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Alterations in heart rate (HR) may provide new information about physiological signatures of depression severity. This 2-year study in individuals with a history of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) explored the intra-individual variations in HR parameters and their relationship with depression severity.
Data from 510 participants (Number of observations of the HR parameters = 6666) were collected from three centres in the Netherlands, Spain, and the UK, as a part of the remote assessment of disease and relapse-MDD study. We analysed the relationship between depression severity, assessed every 2 weeks with the Patient Health Questionnaire-8, with HR parameters in the week before the assessment, such as HR features during all day, resting periods during the day and at night, and activity periods during the day evaluated with a wrist-worn Fitbit device. Linear mixed models were used with random intercepts for participants and countries. Covariates included in the models were age, sex, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption, antidepressant use and co-morbidities with other medical health conditions.
Decreases in HR variation during resting periods during the day were related with an increased severity of depression both in univariate and multivariate analyses. Mean HR during resting at night was higher in participants with more severe depressive symptoms.
Our findings demonstrate that alterations in resting HR during all day and night are associated with depression severity. These findings may provide an early warning of worsening depression symptoms which could allow clinicians to take responsive treatment measures promptly.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is prevalent, often chronic, and requires ongoing monitoring of symptoms to track response to treatment and identify early indicators of relapse. Remote Measurement Technologies (RMT) provide an exciting opportunity to transform the measurement and management of MDD, via data collected from inbuilt smartphone sensors and wearable devices alongside app-based questionnaires and tasks.
To describe the amount of data collected during a multimodal longitudinal RMT study, in an MDD population.
RADAR-MDD is a multi-centre, prospective observational cohort study. People with a history of MDD were provided with a wrist-worn wearable, and several apps designed to: a) collect data from smartphone sensors; and b) deliver questionnaires, speech tasks and cognitive assessments and followed-up for a maximum of 2 years.
A total of 623 individuals with a history of MDD were enrolled in the study with 80% completion rates for primary outcome assessments across all timepoints. 79.8% of people participated for the maximum amount of time available and 20.2% withdrew prematurely. Data availability across all RMT data types varied depending on the source of data and the participant-burden for each data type. We found no evidence of an association between the severity of depression symptoms at baseline and the availability of data. 110 participants had > 50% data available across all data types, and thus able to contribute to multiparametric analyses.
RADAR-MDD is the largest multimodal RMT study in the field of mental health. Here, we have shown that collecting RMT data from a clinical population is feasible.
Background: Exploration of the insular cortex is now commonly considered in patients with refractory epilepsy requiring invasive EEG investigations. The safety and yield of routine insular exploration is uncertain. Methods: All patients (pediatric and adult) who had invasive EEG (iEEG) with insular depth electrode placement, either through SEEG or open implantation, were reviewed. Ictal insular involvement was characterized as primary, secondary or not involved. Results of insular resections were recorded. Results: A total of 173 patients had iEEG of which 26 included insular electrodes (SEEG-18, Open - 8). No complications of placement were identified. Insular involvement was seen in 20 (76%) patients. Primary ictal involvement was identified in 9 (33 %) patients, while secondary spread was noted in 11 (42 %) patients. Six patients went on to have resections including the insular cortex of which 5 patients achieved good seizure control (Engle class I/II). Conclusions: Insular depth electrode placement is a safe and effective adjunct to invasive EEG investigations. Ictal involvement of the insular cortex was commonly identified in our series leading to inclusion of the insula in cortical resections with good seizure control, which may not have been considered without iEEG evidence.
In search of a suitable resource conservation technology under pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, the effects of conservation agriculture (CA) on crop productivity and water-use efficiency (WUE) were evaluated during a 3-year study. The treatments were: conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (ZT) with planting on permanent narrow beds (PNB), PNB with residue (PNB + R), ZT with planting on permanent broad beds (PBB) and PBB + R. The PBB + R plots had higher pigeonpea grain yield than the CT plots in all 3 years. However, wheat grain yields under all plots were similar in all years except for PBB + R plots in the second year, which had higher wheat yield than CT plots. The contrast analysis showed that pigeonpea grain yield of CA plots was significantly higher than CT plots in the first year. However, both pigeonpea and wheat grain yields during the last 2 years under CA and CT plots were similar. The PBB + R plots had higher system WUE than the CT plots in the second and third years. Plots under CA had significantly higher WUE and significantly lower water use than CT plots in these years. The PBB + R plots had higher WUE than PNB + R and PNB plots. Also, the PBB plots had higher WUE than PNB in the second and third years, despite similar water use. The interactions of bed width and residue management for all parameters in the second and third years were not significant. Those positive impacts under PBB + R plots over CT plots were perceived to be due to no tillage and significantly higher amount of estimated residue retention. Thus, both PBB and PBB + R technologies would be very useful under a pigeonpea–wheat cropping system in this region.
Cassava germplasm collection is important for the preservation of genetic variability, allowing the development of improved cultivars with desirable traits such as drought and disease tolerance, better starch quality and yield. Therefore, the assessment of diversity in cassava germplasm maintained by farmers is important for maintaining biodiversity and crop improvement. Herein, we report genetic diversity relationships of 52 farmer-preferred cassava landraces from the eastern zone of Tanzania based on morphological descriptors and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Cluster analysis was performed for both morphological traits (genetic distance 1.18–0.15) and SNPs (genetic distance 0.078–0.002). The analysis revealed that there were a total of 17,393 variant positions, and that several of the SNPs were distributed across all the chromosomes. The abundance of SNP varied remarkably among the 18 cassava chromosomes, with chromosome 2 having the highest number of SNPs (1335) and chromosome 18 having the lowest number of SNPs (734). The power of SNPs in distinguishing morphologically similar landraces was shown. Both analyses did not group landraces according to geographical locations, suggesting that farmers were moving cassava germplasm to different areas. Their diversity was mainly due to adaptation and preferential selection by farmers. This further implied that within a geographical location, the cultivars were more diverse and there was no misnaming of cassava cultivars by farmers. The collection revealed a wide range of genetic diversity, and represented a valuable resource for trait improvement, allowing the capture of farmer-preferred traits in future cassava breeding programmes.