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In view of the cooperative guidance problem with time delay, this paper proposes a two-stage time-delay prescribed-time cooperative guidance law in the three-dimensional (3D) space. In the first stage, by introducing a time scaling function and time-delay consensus, the proposed cooperative guidance law can overcome the negative influence of time delay to guaranteed the desired convergence performance. Derived from the Lyapunov convergence analysis, the time-delay stability of the first stage can be ensured and the convergence time can be described as the relationship between delayed time and mission-assigned convergence time. Then, taking the prescribed-time-related convergence time as the switching point, the second stage begins with suitable initial conditions and all interceptors are governed by proportional navigation guidance. Finally, comparative simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed time-delay guidance law.
In this paper, to address the cooperative localisation of a heterogeneous UAV swarm in the GNSS-denied environment, an adaptive simulated annealing-particle swarm optimisation (SA-PSO) cooperative localisation algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the forming principle of the communication and measurement framework is investigated in light of a heterogeneous UAV swarm composition. Secondly, a reasonably cooperative localisation function is established based on the proposed forming principle, which can minimise the relative localisation error with limited available information. Then, an adaptive weight principle is incorporated into the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) for better performance. Furthermore, in order to overcome the drawbacks of PSO algorithm easily falling into the local extreme point, an adaptive SA-PSO algorithm is improved to promote the convergence speed of cooperative localisation. Finally, comparative simulations are performed among the adaptive SA-PSO, adaptive PSO, and PSO algorithms to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed adaptive SA-PSO algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance in convergence speed, and the cooperative localisation precision can be guaranteed.
We develop a new model, to our knowledge, for the many-body hydrodynamics of amphiphilic Janus particles suspended in a viscous background flow. The Janus particles interact through a hydrophobic attraction potential that leads to self-assembly into bilayer structures. We adopt an efficient integral equation method for solving the screened Laplace equation for hydrophobic attraction and for solving the mobility problem for hydrodynamic interactions. The integral equation formulation accurately captures both interactions for near touched boundaries. Under a linear shear flow, we observe the tank-treading deformation in a two-dimensional vesicle made of Janus particles. The results yield measurements of intermonolayer friction, membrane permeability and, at large shear rates, membrane rupture. The simulation studies include a Janus particle vesicle in both linear and parabolic shear flows, and interactions between two Janus particle vesicles in shear and extensional flows. The hydrodynamics of the Janus particle vesicle is similar to the behaviour of an inextensible, elastic vesicle membrane with permeability.
Manure is a primary source of methane (CH4) emissions into the atmosphere. A large proportion of CH4 from manure is emitted during storage, but this varies with storage methods. In this research, we tested whether covering a manure heap with plastic reduces CH4 emission during a short-term composting process. A static chamber method was used to detect the CH4 emission rate and the change of the physicochemical properties of cattle manure which was stored either uncovered (treatment UNCOVERED) or covered with plastic (treatment COVERED) for 30-day periods during the four seasons? The dry matter content of the COVERED treatment was significantly less than the UNCOVERED treatment (P < 0.01), and the C/N ratio of the COVERED treatment significantly greater than the UNCOVERED treatment (P > 0.05) under high temperature. In the UNCOVERED treatment, average daily methane (CH4) emissions were in the order summer > spring > autumn > winter. CH4 emissions were positively correlated with the temperature (R2 = 0.52, P < 0.01). Compared to the UNCOVERED treatment, the daily average CH4 emission rates from COVERED treatment manure were less in the first 19 days of spring, 13 days of summer, 10 days of autumn and 30 days of winter. In summary, covering the manure pile with plastic reduces the evaporation of water during storage; and in winter, long-term covering with plastic film reduces the CH4 emissions during the storage of manure.
Longan is an economically important sub-tropical fruit tree native to southern China and southeast Asia. Its production has been affected significantly by climate change, but the underlying reasons remain unclear. Herein, the potential growing areas of longan were simulated by the Maxent model under current and future conditions. The results showed excellent prediction performance, with an area under curve of >0.9 for model training and validation. The key environmental variables identified were mean temperature of the coldest quarter, minimum temperature of the coldest month, annual mean temperature and mean temperature of the driest quarter. The optimum suitable areas of longan were found to be concentrated mainly in south-western, southern and eastern China, with a slight increase in optimum suitable areas under two different emission scenarios of three global climatic models. However, its future potential growing areas were predicted to differ among provinces or cities. Suitable growing areas in Sichuan, Jiangxi, Guangxi and Chongqing will first increase and then remain approximately unchanged between the 2050s and 2070s; those in Yunnan, Guangdong and Hainan will remain approximately unchanged from the present to the 2070s; those in Fujian and Guizhou will fluctuate slightly from the present to the 2050s and then increase to the 2070s; those in Taiwan will first decrease and then increase. In summary, the major future production areas of longan will be Guangdong, Hainan and Guangxi provinces, followed by Chongqing, Yunnan, Fujian and Taiwan. Thus, this study serves as a useful guide for the management of longan.
Developing alternatives to antibiotics is an urgent need in livestock production. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are regarded as powerful antibiotic substitutes (ASs) because AMPs have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and growth-promoting ability. Here, we aimed to comprehensively assess the effects of AMPs on the growth performance, diarrhea rate, intestinal morphology and immunity of healthy or challenged piglets, compared with an antibiotics group or negative control group. We performed a set of meta-analyses of feeding trials from database inception to 27 May 2019. Among the 1379 identified studies, 20 were included in our meta-analyses (56 arms and 4067 piglets). The meta-analyses revealed that (1) compared with the negative control group, AMPs significantly improved the healthy piglets’ average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), gain : feed ratio (G/F), levels of immune globulin (Ig) IgM and IgG, and intestinal villus height : crypt depth ratio (V/C) (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, AMPs significantly increased the challenged piglets’ ADG, ADFI, G/F and V/C of the jejunum and ileum, and notably deceased the diarrhea rate (P < 0.05); (2) compared with antibiotics group, the effects of AMPs were slightly weaker than those of antibiotics in the healthy piglets, but AMPs have similar effects to those of antibiotics in challenged piglets. In a higher purity, the optimal dose of AMPs may be approximately 0.01%. Our findings indicate that AMPs can improve piglet growth performance, enhance immunity, benefit intestinal morphology and decrease the diarrheal rate. AMPs could be great ASs especially under infection conditions.
White-light continuum can be induced by the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with condensed materials. By using two orthogonal polarizers, a self-induced birefringence of continuum is observed when focusing femtosecond laser pulses into bulk fused silica. That is, the generated white-light continuum is synchronously modulated anisotropically while propagating in fused silica. Time-resolved detection confirms that self-induced birefringence of continuum shows a growth and saturation feature with time evolution. By adjusting laser energy, the transmitted intensity of continuum modulated by self-induced birefringence also varies correspondingly. Morphology analysis with time evolution indicates that it is the focused femtosecond laser pulses that induce anisotropic microstructures in bulk fused silica, and the anisotropic structures at the same time modulate the generated continuum.
This report is on the synthesis by electrospinning of multiferroic core-shell nanofibers of strontium hexaferrite and lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate and studies on magneto-electric (ME) coupling. Fibers with well-defined core–shell structures showed the order parameters in agreement with values for nanostructures. The strength of ME coupling measured by the magnetic field-induced polarization showed the fractional change in the remnant polarization as high as 21%. The ME voltage coefficient in H-assembled films showed the strong ME response for the zero magnetic bias field. Follow-up studies and potential avenues for enhancing the strength of ME coupling in the core–shell nanofibers are discussed.
Compare baseline and 6-month follow-up plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid β peptides 1–40 (Aβ1–40) and 1–42 (Aβ1–42), total tau protein (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau at threonine 231 (P-tau231) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD).
21 patients with AD and 7 patients with VD based on the criteria of Diagnostic Statistical Manual 4th edition were assessed at baseline and 7 with AD and 6 with VD were re-assessed 6 months later. Assessments included the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), the Global Deteriorate Scale (GDS), plasma and CSF levels of Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42, and CSF levels of T-tau and P-tau231 (using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).
At baseline there were significant differences between AD and VD patients in the mean CSF levels of T-tau (t=2.580, P=0.016), P-tau231 (t=4.014, P=0.000) and Aβ1–40 (t=2.766, P=0.010). At baseline in AD patients, duration of illness was negatively correlated with CSF P-tau231 levels (r=-0.485, P=0.026), MMSE scores (r=-0.565, P=0.008) and GDS scores (r=-0.482, P=0.027); and CSF Aβ1–42 levels were positively correlated to MMSE scores (r=0.565, P=0.008) and negatively correlated with GDS scores (r=-0.634, P=0.002). In the AD patients plasma Aβ1–40 levels increased significantly over the 6-month follow-up period (t=-2.735, P=0.041).
Plasma Aβ1–40 levels increased significantly in AD patients after 6-months of follow-up, that means levels of plasma Aβ1–40 could imply the development of Alzheimer disease. Moreover, CSF P-tau231 and CSF Aβ1–42 levels are associated with the severity of dementia and cognitive impairment.
Explore the relationship between levels of plasma Aβ1–40, Aβ1–42 and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) and in elderly non-demented controls.
23 patients with AD and 21 patients with VD who meet diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual 4th edition and 20 control subjects were enrolled, administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and the Activity of Daily Living (ADL) inventory and their levels of plasma Aβ1–40, Aβ1–42 and HSP70 were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The levels of plasma Aβ1–40, Aβ1–42 and the Aβ1–40/Aβ1–42 ratio were not significantly different across groups, but levels of plasma HSP70 in VD patients was significantly higher than in AD patients and in normal controls (3.19 vs 1.91 vs 1.43ng/ml, respectively; F=6.464, P=0.003). In the AD group MMSE scores were inversely correlated with ADL scores (r=-0.617, P=0.002) and with levels of plasma HSP70 (r=-0.437, P=0.037); but HSP70 levels were positively correlated with age (r=0.616, P=0.002) and with plasma Aβ1–40 (r=0.497, P=0.016) in AD group. In the VD group levels of plasma HSP70 were positively correlated with plasma Aβ1–40 (r=0.436, P=0.048).
Our findings provide further evidence that high plasma HSP70 levels may play a role in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of AD. HSP70 levels in AD patients is inversely associated with cognitive performance and positively correlated with plasma Aβ1–40. Plasma HSP70 in VD patients is significantly elevated and positively correlated with plasma Aβ1–40.
To demonstrate whether the communication between two SD rats base on the similar genetic basis or the same living environment, who separated (including visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory and tasting inputs)from each other, occurs.
One SD rat (RECEIVER) was examined by EEG spectral analysis and ECG analysis under anesthesia while the other SD rat (SENDER) received optimal stimuli or malignant stimuli. The course was conducted in the shielded and the unshielded. Compare the EEG and ECG of RECEIVER between the stimulation state and resting state of SENDER.
This study show no significant difference in EEG (index: percentile weight and average weight of EEG on frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus of each frequency band) and ECG (index: R, PR segment, ST segment, QRS segment, QT segment) of RECEIVER during the time that the SENDER suffered from malignant stimulation, experienced optimal stimulation and of resting state.
The communication of SD rats, not through common five sense organ may not exist, even though the same genetic basis or the common living surrounding.The optimal stimuli and the malignant stimuli of SENDER cannot influence the EEG of Frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus and ECG on RECEIVER. There is no sufficient evidence for the existence of this communication of animal.
To estimate the heritability of personality of children by using a twin design method of quantitative genetic analysis. To analysis the influences of family environment on children personality.
EPQ(Eysenck Personality questionnaire) applying on twins children aged 6-16years to evaluate the children personality.
The general questionnaire, PSDQ Parenting Style and Dimension Questionnaire, FAD-GFS(The General Functioning Scale of the MacMaster Family Activity Device), SLE(stressful life events), FSQ(Family Stresses Questionnaire), FLQ(Family Life Questionnaire), EFQ(Everyday Feelings) were used to collect information about family environment from parents. Zygosity was determined by the DNA picked up from cheek mucosa of twins children. Holzinger analysis was employed to estimate the heritability of mental health.
122 pairs(244 children) of twins (103 twin pairs DNA were picked up successfully), including 54 MZ twin pairs and 49 DZ twin pairs.The heritability of personality:N(Extrovision-Introvision):0.71,P(Psychoticism):0.56,L(Lie):0.43,E(Neuroticism):0.07.
In twins family educated-year of father was significantly correlated with EPQ-E,EPQ-N(r = 0.167,0.145);educated-year of mather was significantly correlated with EPQ-N(r = -0.145);the score of FAD-GFS was significantly correlated with EPQ-E(r = - 0.235);FLQ was significantly correlated with EPQ-n(r = 0.356);the score of father authoritative parenting style was significantly correlated with EPQ-p r = -0.196 ;the score of mather authoritative parenting style was significantly correlated with EPQ-e r = 0.230. the score of family cohesion was significantly correlated with EPQ-n(r = 0.198).
Emotional problems were influenced by genetic factors most followed by inattention-hyperactivity problems and total difficulties environment factors play a main role in conduct problems and prosocial degree while peer problems were only influenced by environment factors. Each aspect of family environment, influence children personality and mental differently.
To introduce some questionnaires related to family environment such as FAD-GFS (The General Functioning Scale of the MacMaster Family Activity Device), SLE (stressful life events), FSQ (Family Stresses Questionnaire), FLQ (Family Life Questionnaire), EFQ (Everyday Feelings Questionnaire) and evaluate their validity and reliability.
Using cross-sectional design. The general questionnaire, FAD-GFS, SLE, FSQ, FLQ, EFQ were used to collect information about family environment from 504 parents of only children FACESII-CV and Index of General Affect were used as scale of criteria related.
The reliability and validity of FAD-GFS, SLE, FSQ, FLQ, EFQ is: Cronbach coefficient were 0.695 to 0.749; re-test reliability were 0.712 to 0.901; The scores of the scale in those questionnaires were correlated with each factor significantly and the coefficient of correlation is more than those between each factor of those scales. The correlation between the scores of FSQ, EFQ and the scores of Index of General Affect was-0.192, 0.539; The correlation between the scores of FAD-GFS, FLQ the score of total and three factor differently and the scores of family cohesion scores (FACESII-CV) was -0.423, 0.237, 0.514, 0.302, 0.210.
FAD-GFS, SLE, FSQ, FLQ, EFQ has good reliability and validity, in line with requirements of psychometric and is useful as a tool to evaluate the family environment.
To demonstrate whether communication phenomenon of brain electrical activity, NOT through modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory and tasting inputs,related to emotional or cognitive content, between two adults individual (named as SENDER and RECEIVER) exists.
We applying high density ERP technique, using CAPS, letter pictures, CAFPS as stimuli⌧compare the information of ERP differences on RECEIVER at the same time the SENDER perform a standard categorization task which lead to significant difference in ERP.
We found ERP of SENDER show difference significantly in the s1 (neutral pictures), s2 (extremely negative pictures) and s3 (letter pictures), simultaneously, under the different stimuli of SENDER, the ERP of RECEIVER show that there is the significant difference in late potentials between s2 and s1, between s2 and s3 which may be much wider. There is no difference between happy face⌧sad face⌧angry face pictures in ERP of RECEIVER.
This finding support the communication between brain electrical activity of two separated subjects isolated from five sensory channels may happen, it may occur at the same time or delay, Cognitive and emotional experience may arouse electrical activity of different brain region, the detail of communication tend to affective content about self-experience.
To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of PSDQ Parenting Styles And Dimensions Questionnaire, PSDQ.
443 parents whose children aged 6 to 16 who lived in Chongqing were selected. 52 of them were retested 6 weeks later in order to assess the retest reliability. Determination of reliability include:internal consistency: to calculate Cronbach coefficient; coefficient of retest reliability: to calculate Person correlation of results of the results in every subscale in twice measurements of 52 parents. Determination of validity: content validity, structural validity, discriminant validity, confirmatory factor analysis.
For each subscale and factor, the values of kappa for inter - rater reliability were 0.625 to 0.884 (p < 0. 05); retest reliability were 0.537 to 0.832 (p < 0. 05) ; The scores of the subscale in the PSDQ were correlated with each factor significantly (coefficient of correlation: 0.732 to 0.951,p < 0. 05) and the coefficient of correlation is more than those between each factor of this subscale(coefficient of correlation: 0.382-0.834,p < 0. 05). Maker of confirmatory factor analysis show met the criteria standard for adequacy of fit. CMIN/df: 2.218-3.745; TLI: 0.808-0.920; RMSEA: 0.052-0.079; MECVI of default model is very close to that of saturated model, most of proliferation index are more than 0.8.
Parenting Styles And Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) has good reliability and validity, in line with requirements of Psychometric is useful as a tool to evaluate the parenting styles from parents.
To analysis the influences of family environment on only-children personality.
Using cross-sectional design only-children aged 6–16years were recruited. using EPQ applying on children to evaluate the children personality. the general questionnaire▮ PSDQ▮FAD-GFS▮SLE▮FSQ▮FLQ▮EFQ were used to collect information about family environment from parents.
In only-child family, standardized regression equation of family environment influence on children personality and mental health:
EPQ-p = 0.087*sle+0.207*father autocratic parenting+0.131*educational of father + 0.110 *family type -0.110*role of discipline-0.080*parental attitude+0.087* family adaptability; EPQ-e=0.105*EFQ -0.088* SLE- 0.101 * family income; EPQ-n = 0.143*SLE-0.090*family cohesion+0.089* family income +0.117 *the attitude of the old-0.138*the role of child experiments of FLQ-0.101* parents shaping the behavior of children of FLQ▮EPQ - l = - 0.136* SLE - 0.093* relationship between parents -0.155*attitude of the old▮
Each aspect of family environment, influence children personality and mental differently.
Using cross-sectional design▮twins and only children aged 6–16years were recruited. Using SDQ which was examined by parents and children (> = 11) to evaluate the children mental health and using EPQ applying on children to evaluate the children personality. the general questionnaire, PSDQ▮FAD-GFS▮SLE▮FSQ▮FLQ▮EFQ were used to collect information about family environment from parents. Zygosity was determined by the DNA picked up from cheek mucosa of twins children. Holzinger analysis was employed to estimate the heritability of personality and mental health. the stastic methods include t-test, nonparametric test, pearson correlation, spearman correlation.
122 pairs(244 children) of twins and 504 only children were participated in this study. the scores of four dimension of EPQ and five factor of SDQ have significant difference(Except for inattention-hyperactivity factor) between twin child and only child, the scores of EFQ,FLQ,FACES = 2 * ROMAN II-CV, FSQ, FAD-GFS have significant difference between the twins children family and the only child family.
Except for inattention-hyperactivity problems, there is obvious different in children personality▮mental health and their family environment between twin and only-child.
To demonstrate whether communication phenomenon of brain electrical activity, NOT through conventional sense such as look⌧listen⌧touch⌧smell⌧taste⌧related to emotional or cognitive content, between two adults individual (named as SENDER and RECEIVER) exists.
Applying high density ERP technique, using CAPS⌧CAFPS as stimuli⌧compare the information of ERP differences on RECEIVER at the same time the SENDER perform a standard categorization task which lead to significant difference in ERP.
The ERP of SENDER show difference significantly in the s1 (neutral pictures), s2 (extremely negative pictures), simultaneously, under the different stimuli of SENDER, the ERP of RECEIVER show that there is the significant difference in late potentials between s2 and s1. There is no difference between happy face⌧sad face⌧angry face⌧pictures in ERP of RECEIVER.
The communication between brain electrical activity of two separated subjects isolated from five sensory channels may occur,it may occur at the same time or delay, Cognitive and emotional experience may arouse electrical activity of different brain region, the detail of communication tend to affective content about self - experience.
To estimate the heritability of mental health of children by using a twin design method of quantitative genetic analysis. To analysis the influences of family environment on children mental health.
Using cross-sectional design twins aged 6–16 years were recruited. Using SDQ(Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire)which was examined by parents (>=11)to evaluate the children mental health. The general questionnaire, FADGFS (General Functioning Scale of the MacMaster Family Activity Device), SLE (stressful life events), FSQ (Family Stresses Questionnaire), FLQ (Family Life Questionnaire), EFQ (Everyday Feelings Questionnaire) were used to collect information about family environment from parents. Zygosity was determined by the DNA picked up from cheek mucosa of twins children. Holzinger analysis was employed to estimate the heritability of mental health.
122 pairs of twins (103 pairs DNA were picked up successfully, including 54 MZ and 49 DZ twin pairs.Heritability of mental health: emot (emotion): 0.86, hyper (hyperactivity): 0.75, total: 0.61, cond (conduct): 0.4, proso (prosocial): 0.12, peer (peer): −0.97. In twins family the score of FAD-GFS was significantly correlated with proso (r = −0.200), the score of FSQ, EFQ was significantly correlated with total (r = 0.206, −0.304), FLQ(include three factor) was significantly correlated with total, proso (r = − 0.472, 0.389; r = −0.277,.247; r = −0.298,0.364), the score of father authoritative parenting style was significantly correlated with total, proso r = −0.244,0.207 the score of mather authoritative parenting style was significantly correlated with total, proso r = −0.437, 0.342. The score of family cohesion was significantly correlated with total proso (r = −0.315,0.432), the score of family adaptability was significantly correlated with total, proso r = −0.359, 0.357.
Emotional problems were influenced by genetic factors most followed by inattention-hyperactivity problems and total difficulties environment factors play a main role in conduct problems and prosocial degree while peer problems were only influenced by environment factors. Each aspect of family environment influence children mental health differently.