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The Ordos Basin is the largest and most important intracontinental sedimentary depression in China, and a significant amount of crude oil resources has developed within this Mesozoic formation. High-grade organic-rich shale is prevalent in the large-scale areas of the Chang 7 sedimentary stage and provides essential hydrocarbon resources for abundant oil enrichment in the Mesozoic. This research investigated the geochemical characteristics of Chang 7 shale using core samples and well logs and via laboratory tests. In addition, the microscopic components of the shale organic matter (OM), biological marker compounds, carbon isotopes, enrichment grade of trace elements, and elemental ratio were analysed systematically. Moreover, the aspects related to the shale OM source, sedimentary environment and resource potential were evaluated. Our results revealed that spherical alginate and calcium spherical alginate were predominant in the micropetrological components of the shale. Many biomarkers, including n-alkanes, steranes and terpanes, were detected in the gas chromatography – mass spectrometry spectra. An analysis of n-alkanes, regular sterane shapes (C21−/C22− and C26+C27/C28+C29), odd–even predominance index (OEP) and carbon preference index (CPI) values and carbon isotope distributions showed that OM was produced from aquatic organisms. The indicators of trace elements, such as Sr/Ba and V/V+Ni, combined with the biomarker compound in Pr/Ph and the gammacerane index showed the presence of a semi-deep – deep lake environment containing fresh–brackish water. In addition, the hydrocarbon conversion rate index and shale rock pyrolysis parameters revealed that Chang 7 has a high hydrocarbon generation ability and hydrocarbon expulsion efficiency.
Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Phytoestrogens (including lignans and isoflavones) may enhance the management of diabetes and are hypothesized to act through inflammation pathways. The present study explored the effects of flaxseed-derived lignan on inflammatory factors and RBP4 concentrations in type 2 diabetics, who have higher levels of these biomarkers. Seventy community-dwelling diabetic patients (twenty-six men and forty-four post-menopausal women) with mild hypercholesterolaemia completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of supplementation with flaxseed-derived lignan capsules (360 mg/d) or placebo for 12 weeks, separated by an 8-week wash-out period. The participants maintained their habitual diets and levels of physical activity. Baseline to follow-up concentrations of CRP increased significantly within the placebo group (1·42 (sem 0·19) v. 1·96 (sem 0·22) mg/l, P < 0·001), but were comparatively unchanged in the lignan-supplemented group (1·67 (sem 0·19) v. 1·90 (sem 0·26) mg/l, P = 0·94); a significant difference was observed between treatments ( − 0·45 (95 % CI − 0·76, − 0·08) mg/l, P = 0·021). This effect was confined to women (P = 0·016), but not observed in men (P = 0·49). No between-treatment differences were found with regard to IL-6 or RBP4; though IL-6 concentrations increased significantly from baseline to follow-up in both groups (P = 0·004 and P < 0·001 following lignan and placebo treatments, respectively). The study suggests that lignan might modulate CRP levels in type 2 diabetics. These results need to be confirmed by further large clinical trials of longer duration.
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