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TDuring COVID-19 pandemic, it was noticed that it was students who were mostly affected by the changes that aroused because of the pandemic. The interesting part is whether students’ well-being could be associated with their fields of study as well as coping strategies.
In this study, we aimed to assess 1) the mental health of students from nine countries with a particular focus on depression, anxiety, and stress levels and their fields of study, 2) the major coping strategies of students after one year of the COVID-19 pandemic.
We conducted an anonymous online cross-sectional survey on 12th April – 1st June 2021 that was distributed among the students from Poland, Mexico, Egypt, India, Pakistan, China, Vietnam, Philippines, and Bangladesh. To measure the emotional distress, we used the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), and to identify the major coping strategies of students - the Brief-COPE.
We gathered 7219 responses from students studying five major studies: medical studies (N=2821), social sciences (N=1471), technical sciences (N=891), artistic/humanistic studies (N=1094), sciences (N=942). The greatest intensity of depression (M=18.29±13.83; moderate intensity), anxiety (M=13.13±11.37; moderate intensity ), and stress (M=17.86±12.94; mild intensity) was observed among sciences students. Medical students presented the lowest intensity of all three components - depression (M=13.31±12.45; mild intensity), anxiety (M=10.37±10.57; moderate intensity), and stress (M=13.65±11.94; mild intensity). Students of all fields primarily used acceptance and self-distraction as their coping mechanisms, while the least commonly used were self-blame, denial, and substance use. The group of coping mechanisms the most frequently used was ‘emotional focus’. Medical students statistically less often used avoidant coping strategies compared to other fields of study. Substance use was only one coping mechanism that did not statistically differ between students of different fields of study. Behavioral disengagement presented the highest correlation with depression (r=0.54), anxiety (r=0.48), and stress (r=0.47) while religion presented the lowest positive correlation with depression (r=0.07), anxiety (r=0.14), and stress (r=0.11).
1) The greatest intensity of depression, anxiety, and stress was observed among sciences students, while the lowest intensity of those components was found among students studying medicine.
2) Not using avoidant coping strategies might be associated with lower intensity of all DASS components among students.
3) Behavioral disengagement might be strongly associated with greater intensity of depression, anxiety, and stress among students.
4) There was no coping mechanism that provided the alleviation of emotional distress in all the fields of studies of students.
This chapter critically examines the history of Singapore’s policing system, and argues that while Singapore may be seen as an authoritarian state, its system of policing – save for the existence of preventive detention laws – is largely democratic. During the colonial period, the police force was always short of money and policemen poorly paid, inept, and corrupt. Notwithstanding various reforms, the colonial police were unable to deal with the secret societies – the biggest threat to public order and safety – and relied on a mix of welfare, cooperation, and selective coercion. It was only after Singapore’s independence that local politicians introduced draconian preventive detention laws that succeeded in breaking the backs of the secret societies. Even so, the state did not rely only on these laws to police the population but also invested heavily in strengthening and boosting the police force, reforming it towards a more community-oriented form of policing.
There are limited longitudinal studies on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and well-being, including the effects of imposed restrictions and lockdowns.
This study investigates how living in a pandemic, and related lockdowns and restrictions, affected the mental health of people living in Australia during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.
A total of 875 people living in Australia participated in a longitudinal survey from 27 May to 14 December 2020. This time period includes dates that span pre-, during and post-wave 2 lockdowns in Australia, with strict and sustained public health measures. Linear mixed models were fitted to investigate the effect of lockdown on depression and anxiety symptoms.
Symptoms of depression and anxiety improved over time, during and after lockdowns. More adverse mental health symptoms were observed for people with a history of medical or mental health problems, caring responsibilities, more neurotic personality traits or less conscientiousness, and for people who were younger. People who reported being more conscientious reported better mental health.
Despite notoriously strict lockdowns, participants did not experience a deterioration of mental health over time. Results suggest a lack of significant adverse effects of lockdown restrictions on mental health and well-being. Findings highlight cohorts that could benefit from targeted mental health support and interventions, so that public policy can be better equipped to support them, particularly if future strict public health measures such as lockdowns are being considered or implemented for the COVID-19 pandemic and other disasters.
Racial differences in Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) outcomes have been reported. In this study, minoritized patients with CDIs had prolonged hospitalizations and increased intensive care unit admissions. Chronic kidney disease was shown to partially mediate the relationship between race or ethnicity and severe CDI. Our findings suggest potential areas for equitable interventions.
Racially and ethnically minoritized (REM) patients are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases, including candidemia. REM patients with candidemia were significantly younger, with trends toward more risk factors for candidemia and longer lengths of stay. Although Candida parapsilosis was more common in REM patients, there were no differences in mortality rates.
The unstart phenomenon of supersonic inlets caused by backpressure is dangerous for aircraft during flights because it severely reduces the air mass flow rate through the engine. We used unsteady numerical simulations to evaluate the unstart and restart characteristics of a two-dimensional supersonic inlet during rapid backpressure changes. The effects of the depressurisation time and depressurisation value on the inlet flow characteristics and restart features are discussed. The results show that the depressurisation time affects the restart procedure when the back pressure drops from the inlet unstart value to the normal working state value. When the depressurisation time decreases, it becomes easier for the inlet to restart. However, the inlet cannot restart if the depressurisation time is too long. When the depressurisation time and value were large enough, a short buzz period occurred before the inlet restarted. Both the time and value of depressurisation affected the restart characteristics.
Complications of parotidectomy can have a massive impact on patients’ quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate the readability and quality of online health information on parotidectomy.
The search terms ‘parotidectomy’, ‘parotid surgery’, ‘parotidectomy patient information’ and ‘parotid surgery patient information’ were parsed through three popular search engines.
The websites were analysed using readability scores of the Flesch Reading Ease test and the Gunning Fog Index. The DISCERN instrument was used to assess quality and reliability. The average Flesch Reading Ease score was 50.2 ± 9.0, indicating that the materials were fairly difficult to read, the Gunning Fog Index score showed that the patient health information was suitable for an individual above 12th grade level, and the DISCERN score indicated that the online patient health information had fair quality. The Kruskal–Wallis test showed a significant difference in Flesch Reading Ease and DISCERN tool scores according to website category (p < 0.05).
Current online patient health information on parotidectomy is too difficult for the public to understand, and it exceeds the reading levels recommended by Health Education England and the American Medical Association.
Access to and utilisation of antenatal care (ANC) is important for optimising health and nutrition during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess adherence to and factors associated with ANC and antenatal supplement use among Laotian women, and consider culturally appropriate strategies to increase micronutrient intakes. Mother–child (aged 21 d to <18 months) dyads (n 699) enrolled in a hospital-based prospective cohort study with the community comparison group in Luang Prabang province were interviewed about their antenatal history, supplement use, household sociodemographic and dietary practices, including postpartum food avoidances. Ninety percent of women (mean age 24⋅7 ± 6⋅3 years) reported receiving ANC during their pregnancy, with the majority reporting four to seven contacts, while 84⋅6 and 17⋅3 % reported supplement use during pregnancy and lactation, respectively. Adequate ANC contacts (≥8) and supplement use was more likely among women with complete primary education and from higher socioeconomic status households, and less likely among women belonging to ethnic minority populations and those who delivered their child at home. All women continued to consume salt while adhering to postpartum food avoidances; however, 58⋅5 and 38⋅7 % of habitual consumers restricted fish and soy sauces, respectively. Eighty-six percent of women reported they would be willing to take supplements when adhering to postpartum dietary restrictions. Overall, women's reported ANC attendance and antenatal supplement use was suboptimal. Understanding predictors of and barriers to ANC and supplement use may help implement effective public health strategies to improve adherence. Alongside targeted supplementation, salt fortification with micronutrients may be a viable population-wide intervention that needs further evaluation.
Background: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common solid malignant pediatric brain neoplasm. Group 3 (G3) MB, particularly MYC amplified G3 MB, is the most aggressive subgroup with the highest frequency of children presenting with metastatic disease, and is associated with a poor prognosis. To further our understanding of the role of MSI1 in MYC amplified G3 MB, we performed an unbiased integrative analysis of eCLIP binding sites, with changes observed at the transcriptome, the translatome, and the proteome after shMSI1 inhibition. Methods: Primary human pediatric MBs, SU_MB002 and HD-MB03 were kind gifts from Dr. Yoon-Jae Cho (Harvard, MS) and Dr. Till Milde (Heidelberg) and cultured for in vitro and in vivo experiments. eCLIP, RNA-seq, Polysome-seq, and TMT-MS were completed as previously described. Results:MSI1 is overexpressed in G3 MB. shRNA Msi1 interference resulted in a reduction in tumour burden conferring a survival advantage to mice injected with shMSI1 G3MB cells. Robust ranked multiomic analysis (RRA) identified an unconventional gene set directly perturbed by MSI1 in G3 MB. Conclusions: Our robust unbiased integrative analysis revealed a distinct role for MSI1 in the maintenance of the stem cell state in G3 MB through post-transcriptional modification of multiple pathways including identification of unconventional targets such as HIPK1.
While there has been much research on welfare exit and entry into employment, less research has looked at return to government assistance. Applying survival analysis on data from a national government assistance programme in Singapore, we found two important factors of welfare return to which activation programmes need to pay greater attention. First, return was more likely if former beneficiaries accumulated a higher number of types of arrears rather than higher dollar values of arrears. This new finding contributes to the emerging literature on bandwidth tax, and suggests the importance of designing programmes that relieve mental accounting due to debt and poverty. Second, return was more likely if respondents had an infant or toddler child. This points to the importance of a range of support policies including affordable and accessible childcare, exemption from work requirement in receipt of welfare, and family leave for low-wage workers.
This study investigated the characteristics and prognosis of the feeling of ear fullness in patients with unilateral all-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Our study included 56 patients with a diagnosis of unilateral all-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss accompanied by a feeling of ear fullness and 48 patients without a feeling of ear fullness. The condition of these patients was prospectively observed.
Positive correlations were observed between grading of feeling of ear fullness and hearing loss in patients with a feeling of ear fullness (r = 0.599, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the total effective rate of hearing recovery between patients with and without a feeling of ear fullness after one month of treatment (Z = −0.641, p = 0.521). Eighty-six per cent of patients (48 out of 56) showed complete recovery from the feeling of ear fullness. There was no correlation between feeling of ear fullness recovery and hearing recovery (r = 0.040, p = 0.769).
The prognosis of feeling of ear fullness is good. There was no correlation between feeling of ear fullness recovery and hearing recovery for all-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients.
In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
Stretcher transport isolators provide mobile, high-level biocontainment outside the hospital for patients with highly infectious diseases, such as Ebola virus disease. Air quality within this confined space may pose human health risks.
Ambient air temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration were monitored within an isolator during 2 operational exercises with healthy volunteers, including a ground transport exercise of approximately 257 miles. In addition, failure of the blower unit providing ambient air to the isolator was simulated. A simple compartmental model was developed to predict CO2 and H2O concentrations within the isolator.
In both exercises, CO2 and H2O concentrations were elevated inside the isolator, reaching steady-state values of 4434 ± 1013 ppm CO2 and 22 ± 2 mbar H2O in the first exercise and 3038 ± 269 ppm CO2 and 20 ± 1 mbar H2O in the second exercise. When blower failure was simulated, CO2 concentration exceeded 10 000 ppm within 8 minutes. A simple compartmental model predicted CO2 and H2O concentrations by accounting for human emissions and blower air exchange.
Attention to air quality within stretcher transport isolators (including adequate ventilation to prevent accumulation of CO2 and other bioeffluents) is needed to optimize patient safety.