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In this study, an active defence cooperative guidance (ADCG) law that enables cheap and low-speed airborne defence missiles with low manoeuverability to accurately intercept fast and expensive attack missiles with high manoeuverability was designed to enhance the capability of aircraft for active defence. This guidance law relies on the line-of-sight (LOS) guidance method, and it realises active defence by adjusting the geometric LOS relationship involving an attack missile, a defence missile and an aircraft. We use a nonlinear integral sliding surface and an improved second-order sliding mode reaching law to design the guidance law. This can not only reduce the chattering phenomenon in the guidance command, but it can also ensure that the system can reach the sliding surface from any initial position in a finite time. Simulations were carried out to verify the proposed law using four cases: different manoeuvering modes of the aircraft, different speed ratios of the attack and defence missiles, different reaching laws applied to the ADCG law and a robustness analysis. The results show that the proposed guidance law can enable a defence missile to intercept an attack missile by simultaneously using information about the relative motions of the attack missile and the aircraft. It is also highly robust in the presence of errors and noise.
Background: This is a population-based retrospective study of cardiac and neurological complications of COVID-19 among Ontario Chinese and South Asians. Methods: From January 1, 2020 to September 30, 2020 using the last name algorithm to identify Ontario Chinese and South Asians who were tested positive by PCR for COVID-19, their demographics, cardiac, and neurological complications including hospitalization and emergency visit rates were analyzed compared to the general population. Results: Chinese (N = 1,186) with COVID-19 were found to be older (mean age 50.7 years) compared to the general population (N = 42,547) (mean age 47.6 years) (p < 0.001), while South Asians (N = 3,459) were younger (age of 42.1 years) (p < 0.001). For neurological complications, the 30-day crude rate for Chinese was 160/10,000 (p < 0.001); South Asians was 40/10,000 (p = 0.526), and general population was 48/10,000. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was significantly higher for Chinese at 8.1% vs 5.0% for the general population (p < 0.001), while it was lower in South Asians at 2.1% (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Chinese and South Asians in Ontario with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic were found to have a significant difference in their demographics, cardiac, and neurological outcomes.
Background: Chordomas are rare malignant skull-base/spine cancers with devastating neurological morbidities and mortality. Unfortunately, no reliable prognostic factors exist to guide treatment decisions. This work identifies DNA methylation-based prognostic chordoma subtypes that are detectable non-invasively in plasma. Methods: Sixty-eight tissue samples underwent DNA methylation profiling and plasma methylomes were obtained for available paired samples. Immunohistochemical staining and publicly available methylation and gene expression data were utilized for validation. Results: Unsupervised clustering identified two prognostic tissue clusters (log-rank p=0.0062) predicting disease-specific survival independent of clinical factors (Multivariable Cox: HR=16.5, 95%CI: 2.8-96, p=0.0018). The poorer-performing cluster showed immune-related pathway promoter hypermethylation and higher immune cell abundance within tumours, which was validated with external RNA-seq data and immunohistochemical staining. The better-performing cluster showed higher tumour cellularity. Similar clusters were seen in external DNA methylation data. Plasma methylome-based models distinguished chordomas from differential diagnoses in independent testing sets (AUROC=0.84, 95%CI: 0.52-1.00). Plasma methylomes were highly correlated with tissue-based signals for both clusters (r=0.69 & 0.67) and leave-one-out models identified the correct cluster in all plasma cases. Conclusions: Prognostic molecular chordoma subgroups are for the first time identified, characterized, and validated. Plasma methylomes can detect and subtype chordomas which may transform chordoma treatment with personalized approaches tailored to prognosis.
In this paper, to address the cooperative localisation of a heterogeneous UAV swarm in the GNSS-denied environment, an adaptive simulated annealing-particle swarm optimisation (SA-PSO) cooperative localisation algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the forming principle of the communication and measurement framework is investigated in light of a heterogeneous UAV swarm composition. Secondly, a reasonably cooperative localisation function is established based on the proposed forming principle, which can minimise the relative localisation error with limited available information. Then, an adaptive weight principle is incorporated into the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) for better performance. Furthermore, in order to overcome the drawbacks of PSO algorithm easily falling into the local extreme point, an adaptive SA-PSO algorithm is improved to promote the convergence speed of cooperative localisation. Finally, comparative simulations are performed among the adaptive SA-PSO, adaptive PSO, and PSO algorithms to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed adaptive SA-PSO algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance in convergence speed, and the cooperative localisation precision can be guaranteed.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Wild-type transthyretin amyloid (ATTRwt) deposits have been found to deposit in the ligamentum flavum (LF) of spinal stenosis patients prior to systemic and cardiac amyloidosis, and is implicated in LF hypertrophy. Currently, no precise method of quantifying amyloid deposits exists. Here, we present our machine learning quantification method. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Images of ligamentum flavum specimens stained with Congo red are obtained from spinal stenosis patients undergoing laminectomies and confirmed to be positive for ATTRwt. Amyloid deposits in these specimens are classified and quantified by TWS through training the algorithm via user-directed annotations on images of LF. TWS can also be automated through exposure to a set of training images with user- directed annotations, and then application to a set of new images without additional annotations. Additional methods of color thresholding and manual segmentation are also used on these images for comparison to TWS. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We develop the use of TWS in images of LF and demonstrate its potential for automated quantification. TWS is strongly correlated with manual segmentation in the training set of images with user-directed annotations (R = 0.98; p = 0.0033) as well as in the application set of images where TWS was automated (R = 0.94; p = 0.016). Color thresholding was weakly correlated with manual segmentation in the training set of images (R = 0.78; p = 0.12) and in the application set of images (R = 0.65; p = 0.23). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our machine learning method correlates with the gold standard comparator of manual segmentation and outperforms color thresholding. This novel machine learning quantification method is a precise, objective, accessible, high throughput, and powerful tool that will hopefully pave the way towards future research and clinical applications.
Variable camber flap technology can adjust the spanwise circulation distribution, thereby reducing the induced drag. Therefore, the concept of variable camber flap is introduced into the design of propeller aircraft wing, and the design for drag reduction of propeller aircraft is carried out. The numerical simulation of the propeller aircraft is carried out by using the actuator disc method with non-uniform distribution of radial and circumferential loads. Through the unsteady simulation of a single propeller, the aerodynamic load on a periodic propeller is extracted as a boundary condition to the steady simulation of the full aircraft. The load extracted by the actuator disc is compared with the unsteady simulation result, which verifies the reliability of the method. The design for drag reduction at cruise and climb design conditions are respectively carried out with the variable camber flap technology. The variable camber cruise configuration is evaluated at both the begin and end cruise conditions. The results show that, after the flaps deflecting at a small angle according to the circulation distribution, the camber distribution of the wing is adjusted to make the circulation distribution closer to the elliptical circulation distribution. At the design cruise condition, the drag coefficient is reduced by 1.4 counts, and the lift-drag ratio increase by 0.1. At both begin and end cruise conditions, the drag coefficient decreases by 1 count, and the lift-drag ratio increases by 0.07. At the design climb condition, the drag coefficient decreases by 1 count, and the lift-to-drag ratio increases by 0.09.
A shock-induced separation loss reduction method, using local blade suction surface shape modification (smooth ramp structure) with constant adverse pressure gradient with the consideration of radial equilibrium effect to split a single shock foot into multiple weaker shock wave configuration, is investigated on the NASA Rotor 37 for promoting aerodynamic performance of a transonic compressor rotor. Numerical investigation on baseline blade and improved one with blade modification on suction side has been conducted employing the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes method to reveal flow physics of ramp structure. The results indicate that the passage shock foot of baseline is replaced with a family of compression waves and a weaker shock foot generating moderate adverse pressure gradient on ramp profile, which is beneficial for mitigating the shock foot and shrinking flow separation region as well. In addition, the radial secondary flow of low-momentum fluids within boundary layer is decreased significantly in the region of passage shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction on blade suction side, which mitigates the mass flow and mixing intensity of tip leakage flow. With the reduction of flow separation loss induced by passage shock, the adiabatic efficiency and total pressure ratio of improved rotor are superior to baseline model. This study herein implies a potential application of ramp profile in design method of transonic and supersonic compressors.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has high morbidity and mortality in older adults and people with dementia. Infection control and prevention measures potentially reduce transmission within hospitals.
We aimed to replicate our earlier study of London mental health in-patients to examine changes in clinical guidance and practice and associated COVID-19 prevalence and outcomes between COVID-19 waves 1 and 2 (1 March to 30 April 2020 and 14 December 2020 to 15 February 2021).
We collected the 2 month period prevalence of wave 2 of COVID-19 in older (≥65 years) in-patients and those with dementia, as well as patients’ characteristics, management and outcomes, including vaccinations. We compared these results with those of our wave 1 study.
Sites reported that routine testing and personal protective equipment were available, and routine patient isolation on admission occurred throughout wave 2. COVID-19 infection occurred in 91/358 (25%; 95% CI 21–30%) v. 131/344, (38%; 95% CI 33–43%) P < 0.001 in wave 1. Hospitals identified more asymptomatic carriers (26/91; 29% v. 16/130; 12%) and fewer deaths (12/91; 13% v. 19/131; 15%; odds ratio = 0.92; 0.37–1.81) compared with wave 1. The patient vaccination uptake rate was 49/58 (85%).
Patients in psychiatric in-patient settings, mostly admitted without known SARS-CoV-2 infection, had a high risk of infection compared with people in the community but lower than that during wave 1. Availability of infection control measures in line with a policy of parity of esteem between mental and physical health appears to have lowered within-hospital COVID-19 infections and deaths. Cautious management of vulnerable patient groups including mental health patients may reduce the future impact of COVID-19.
The spatio-temporal variation of leaf chlorophyll content is an important crop phenotypic trait that is of great significance for evaluating crop productivity. This study used a soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) chlorophyll meter for non-destructive monitoring of leaf chlorophyll dynamics to characterize the patterns of spatio-temporal variation in the nutritional status of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves under three nitrogen treatments in two cultivars. The results showed that nitrogen levels could affect the maximum leaf SPAD reading (SPADmax) and the duration of high SPAD reading. A rational model was used to measure the changes in SPAD readings over time in single leaves. This model was suitable for predicting the dynamics of the nutrient status for each leaf position under different nitrogen treatments, and model parameter values were position dependent. SPADmax at each leaf decreased with the reduction of nitrogen supply. Leaves at different positions in both cultivars responded differently to higher nitrogen rates. Lower leaves (8th–10th positions) were more sensitive than the other leaves in response to nitrogen. Monitoring the SPAD reading dynamic of lower leaves could accurately characterize and assess the nitrogen supply in plants. The lower leaves in nitrogen-deficient plants had a shorter duration of high SPAD readings compared to nitrogen-sufficient plants; this physiological mechanism should be studied further. In summary, the spatio-temporal variation of plant nitrogen status in maize was analysed to determine critical leaf positions for potentially assisting in the identification of appropriate agronomic management practices, such as the adjustment of nitrogen rates in late fertilization.
Weapon target allocation (WTA) is an effective method to solve the battlefield fire optimisation problem, which plays an important role in intelligent automated decision-making. We researched the multitarget allocation problem to maximise the attack effectiveness when multiple interceptors cooperatively attack multiple ground targets. Firstly, an effective and reasonable fitness function is established, based on the situation between the interceptors and targets, by comprehensively considering the relative range, relative angle, speed, capture probability and radiation source matching performance and thoroughly evaluating them based on the advantage of the attack effectiveness. Secondly, the optimisation performance of the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm is adaptively improved. We propose an adaptive simulated annealing-particle swarm optimisation (SA-PSO) algorithm by introducing the simulated annealing algorithm into the adaptive PSO algorithm. The proposed algorithm can enhance the convergence speed and overcome the disadvantage of the PSO algorithm easily falling into a local extreme point. Finally, a simulation example is performed in a scenario where ten interceptors cooperate to attack eight ground targets; comparative experiments are conducted between the adaptive SA-PSO algorithm and PSO algorithm. The simulation results indicate that the proposed adaptive SA-PSO algorithm demonstrates great performance in convergence speed and global optimisation capabilities, and a maximised attack effectiveness can be guaranteed.
To study the effectiveness of unilateral cochlear implantation, binaural-bimodal hearing devices, and bilateral cochlear implantation in children with inner-ear malformation.
This study comprised 261 patients who were allocated to inner-ear malformation or control groups. Twenty-four months after surgery, aided sound-field thresholds were tested, and the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale, Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale, Meaningful Use of Speech Scale, Categories of Auditory Performance scale and Speech Intelligibility Rating test were completed.
Aided sound-field thresholds were significantly better for bilateral cochlear implantation patients than for unilateral cochlear implantation or binaural-bimodal hearing device patients. There was no significant difference in Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale, Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale, or Categories of Auditory Performance scores among the three groups. The binaural-bimodal hearing device patients outperformed unilateral cochlear implantation patients on both Meaningful Use of Speech Scale and Speech Intelligibility Rating scores. No statistical difference was observed between the two subgroups.
Children who received bilateral cochlear implants have the best auditory awareness in a quiet environment. Children with binaural-bimodal hearing devices have better voice control and verbal skills than unilateral cochlear implantation patients, and people are more likely to understand them. Children with inner-ear malformations benefit from cochlear implantation.
The epidemic of tuberculosis has posed a serious burden in Qinghai province, it is necessary to clarify the epidemiological characteristics and spatial-temporal distribution of TB for future prevention and control measures. We used descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial statistical analysis including spatial correlation and spatial-temporal analysis in this study. Furthermore, we applied an exponential smoothing model for TB epidemiological trend forecasting. Of 43 859 TB cases, the sex ratio was 1.27:1 (M:F), and the average annual TB registered incidence was 70.00/100 000 of 2009–2019. More cases were reported in March and April, and the worst TB stricken regions were the prefectures of Golog and Yushu. High TB registered incidences were seen in males, farmers and herdsmen, Tibetans, or elderly people. 7132 cases were intractable, which were recurrent, drug resistant, or co-infected with other infections. Three likely cases clusters with significant high risk were found by spatial-temporal scan on data of 2009–2019. The exponential smoothing winters' additive model was selected as the best-fitting model to forecast monthly TB cases in the future. This research indicated that TB in Qinghai is still a serious threaten to the local residents' health. Multi-departmental collaboration and funds special for TB treatments and control are still needed, and the exponential smoothing model is promising which could be applied for forecasting of TB epidemic trend in this high-altitude province.
Steinernema populi n. sp. was recovered by baiting from beneath poplar trees in China. Morphological and molecular features provided evidence for placing the new species into the Kushidai clade. The new species is characterized by the following morphological features: third-stage infective juveniles (IJ) with a body length of 1095 (973–1172) μm, a distance from the anterior end to excretory pore of 77 (70–86) μm and a tail length of 64 (55–72) μm. The Body length/Tail length (c) ratio and Anterior end to Excretory pore/ Tail length × 100 (E%) of S. populi n. sp. are substantially greater than those of all other ‘Feltiae–Kushidai–Monticolum’ group members. The first-generation males can be recognized by a spicule length of 66 (57–77) μm and a gubernaculum length of 46 (38–60) μm. The new species is further characterized by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and partial 28S regions of the ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses show that Steinernema akhursti and Steinernema kushidai are the closest relatives to S. populi n. sp.
Although the prevalence rates of preadolescent eating disorders (EDs) are on the rise, considerably less is known about the correlates and treatment of EDs in this age group. Clarifying the epidemiology of EDs in preadolescent children is a necessary first step to understand the nature and scope of this problem in this age group.
Analysis of data collected in the ABCD Study release 2.0.1. The ABCD cohort was a population-based sample that consisted of 11 721 children ages 9–10 years. Measures included reports of a lifetime and current mental disorders determined using a diagnostic interview for DSM-5 disorders, sociodemographic factors, and psychiatric treatment utilization.
The lifetime prevalence of EDs was 0.95%. Being Black, multiracial, having unmarried parents, and family economic insecurity were significant predictors for developing an ED. Among psychiatric conditions, the major depressive disorder was most robustly associated with EDs in both cross-sectional and temporal analyses. Only 47.40% of children who had a lifetime ED received some type of psychiatric treatment. EDs were not a significant predictor of psychiatric treatment utilization after accounting for sex, sexual orientation, parent marital status, economic insecurity, and all other psychiatric diagnoses.
Despite increasing prevalence rates of preadolescent EDs, the current findings suggest that the majority of children with these disorders remain untreated. Devoting increased attention and resources to reaching families of children with EDs with the least means for receiving care, and screening for EDs in children with depression, may be important steps for reducing this unmet need.
The early identification and prediction of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) play an important role in the disease prevention and control. However, suitable models are different in regions due to the differences in geography, social economy factors. We collected data associated with daily reported HFMD cases and weather factors of Zibo city in 2010~2019 and used the generalised additive model (GAM) to evaluate the effects of weather factors on HFMD cases. Then, GAM, support vectors regression (SVR) and random forest regression (RFR) models are used to compare predictive results. The annual average incidence was 129.72/100 000 from 2010 to 2019. Its distribution showed a unimodal trend, with incidence increasing from March, peaking from May to September. Our study revealed the nonlinear relationship between temperature, rainfall and relative humidity and HFMD cases and based on the predictive result, the performances of three models constructed ranked in descending order are: SVR > GAM> RFR, and SVR has the smallest prediction errors. These findings provide quantitative evidence for the prediction of HFMD for special high-risk regions and can help public health agencies implement prevention and control measures in advance.
Background: This is a population-based retrospective study of neurological and cardiac complications of COVID-19 among Ontario visible minorities: Chinese and South Asian Canadians Methods: From January 1, 2020 to September 30, 2020, using the last name algorithm, rates and types of cardiac and neurological complication of these two cohorts along with the general population in Ontario with COVID-19 were analysed by Institue of Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Results: Preliminary results show that Chinese-Canadians (N= 1,186) with COVID-19 are older with a mean age of 50.74 years old compared to general population (N= 42,547) of 47.57 years old (P< .001), while South Asians (N= 3,459) have a younger mean age of 42.08 years old (P< .001). Total cardiac and neurological complication rates, hospitalization rates and ICU admission rates are all higher for Chinese-Canadians while they are lower in South Asians and all achieving statistical significance (P < .001). Overall mortality rate is significantly higher for Chinese-Canadians at 8.1% vs 5.0% general population (P < .001). Conclusions: Chinese-Canadians with COVID-19 in Ontario were much older and have higher cardiac and neurological complication rates and overall mortality rate than the general population. These data have significant implications for proper prevention and appropriate management for these vulnerble elderly Chinese-Canadians.
This study investigated the audiometric and sound localisation results in patients with conductive hearing loss after bilateral Bonebridge implantation.
Eight patients with congenital microtia and atresia supplied with bilateral Bonebridge devices were enrolled in this study. Hearing tests and sound localisation were tested under unaided, unilateral and bilateral aided conditions.
Mean functional gain was higher with a bilateral fitting than with a unilateral fitting, especially at 1.0–4.0 kHz (p < 0.05, both). The improvement in speech reception threshold in noise with a bilateral fitting was a 2.3 dB higher signal-to-noise ratio compared with unilateral fitting (p < 0.05). Bilateral fitting had better sound localisation than unilateral fitting (p <0.001). Four participants who attended follow up showed improved sound localisation ability after one year.
Patients demonstrated better hearing threshold, speech reception thresholds in noise and directional hearing with bilateral Bonebridge devices than with a unilateral Bonebridge device. Sound localisation ability with bilateral Bonebridge devices can be improved through long-term training.
This paper first uses a low-speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) system to measure the convergent statistical quantities of the flow field and then simultaneously measure the time-resolved flow field and the wall mass transfer rate by a high-speed SPIV system and an electrochemical system, respectively. We measure the flow field and wall mass transfer rate under upstream pipe Reynolds numbers between 25 000 and 55 000 at three specific locations behind the orifice plate. Moreover, we apply proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), stochastic estimation and spectral analysis to study the properties of the flow field and the wall mass transfer rate. More importantly, we investigate the large-scale coherent structures’ effects on the wall mass transfer rate. The collapse of the wall mass transfer rates’ spectra by the corresponding time scales at the three specific positions of orifice flow suggest that the physics of low-frequency wall mass transfer rates are probably the same, although the flow fields away from the wall are quite different. Furthermore, the spectra of the velocity reconstructed by the most energetic eigenmodes agree well with the wall mass transfer rate in the low-frequency region, suggesting that the first several energetic eigenmodes capture the flow dynamics relevant to the low-frequency variation of the wall mass transfer. Stochastic estimation results of the velocity field associated with large wall mass transfer rate at all three specific locations further reveal that the most energetic coherent structures are correlated with the wall mass transfer rate.