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Psychosis in Alzheimer’s disease has an incidence of ˜ 10% per year. Recent work has focused on the presence of psychosis in people with mild cognitive impairment, as a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
To Study a case of Alzheimer’s disease presenting psychotic symptoms
Retrospective review of clinical records and complementary test, including psychiatry, electrophysiology and neurology.
A 40-year-old goes to the emergency room due to hetero-aggression at home. He says that his father steals his money and prostitues have been hired in his house. The patient is oriented, partially collaborative and approachable. Psychomotor restlessness is observed. He has self-referral delusions, auditory hallucinations and insomnia. Provisional diagnosis of acute psychotic episode made and low dose risperidone was prescribed. During his stay on the hospital Ward, sedation, recent memory alterations, spatio-temporal disorientation lack of initiative and disorganized behaviors appear. Risperidone is withdrawn and complementary test are performed. Imaging tests show temporal and frontal atrophy. Increased TAU protein and low levels of amyloid in CSF are found. Brain biopsy is +. His mother died of Alzheimer’s disease with 36 years-old and another affected brother with 42 yeras-old. The definitive diagnosis is Alzheimer’s disease and genetic studies are currently being carried out.
Alzheimer’s disease can debut with psychosis. It is important to investigate family history of patients who begin with memory loss in the context of psychosis
Bifidobacterium spp. typical of the human intestinal microbiota are believed to influence the balance of immune responses in the intestinal mucosa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different bifidobacterial species and their mixtures in in vitro experiments with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and Caco-2 cells. Bifidobacterium adolescentis, B. angulatum, B. breve, B. catenulatum, B. infantis, B. longum and two combinations of these bifidobacteria simulating the species composition found in faecal samples from breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants were used. The levels of several cytokines were measured by direct stimulation of PBMC and by stimulation of a Caco-2/PBMC co-culture with bifidobacteria. B. catenulatum and B. breve were the strongest enhancers of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by direct stimulation of PBMC. B. longum was the highest inducer of IL-10 and the lowest TNF-α stimulus. In the Caco-2/PBMC system, B. breve was the highest inducer of IL-8 production by Caco-2 cells, significantly different from B. infantis, B. adolescentis and the FF mixture (P < 0·05). IFN-γ produced by PBMC stimulated with the BF mixture (containing 22 % B. breve, compared with 7 % in the FF mixture) was significantly higher compared with B. adolescentis, B. infantis and B. longum. B. adolescentis also inhibited IFN-γ production compared with the FF mixture and B. longum. The proportion of different Bifidobacterium strains seems to be an important determinant of the cytokine balance in the simulated intestinal environment studied. B. breve and the combination of the Bifidobacterium species typically found in the microbiota of BF infants have shown the most significant effects.
The science of extra-solar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 560-plus planets being detected, and over 1200 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are?
In the past ten years, we have learned how to obtain the first spectra of exoplanets using transit transmission and emission spectroscopy. With the high stability of Spitzer, Hubble, and large ground-based telescopes the spectra of bright close-in massive planets can be obtained and species like water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and dioxide have been detected. With transit science came the first tangible remote sensing of these planetary bodies and so one can start to extrapolate from what has been learnt from Solar System probes to what one might plan to learn about their faraway siblings. As we learn more about the atmospheres, surfaces and near-surfaces of these remote bodies, we will begin to build up a clearer picture of their construction, history and suitability for life.
The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, EChO, will be the first dedicated mission to investigate the physics and chemistry of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. By characterising spectroscopically more bodies in different environments we will take detailed planetology out of the Solar System and into the Galaxy as a whole.
EChO has now been selected by the European Space Agency to be assessed as one of four M3 mission candidates.
Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in plasma at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and increased numbers of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli were detected in overweight compared with normal-weight pregnant women. E. coli numbers were higher in women with excessive weight gain than in women with normal weight gain during pregnancy, while Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia muciniphila showed an opposite trend. In the whole population, increased total bacteria and Staphylococcus numbers were related to increased plasma cholesterol levels. Increased Bacteroides numbers were related to increased HDL-cholesterol and folic acid levels, and reduced TAG levels. Increased Bifidobacterium numbers were related to increased folic acid levels. Increased Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli numbers were related to increased ferritin and reduced transferrin, while Bifidobacterium levels showed the opposite trend. Therefore, gut microbiota composition is related to body weight, weight gain and metabolic biomarkers during pregnancy, which might be of relevance to the management of the health of women and infants.