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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by both clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits. Prior studies have typically examined either symptoms or cognition correlated with brain measures, thus causing a notable paucity of stable brain markers that capture the full characteristics of MDD. Brain controllability derived from newly proposed brain model integrating both metabolism (energy cost) and dynamics from a control perspective has been considered as a sensitive biomarker for characterizing brain function. Thus, identifying such a biomarker of controllability related to both symptoms and cognition may provide a promising state monitor of MDD.
To assess the associations between two multi-dimensional clinical (symptoms and cognition) and brain controllability data of MDD in an integrative model.
Sparse canonical correlation analysis (sCCA) was used to investigate the association between brain controllability at a network level and both clinical symptoms and cognition in 99 first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD. The potential mediation effect of cognition on relationship between controllability and symptoms was also tested.
Average controllability was significantly correlated with both symptoms and cognition (rmean=0.54, PBonferroni=0.03). Average controllability of dorsal attention network (DAN) (r=0.46) and visual network (r=0.29) had the highest correlation with both symptoms and cognition. Among clinical variables, depressed mood (r=-0.23) , suicide(r=-0.25), work and activities(r=-0.27), gastrointestinal symptoms (r=-0.25) were significantly negatively associated with average controllability, while cognitive flexibility (r=0.29) was most strongly positively correlated with average controllability. Additionally, cognitive flexibility fully mediated the association between average controllability of DAN and depressed mood (indirect effect=-0.11, 95% CI [-0.18, -0.04], P=0.001) in MDD.
Brain average controllability was correlated with both clinical symptoms and cognition in first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD. The results suggest that average controllability of DAN and visual network reached high associations with clinical variates in MDD, thus these brain features may serve as stable biomarkers to control the brain functional states transitions to be relevant to cognitions deficits and clinical symptoms of MDD. Additionally, altered average controllability of DAN in patients could induce impairment of cognitive flexibility, and thus cause severe depressed mood, indicating that controllability of DAN may be a potential intervention target for alleviating depressed mood through improving cognitive flexibility in MDD.
The target backsheath field acceleration mechanism is one of the main mechanisms of laser-driven proton acceleration (LDPA) and strongly depends on the comprehensive performance of the ultrashort ultra-intense lasers used as the driving sources. The successful use of the SG-II Peta-watt (SG-II PW) laser facility for LDPA and its applications in radiographic diagnoses have been manifested by the good performance of the SG-II PW facility. Recently, the SG-II PW laser facility has undergone extensive maintenance and a comprehensive technical upgrade in terms of the seed source, laser contrast and terminal focus. LDPA experiments were performed using the maintained SG-II PW laser beam, and the highest cutoff energy of the proton beam was obviously increased. Accordingly, a double-film target structure was used, and the maximum cutoff energy of the proton beam was up to 70 MeV. These results demonstrate that the comprehensive performance of the SG-II PW laser facility was improved significantly.
This study aimed to compare the pre- and post-operative vestibular and equilibrium functions of patients with cholesteatoma-induced labyrinthine fistulas who underwent different management methods.
Data from 49 patients with cholesteatoma-induced labyrinthine fistulas who underwent one of three surgical procedures were retrospectively analysed. The three management options were fistula repair, obliteration and canal occlusion.
Patients underwent fistula repair (n = 8), canal occlusion (n = 18) or obliteration procedures (n = 23). Patients in the fistula repair and canal occlusion groups suffered from post-operative vertigo and imbalance, which persisted for longer than in those in the obliteration group. Despite receiving different management strategies, all patients achieved complete recovery of equilibrium functions through persistent efforts in rehabilitation exercises.
Complete removal of the cholesteatoma matrix overlying the fistula is reliable for preventing iatrogenic hearing deterioration due to unremitting labyrinthitis. Thus, among the three fistula treatments, obliteration is the optimal method for preserving post-operative vestibular functions.
Limited studies provide direct evidence of Clonorchis sinensis adults in the early stage of gallbladder stone formation. Our current research systematically studied 33 gallbladder stones resembling adult worms and shed light on the definite connection of C. sinensis infection with concomitant cholelithiasis. A total of 33 gallbladder stones resembling adult C. sinensis worms were systematically analysed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy spectrometry were used to analyse the composition and microstructure. Meanwhile, a histopathological examination of the stone was carried out. The 33 gallbladder stones resembling adult C. sinensis worms included nine calcium carbonate (CaCO3) stones, 12 bilirubinate stones and 12 mixed stones. Clonorchis sinensis eggs were found in 30 cases, including all CaCO3 and mixed stones. Parasite tissues were detected in 12 cases, which were mainly CaCO3 stones or bilirubinate–CaCO3 mixed stones. The outer layer of stones was wrapped with 12.88% calcium salt, as revealed by X-ray energy spectrometry, while surprisingly, many C. sinensis eggs were found in the inner part of these stones. Based on our current findings, we concluded that calcification and packaging occurred after C. sinensis adult entrance into the gallbladder, subsequently leading to the early formation of CaCO3 or bilirubinate–CaCO3 mixed gallbladder stones. This discovery highlights definite evidence for C. sinensis infection causing gallbladder stones.
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm coverage is one of the key technologies for multi-UAV cooperation, which plays an important role in collaborative investigation, detection, rescue and other applications. Aiming at the coverage optimisation problem of UAV in the target area, a collaborative visual coverage control method under positioning uncertainty is presented. First, the visual perception area with imprecise localisation, UAV model and sensor model are created based on the given task environment. Second, a regional division algorithm for the target task area is designed based on the principle of Guaranteed Voronoi (GV) diagram. Then a visual area coverage planning algorithm is designed, in which the task area is allocated to the UAV according to the corresponding weight coefficient of each area, and the input control law is adjusted by the expected state information of the UAV, so that the optimal coverage quality target value and the maximum coverage of the target area can be achieved. Finally, three task scenarios for regional division and coverage planning are simulated respectively, the results show that the proposed area coverage planning algorithm can realise the optimal regional distribution and can obtain more than 90% coverage in different scenarios.
Apart from the psychiatric symptoms, cognitive deficits are also the core symptoms of schizophrenia. Brain network control theory provided information on the role of a specific brain region in the cognitive control process, helping understand the neural mechanism of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
To characterize the control properties of functional brain network in first-episode untreated patients with schizophrenia and the relationships between controllability and psychiatric symptoms, as well as exploring the predictive value of controllability in differentiating patients from healthy controls (HCs).
Average and modal controllability of brain networks were calculated and compared between 133 first-episode untreated patients with schizophrenia and 135 HCs. The associations between controllability and clinical symptoms were evaluated using sparse canonical correlation analysis. Support vector machine (SVM) and SVM-recursive feature elimination combined with the controllability were performed to establish the individual prediction model.
Compared to HCs, the patients with schizophrenia showed increased average controllability and decreased modal controllability in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Brain controllability predominantly in somatomotor, default mode, and visual networks was associated with the positive symptomatology of schizophrenia. The established model could identify patients with an accuracy of 0.68. Furthermore, the most discriminative features were located in dACC, medial prefrontal lobe, precuneus and superior temporal gyrus.
Altered controllability in dACC may play a critical role in the neuropathological mechanisms of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia, which could drive the brain function to different states to cope with varied cognitive tasks. As symptom-related biomarkers, controllability could be also beneficial to individual prediction in schizophrenia.
There is a growing consensus on brain networks that it is not immutable but rather a dynamic complex system for adapting environment. The neuroimaging research studying how brain regions work collaboratively with dynamic methods had demonstrated its effectiveness in revealing the neural mechanisms of schizophrenia.
To investigate altered dynamic brain functional topology in first-episode untreated schizophrenia patients (SZs) and establish classification models to find objective brain imaging biomarkers.
Resting-state-functional magnetic resonance data for SZs and matched healthy controls were obtained(Table1).
Power-264-template was used to extract nodes and sliding-window approach was carried out to establish functional connectivity matrices. Functional topology was assessed by eigenvector centrality(EC) and node efficiency and its time-fluctuating was evaluated with coefficient of variation(CV). Group differences of dynamic topology and correlation analysis between Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS) scores and topology indices showing group differences, which also were used in establishing classification models, was examed.
The CV of node efficiency in angular and paracingulate gyrus was larger in SZs. There are 13 nodes assigned into several brain networks displaying altered CV of EC between groups(Figure1.A). Fluctuation of EC of the node in DMN, which was lower in SZs, showed negative correlation with PANSS total scores(Figure1.B). Dynamic functional topology of above nodes was used to train classification models and demonstrated 80% and 71% accuracy for support vector classification(SVC) and random forest(RF), respectively(Figure2).
Dynamic functional topology illustrated a capability in identifying SZs. Aberrated dynamics of DMN relevant to severity of patient’s symptoms could reveal the reason why it contributed to classification.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
We report the experimental results of the commissioning phase in the 10 PW laser beamline of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF). The peak power reaches 2.4 PW on target without the last amplifying during the experiment. The laser energy of 72 ± 9 J is directed to a focal spot of approximately 6 μm diameter (full width at half maximum) in 30 fs pulse duration, yielding a focused peak intensity around 2.0 × 1021 W/cm2. The first laser-proton acceleration experiment is performed using plain copper and plastic targets. High-energy proton beams with maximum cut-off energy up to 62.5 MeV are achieved using copper foils at the optimum target thickness of 4 μm via target normal sheath acceleration. For plastic targets of tens of nanometers thick, the proton cut-off energy is approximately 20 MeV, showing ring-like or filamented density distributions. These experimental results reflect the capabilities of the SULF-10 PW beamline, for example, both ultrahigh intensity and relatively good beam contrast. Further optimization for these key parameters is underway, where peak laser intensities of 1022–1023 W/cm2 are anticipated to support various experiments on extreme field physics.
This paper concentrates on the trajectory tracking problem for a stratospheric airship subject to underactuated dynamics, unmeasured velocities, modeling inaccuracies and environmental disturbances. First, a coordinate transformation is performed to solve the underactuated issue, which simultaneously permits a priori assignment of the tracking accuracy. Second, a finite-time observer is integrated into the control structure to offer the exact information of unmeasured velocities and uncertainties in an integral manner. Then, by combining the backstepping technique with the method of adding a power integrator, a new output-feedback control strategy is derived with several salient contributions: (1) the airship’s position errors fall into a predetermined residual region near zero within a finite settling time and stay there, while all the closed-loop signals maintain bounded during operation; and (2) no artificial neural networks and filters are adopted, resulting in a low-complexity control property. Furthermore, the presented method can be extended readily to a broad range of second-order mechanical systems as its design builds upon a transformed system model. Rigorous mathematical analysis and simulations demonstrate the above theoretical findings.
The incidence of scarlet fever has increased dramatically in recent years in Chongqing, China, but there has no effective method to forecast it. This study aimed to develop a forecasting model of the incidence of scarlet fever using a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Monthly scarlet fever data between 2011 and 2019 in Chongqing, China were retrieved from the Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System. From 2011 to 2019, a total of 5073 scarlet fever cases were reported in Chongqing, the male-to-female ratio was 1.44:1, children aged 3–9 years old accounted for 81.86% of the cases, while 42.70 and 42.58% of the reported cases were students and kindergarten children, respectively. The data from 2011 to 2018 were used to fit a SARIMA model and data in 2019 were used to validate the model. The normalised Bayesian information criterion (BIC), the coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the fitted model. The optimal SARIMA model was identified as (3, 1, 3) (3, 1, 0)12. The RMSE and mean absolute per cent error (MAPE) were used to assess the accuracy of the model. The RMSE and MAPE of the predicted values were 19.40 and 0.25 respectively, indicating that the predicted values matched the observed values reasonably well. Taken together, the SARIMA model could be employed to forecast scarlet fever incidence trend, providing support for scarlet fever control and prevention.
Frequent freezing injury greatly influences winter wheat production; thus, effective prevention and a command of agricultural production are vital. The freezing injury monitoring method integrated with ‘3S’ (geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning system (GPS) and remote sensing (RS)) technology has an unparalleled advantage. Using HuanJing (HJ)-1A/1B satellite images of a winter wheat field in Shanxi Province, China plus a field survey, crop types and winter wheat planting area were identified through repeated visual interpretations of image information and spatial analyses conducted in GIS. Six vegetation indices were extracted from processed HJ-1A/1B satellite images to determine whether the winter wheat suffered from freezing injury and its degree of severity and recovery, using change vector analysis (CVA), the freeze injury representative vegetation index and the combination of the two methods, respectively. Accuracy of the freezing damage classification results was verified by determining the impact of freezing damage on yield and quantitative analysis. The CVA and the change of normalized difference vegetation index (ΔNDVI) monitoring results were different so a comprehensive analysis of the combination of CVA and ΔNDVI was performed. The area with serious freezing injury covered 0.9% of the total study area, followed by the area of no freezing injury (3.5%), moderate freezing injury (10.2%) and light freezing injury (85.4%). Of the moderate and serious freezing injury areas, 0.2% did not recover; 1.2% of the no freezing injury and light freezing injury areas showed optimal recovery, 15.6% of the light freezing injury and moderate freezing injury areas showed poor recovery, and the remaining areas exhibited general recovery.
To identify the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement.
Twenty-eight patients with relapsing polychondritis, hospitalised in the First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University between April 2011 and April 2021, were retrospectively analysed.
Fifty per cent of relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement had a lower risk of ear and ocular involvement. Relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement had a longer time-to-diagnosis (p < 0.001), a poorer outcome following glucocorticoid combined with immunosuppressant treatment (p = 0.004), and a higher recurrence rate than those without airway involvement (p = 0.004). The rates of positive findings on chest computed tomography and bronchoscopy in relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement were 88.9 per cent and 85.7 per cent, respectively. Laryngoscopy analysis showed that 66.7 per cent of relapsing polychondritis patients had varying degrees of mucosal lesions.
For relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement, drug treatment should be combined with local airway management.
The epidemic of tuberculosis has posed a serious burden in Qinghai province, it is necessary to clarify the epidemiological characteristics and spatial-temporal distribution of TB for future prevention and control measures. We used descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial statistical analysis including spatial correlation and spatial-temporal analysis in this study. Furthermore, we applied an exponential smoothing model for TB epidemiological trend forecasting. Of 43 859 TB cases, the sex ratio was 1.27:1 (M:F), and the average annual TB registered incidence was 70.00/100 000 of 2009–2019. More cases were reported in March and April, and the worst TB stricken regions were the prefectures of Golog and Yushu. High TB registered incidences were seen in males, farmers and herdsmen, Tibetans, or elderly people. 7132 cases were intractable, which were recurrent, drug resistant, or co-infected with other infections. Three likely cases clusters with significant high risk were found by spatial-temporal scan on data of 2009–2019. The exponential smoothing winters' additive model was selected as the best-fitting model to forecast monthly TB cases in the future. This research indicated that TB in Qinghai is still a serious threaten to the local residents' health. Multi-departmental collaboration and funds special for TB treatments and control are still needed, and the exponential smoothing model is promising which could be applied for forecasting of TB epidemic trend in this high-altitude province.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an unprecedented threat to mental health. Herein, we assessed the impact of COVID-19 on subthreshold depressive symptoms and identified potential mitigating factors.
Participants were from Depression Cohort in China (ChiCTR registry number 1900022145). Adults (n = 1722) with subthreshold depressive symptoms were enrolled between March and October 2019 in a 6-month, community-based interventional study that aimed to prevent clinical depression using psychoeducation. A total of 1506 participants completed the study in Shenzhen, China: 726 participants, who completed the study between March 2019 and January 2020 (i.e. before COVID-19), comprised the ‘wave 1’ group; 780 participants, who were enrolled before COVID-19 and completed the 6-month endpoint assessment during COVID-19, comprised ‘wave 2’. Symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia were assessed at baseline and endpoint (i.e. 6-month follow-up) using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), respectively. Measures of resilience and regular exercise were assessed at baseline. We compared the mental health outcomes between wave 1 and wave 2 groups. We additionally investigated how mental health outcomes changed across disparate stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, i.e. peak (7–13 February), post-peak (14–27 February), remission plateau (28 February−present).
COVID-19 increased the risk for three mental outcomes: (1) depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.62); (2) anxiety (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16–1.88) and (3) insomnia (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07–1.77). The highest proportion of probable depression and anxiety was observed post-peak, with 52.9% and 41.4%, respectively. Greater baseline resilience scores had a protective effect on the three main outcomes (depression: OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.19–0.37; anxiety: OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.14–0.33 and insomnia: OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.11–0.28). Furthermore, regular physical activity mitigated the risk for depression (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.79–0.99).
The COVID-19 pandemic exerted a highly significant and negative impact on symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia. Mental health outcomes fluctuated as a function of the duration of the pandemic and were alleviated to some extent with the observed decline in community-based transmission. Augmenting resiliency and regular exercise provide an opportunity to mitigate the risk for mental health symptoms during this severe public health crisis.
To investigate the influences of dietary riboflavin (RF) addition on nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation, eight rumen cannulated Holstein bulls were randomly allocated into four treatments in a repeated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Daily addition level of RF for each bull in control, low RF, medium RF and high RF was 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg, respectively. Increasing the addition level of RF, DM intake was not affected, average daily gain tended to be increased linearly and feed conversion ratio decreased linearly. Total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein (CP) and neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) increased linearly. Rumen pH decreased quadratically, and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased quadratically. Acetate molar percentage and acetate:propionate ratio increased linearly, but propionate molar percentage and ammonia-N content decreased linearly. Rumen effective degradability of DM increased linearly, NDF increased quadratically but CP was unaltered. Activity of cellulase and populations of total bacteria, protozoa, fungi, dominant cellulolytic bacteria, Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus increased linearly. Linear increase was observed for urinary total purine derivatives excretion. The data suggested that dietary RF addition was essential for rumen microbial growth, and no further increase in performance and rumen total VFA concentration was observed when increasing RF level from 600 to 900 mg/d in dairy bulls.
The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and distribution of gene mutations that are related to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF)-resistance in the strains of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in Beijing, China. In this retrospective study, the genotypes of 173 MDR-TB strains were analysed by spoligotyping. The katG, inhA genes and the promoter region of inhA, in which genetic mutations confer INH resistance; and the rpoB gene, in which genetic mutations confer RIF resistance, were sequenced. The percentage of resistance-associated nucleotide alterations among the strains of different genotypes was also analysed. In total, 90.8% (157/173) of the MDR strains belonged to the Beijing genotype. Population characteristics were not significantly different among the strains of different genotypes. In total, 50.3% (87/173) strains had mutations at codon S315T of katG; 16.8% (29/173) of strains had mutations in the inhA promoter region; of them, 5.5% (15/173) had point mutations at −15 base (C→T) of the inhA promoter region. In total, 86.7% (150/173) strains had mutations at rpoB gene; of them, 40% (69/173) strains had mutations at codon S531L of rpoB. The frequency of mutations was not significantly higher in Beijing genotypic MDR strains than in non-Beijing genotypes. Beijing genotypic MDR-TB strains were spreading in Beijing and present a major challenge to TB control in this region. A high prevalence of katG Ser315Thr, inhA promoter region (−15C→T) and rpoB (S531L) mutations was observed. Molecular diagnostics based on gene mutations was a useful method for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Beijing, China.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major public health concern all over the world. Little is known about the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population. This study aimed to assess the mental health problems and associated factors among a large sample of college students during the COVID-19 outbreak in China.
This cross-sectional and nation-wide survey of college students was conducted in China from 3 to 10 February 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess psychosocial factors, COVID-19 epidemic related factors and mental health problems. Acute stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by the Chinese versions of the impact of event scale-6, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, respectively. Univariate and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed to examine factors associated with mental health problems.
Among 821 218 students who participated in the survey, 746 217 (90.9%) were included for the analysis. In total, 414 604 (55.6%) of the students were female. About 45% of the participants had mental health problems. The prevalence rates of probable acute stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms were 34.9%, 21.1% and 11.0%, respectively. COVID-19 epidemic factors that were associated with increased risk of mental health problems were having relatives or friends being infected (adjusted odds ratio = 1.72–2.33). Students with exposure to media coverage of the COVID-19 ≥3 h/day were 2.13 times more likely than students with media exposure <1 h/day to have acute stress symptoms. Individuals with low perceived social support were 4.84–5.98 times more likely than individuals with high perceived social support to have anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, senior year and prior mental health problems were also significantly associated with anxiety or/and depressive symptoms.
In this large-scale survey of college students in China, acute stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multiple epidemic and psychosocial factors, such as family members being infected, massive media exposure, low social support, senior year and prior mental health problems were associated with increased risk of mental health problems. Psychosocial support and mental health services should be provided to those students at risk.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
To evaluate the impacts of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and coated folic acid (CFA) on growth performance, nutrient digestion and hepatic gene expression, fifty-two Angus bulls were assigned to four groups in a 2 × 2 factor experimental design. The CFA of 0 or 6 mg/kg dietary DM folic acid was supplemented in diets with GAA of 0 (GAA−) or 0·6 g/kg DM (GAA+), respectively. Average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency and hepatic creatine concentration increased with GAA or CFA addition, and the increased magnitude of these parameters was greater for addition of CFA in GAA− diets than in GAA+ diets. Blood creatine concentration increased with GAA or CFA addition, and greater increase was observed when CFA was supplemented in GAA+ diets than in GAA− diets. DM intake was unchanged, but rumen total SCFA concentration and digestibilities of DM, crude protein, neutral-detergent fibre and acid-detergent fibre increased with the addition of GAA or CFA. Acetate:propionate ratio was unaffected by GAA, but increased for CFA addition. Increase in blood concentrations of albumin, total protein and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was observed for GAA or CFA addition. Blood folate concentration was decreased by GAA, but increased with CFA addition. Hepatic expressions of IGF-1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase B, mammalian target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinase increased with GAA or CFA addition. Results indicated that the combined supplementation of GAA and CFA could not cause ADG increase more when compared with GAA or CFA addition alone.