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Currently there is no consensus regarding how long anti-psychotics medication should be continued following a first/single psychotic episode. Clinically patients often request discontinuation after a period of remission. This is one of the first double-blind randomized-controlled studies designed to address the issue.
Patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and related psychoses (excluding substance induced psychosis) who remitted well following a first/single-episode, and had remained well on maintenance medication for one year, were randomized to receive either maintenance therapy with quetiapine (400 mg/day), or placebo for 12 months. Relapse was defined by the presence of (i) an increase in at least one of the following PANSS psychotic symptom items to a threshold score (delusion, hallucinatory behaviour, conceptual disorganization, unusual thought content, suspiciousness); (ii) CGI Severity of Illness 3 or above; and (iii) CGI Improvement 5 or above.
178 patients were randomized. 144 patients completed the study (80.9%). The relapse rate was 33.7% (30/89) for the maintenance group and 66.3% (59/89) for the placebo group (log-rank test, chi-square=13.328, p<0.001). Relapse was not related to age or gender. Other significant predictors of relapse include medication status, pre-morbid schizotypal traits, verbal memory and soft neurological signs.
There is a substantial risk of relapse if medication is discontinued in remitted first-episode psychosis patients following one year of maintenance therapy. On the contrary 33.7% of patients discontinued medication and remained well.
To reinforce the reliability issue brought by excessive interfacial reaction with the dimensional scale-down of electronic device, an electroless Ni–P–ZrO2 (17.5 at.% of P) composite coating was developed as the under bump metallization (UBM) for lead-free solder interconnect. ZrO2 nanoparticles were proved to be homogeneously distributed and helped improve wetting ability of the layer. Both Sn–3.5Ag/Ni–P–ZrO2 and Sn–3.5Ag/Ni–P solder joints were prepared and aged at various conditions to study the interfacial reaction. Growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) without serious spalling in solder/Ni–P–ZrO2 joint was slowed down because of the barrier property of incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles, which blocked the diffusion of Ni and Cu atoms. Based on the IMC growth, the activation energy of solder/Ni–P–ZrO2 was estimated to be higher than that of plain solder joint. The top-view of IMCs demonstrated a much finer grain size compared with that of solder/Ni–P joint. A reactive diffusion-induced compound formation mechanism was proposed to address the microstructural evolution in detail. Moreover, solder/Ni–P–ZrO2 joint demonstrated higher shear strength than did solder/Ni–P joint for different aging durations. The fracture surface of solder/Ni–P joint after shear test showed ductile transition failure, with big dimples and plastic deformation.
In this study, the effects of electromigration (EM) on the growth of Cu–Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/SnBi/Cu solder joints under 5 × 103 A/cm2 direct current stressing at 308, 328, and 348 K were investigated. For each Cu/SnBi/Cu solder joint under current stressing, the IMCs at the cathode side grew faster than that at the anode side. The growth of these IMCs at the anode side and the cathode side were enhanced by electric current. The growth of these IMCs at the cathode followed a parabolic growth law. The kinetics parameters of the growth of the IMCs were calculated from the thickness data of the IMCs at the cathode side at different ambient temperatures. The calculated intrinsic diffusivity (D0) of the Cu–Sn IMCs was 9.91 × 10−5 m2/s, and the activation energy of the growth of the total Cu–Sn IMC layer was 89.2 kJ/mol (0.92 eV).
The electromigration and thermomigration behavior of eutectic tin-lead flip chip solder joints, subjected to currents ranging from 1.6 to 2.0 A, at ambient temperatures above 100 °C, was experimentally and numerically studied. The temperature at the chip side was monitored using both a temperature coefficient of resistance method and a thermal infrared technique. The electron wind force and thermal gradient played the dominant role in accelerated atomic migration. The atomic flux of lead due to electromigration and thermomigration was estimated for comparison. At the current crowding region, electromigration induced a more serious void accumulation as compared with thermomigration. Also, because of different thermal dissipations, a morphological variation was detected at different cross-sectional planes of the solder joint during thermomigration.
In this work, the shear strengths and interfacial reactions of Sn–8Zn–3Bi and Sn–8Zn–1Bi (wt%) solders with Au/Ni/Cu ball grid array (BGA) pad metallization were systematically investigated after multiple reflows. The peak reflow temperature was fixed at 230 °C. After the shear test, fracture surfaces were investigated using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. Cross-sectional studies of the interfaces were also conducted to correlate with the fracture surfaces. Two failure modes, ball cut and pad lift, were assessed for the different solders and reflow cycles. It was found that the shearing forces of both the Sn–Zn–Bi solder joints tended to increase slightly with an increase in the number of reflow cycles due to augmentation of the shearing area. A layer-type spalling of the interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) was observed very early in the liquid-state reaction for the solder alloys. The active nature of the Zn confirmed an instant reaction zone at the interface to maintain the bonding between the solder and the substrate.
Shearing behavior of Sn-37Pb, Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu, and Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-8 in solder joints on tape ball grid array (TBGA) substrates were investigated with different shearing speeds from 7 μm/s to 700 μm/s and over a wide temperature range from −25 °C to 150 °C. Both shearing speed and testing temperature were found to have strong effects on the shearing strength and fracture mechanisms of the solder joints. At certain temperature, the shearing force increases sharply with the increase of shearing speed due to a small amount of grain boundary deformation and incomplete dislocation movement as well as more work hardening at a high strain rate. With a fixed speed, the shearing force decreases dramatically with the increase of shearing temperature as a result of a small amount of work hardening and more dynamic recovery, as well as a reduction in Young’s modulus at elevated temperatures. Two lead-free solder joints were much stronger than the tin-lead solder joints under any given shearing condition. At a low temperature of −25 °C, the tin-lead solder joints failed with a combination of intermetallic compounds (IMC) fracture and solder/IMC interface detachment, whereas both lead-free solder joints failed by IMC/Ni interfacial separation. From 25 °C to 150 °C, the fracture mode of all solder joints was complete ball cut through the bulk solder with a ductile rupture. The underlying mechanisms for different shearing performance are interpreted in relation to the properties of the interconnecting materials.
This paper presents an investigation on the corrosion behavior of five solders by means of polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The Sn–9Zn and Sn–8Zn–3Bi solder, in comparison with the Sn–3.5Ag–0.5Cu and Sn–3.5Ag–0.5Cu–9In solder, were tested in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution and 0.1 wt% adipic acid solution, respectively. The Sn–37Pb solder was for reference in this work. The polarization curves indicated that the Sn–9Zn and Sn–8Zn–3Bi solder showed the worst corrosion resistance both in the salt and acid solutions, in terms of corrosion-current density, corrosion potential, linear polarization resistance, and passivation-current density. Meanwhile, the Sn–3.5Ag–0.5Cu solder remained the best corrosion characteristics in both solutions. It was found that due to microstructure alteration, Bi additive to the Sn–9Zn solder improved the corrosion behavior in the salt solution, whereas decreased that in the acid solution. However, the additive of In degraded the Sn–3.5Ag–0.5Cu solder in both solutions. The EIS results agreed well with the noble sequence of the five solders subjected to the two solutions with polarization. The equivalent circuits were also determined. Nevertheless, the four Pb-free solders exhibited acceptable corrosion properties since there was not much difference of key corrosion parameters between them and the Sn–37Pb solder.
Lead-free solders with high Sn content cause excessive interfacial reactions at the interface with under-bump metallization during reflow. The interface formed after reflow affects the reliability of the solder joint. For this paper, we investigated the interfacial reactions of Sn0.7Cu and Sn36Pb2Ag solder on electrolytic Ni layer for different reflow times. The traditionally used Sn36Pb2Ag solder was used as a reference. It was found that during as-reflowed, the formation of Cu-rich Sn–Cu–Ni ternary intermetallic compounds (TIMCs) at the interface of Sn0.7Cu solder with electrolytic Ni is much quicker, resulting in the entrapment of some Pb (which is present as impurity in the Sn–Cu solder) rich phase in the TIMCs. During extended time of reflow, high (>30 at.%), medium (30-15 at.%) and low (<15 at.%) Cu TIMCs formed at the interface. The amount of Cu determined the growth rate of TIMCs. Cu-rich TIMCs had higher growth rate and consumed more Ni layer. By contrast, the growth rate of the Ni–Sn binary intermetallic compounds (BIMCs) in the Sn36Pb2Ag solder joint was slower, and the Ni–Sn BIMC was more stable and adherent. The dissolution rate of electrolytic Ni layer for Sn0.7Cu solder joint was higher than the Sn36Pb2Ag solder joints. Less than 3 μm of the electrolytic Ni layer was consumed during molten reaction by the higher Sn containing Sn0.7Cu solder in 180 min at 250 °C. The shear strength of Sn–Pb–Ag solder joints decreased within 30 min of reflow time from 1.938 to 1.579 kgf due to rapid formation of ternary Ni–Sn–Au compounds on the Ni–Sn BIMCs. The shear strength of Sn0.7Cu solder joint is relatively stable from 1.982 to 1.861 kgf during extended time reflow. Cu prevents the resettlement of Au at the interface. The shear strength does not depend on the thickness of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and reflow time. Ni/Sn–Cu solder system has higher strength and can be used during prolonged reflow.
The contact resistances investigated in this study of anisotropic conductive adhesive film joints using Au/Ni bumps and flexible substrates are found to be increased by the drop impact energy and also by the combined effect of heat/humidity and the impact energy. The samples humidified at 85 °C/85% RH for 384 h, on which impact energy of 50 J was induced, exhibit the most severe results. The contact resistance increases by 700%, which had been about 0.062 Ω in the as-bonded condition. The samples without humidification showed a sluggish and gentle increase in contact resistance with induced drop impact energy. The contact resistance was found to be increased by 400% after absorbing 90 J energy. Scanning electron microscopy images show particle deformation due to abrasion and friction between the contacting surfaces resulting from the sudden impact. Joints are also observed with no connections, which signify open circuits. Almost 25% of circuits were found open in the samples (after 384 h in a humid environment), which have suffered severe mechanical shock. Breaking of the conductive layer of the particle and exposing the underlying polymeric portion was also observed.
Systematic experimental work was carried out to understand the mechanism of Au diffusion to the solder interface, and a novel method was proposed to eliminate Au embrittlement by circumventing the continuous layer of (Au,Ni)Sn4 at the solder interface. Contrary to the usual expectation, it was determined that utilization of a very thin Ni metallization in the Au/Ni/Cu under bump metallization (UBM) was an effective means of maintaining mechanical integrity of the solder joint. It was found that the out-diffusion of Cu during the aging period changes the chemistry and morphology of the intermetallic compounds at the interface.
Currently, the most successful direct simulation of the solar granules (and the convection/radiation transition layer) is the three-dimensional (3D) model computed by Stein and Nordlund (1989). So far, there is no other similar 3D models available for comparison [however, see Ludwig et al. (1997) for a recent 2D calculation]. We are developing an alternative numerical approach to simulate the 3D radiation hydrodynamics of this layer. In this approach, the Eddington approximation is used to handle the radiation rather than solving the radiative transfer equations along rays, and the ADISM method (Chan and Wolff 1982) which solves the Navier Stokes equations in conservative forms is used to speed up the thermal relaxation of the fluid layer. We are in the process of testing the numerical accuracy of the codes. This paper summarizes the results of a test that illustrate the effects of vertical space resolution on the mean profiles of some important quantities.
The magnetic interaction of magneto-optical multilayer films have been analyzed using the stress mechanism of coercivity and the single ion model of magnetic anisotropy. The relation between the magnetic properties of the multilayer films and the dielectric film thickness has been explained.
The capability of IBM PC to model the dopant redistribution of ion-implanted impurities in silicon was demonstrated and its performance compared with that of mainframe computers.TURBO PASCAL was found to be a preferable programming language due to its relatively high speed and good ability of graphics handling. The operation speed of PC was about 4 to 6 times slower than that of an IBM 3031/VM370/MVS mainframe system.
The diffusion of ion-implanted dopants in silicon during rapid thermal annealing is modeled using the finite difference method.The change in impurity profile for an initial Pearson IV boron implant is negligible(less than 1 % change in junction depth) when the peak annealing temperature(TP ) is less than 1050 °C and its duration is shorter than 20 seconds. The dopant redistribution becomes significant(greater than 25 % change in junction depth) when Tp is greater than 1200 °C and its duration is longer than 40 seconds.The heatup and cooldown portions of the transient annealing cycle are found to have little effect on dopant redistribution provided that their rates are higher than 120 °C per second.
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