albian time, and rapid falls for intervening periods. These episodic cyclic changes in pCO2 are not attributed to local tectonism and volcanism but rather to global changes. The relationship between reconstructed pCO2 and the development of large igneous provinces (LIPs) remains unclear, although large-scale extrusion of basalt may well be responsible for relatively high atmospheric levels of this greenhouse gas. Suggested levels of relatively low pCO2 correspond in timing to intervals of regional to global enrichment of marine carbon in sediments and negative carbon isotope (δ13C) excursions characteristic of the oceanic anoxic events OAE1a (Selli Event), Kilian and Paquier events (constituting part of the OAE 1b cluster) and OAE1d. Short-term episodes of high pCO2 coincide with negligible carbon isotope excursions associated with the Faraoni Event and the Jacob Event. Given that episodes of regional organic carbon burial would draw down CO2 and negative δ13C excursions indicate the addition of isotopically light carbon to the ocean–atmosphere system, controls on the carbon cycle in controlling pCO2 during Early Cretaceous time were clearly complex and made more so by atmospheric composition also being affected by changes in silicate weathering intensity.
Atomic layer deposition has attracted much attention recently in fabricating noble metal nanoparticles for a wide range of applications. We have explored synthesizing palladium nanoparticles via atomic layer deposition on self-assembled monolayers modified silicon substrate. Using alkyltrichlorosilanes as the passivating agents, our results show the method is capable of fabricating Pd nanoparticles with well controlled density and particle diameter on the modified silicon substrate.
The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and glutenin macropolymer (GMP) in wheat grain are important characteristics that affect the quality of wheat products. Light intensity, as one of the environmental factors affecting grain yield and quality, has been studied extensively; however, little is known about its impact on HMW-GS and distribution of GMP granules in wheat grain. In the present study, two strong-gluten winter wheat cultivars with different subunit compositions were used to evaluate the effect of shading at different grain-filling stages on changes in HMW-GS and distribution of GMP granules in wheat grains. No effects of shading on initial formation time of each individual subunit were found; they responded similarly to shading with an increase in relative content, though the accumulation amount per grain of each individual subunit was decreased due to a decrease in grain weight induced by shading. Shading at different grain-filling stages, especially at the middle grain-filling stage, led to a significant increase in GMP content during grain filling; however, the proportions (by volume, number and surface area) of the larger GMP granules were increased by shading at middle and late grain-filling stages and decreased by shading at early grain-filling stage. It was also found that the content of total HMW-GS was positively correlated with volume proportions of larger GMP granules and negatively correlated with volume proportions of small GMP granules, which indicated that the pattern of response of distribution of GMP granules to shading was closely related to the regulatory effect of shading on the HMW-GS.
This paper is concerned with the numerical approximations of semi-linear stochastic partial differential equations of elliptic type in multi-dimensions. Convergence analysis and error estimates are presented for the numerical solutions based on the spectral method. Numerical results demonstrate the good performance of the spectral method.
Macrophages from the head kidney (HK) and peripheral blood leucocytes were isolated fromCyprinus carpio by Percoll gradient density centrifugation, cultured in vitro and exposed to different concentrations of the immunomodulator lentinan. To evaluate the immunostimulating effects of lentinan, proliferation of the peripheral blood leucocytes, respiratory burst of macrophages and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) gene mRNA expression of macrophages were investigated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide], NBT (nitroblue tetrazolium) reduction, Griess reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that proliferation of peripheral blood leucocytes after 24 h incubation by the induction of lentinan at 100 and 1000 μg/ml was markedly stimulated. Lentinan at 1, 100 and 1000 μg/ml could significantly induce superoxide anions in macrophages. Production of nitric oxide by HK macrophages after 96 h incubation by lentinan showed that it had no conspicuous effect on nitrogen burst activity of macrophages. Moreover, it inhibited the nitrogen burst activity at higher doses. The expression of IL-1β in the HK macrophages after 24 h of polysaccharide stimulation showed that lentinan stimulated IL-1β expression in the head kidney in carp. Lentinan can modulate the immune response of C. carpio.