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Many family characteristics were reported to increase the risk of bipolar disorder (BPD). The development of BPD may be mediated through different pathways, involving diverse risk factor profiles. We evaluated the associations of family characteristics to build influential causal-pie models to estimate their contributions on the risk of developing BPD at the population level. We recruited 329 clinically diagnosed BPD patients and 202 healthy controls to collect information in parental psychopathology, parent-child relationship, and conflict within family. Other than logistic regression models, we applied causal-pie models to identify pathways involved with different family factors for BPD. The risk of BPD was significantly increased with parental depression, neurosis, anxiety, paternal substance use problems, and poor relationship with parents. Having a depressed mother further predicted early onset of BPD. Additionally, a greater risk for BPD was observed with higher numbers of paternal/maternal psychopathologies. Three significant risk profiles were identified for BPD, including paternal substance use problems (73.0%), maternal depression (17.6%), and through poor relationship with parents and conflict within the family (6.3%). Our findings demonstrate that different aspects of family characteristics elicit negative impacts on bipolar illness, which can be utilized to target specific factors to design and employ efficient intervention programs.
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have more cognitive impairments. However, the etiologies are not fully clear. Plasma homocysteine levels and vascular burden rise in CKD; meanwhile, high homocysteine levels and vascular factors are known risk factors of dementia in non-CKD patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the association between homocysteine, vascular burden and cognitive impairment in CKD and to see if the effect of elevated homocysteine on cognitive impairment mediated by vascular factor.
146 patients with CKD and 69 normal comparisons were recruited. Cognitive function was evaluated by comprehensive neuropsychological tests assessing processing speed, executive function, language, visuospatial function, memory, and attention domains. Vascular burden was assessed by Framinghan cardiovascular risk scale (FCRS) which indicates risk of atherosclerotic diseases including stroke.
In controlled analysis, patients with CKD had lower scores in all cognitive domains, and had higher homocysteine levels (18.5±6.4 vs. 9.8±2.9, p< 0.0001) and FCRS(17.0±4.7 vs. 14.0±4.7, p< 0.0001). Among patients with CKD, higher homocysteine levels (p=0.026) were associated with lower score on digit symbol task which is related to processing speed and executive function with controlling for age, sex, education and stage of CKD. The association persisted (p=0.047) after controlling for vascular risks.
Patients with CKD had extensive cognitive impairments. Elevated homocysteine levels may be an risk factor, which is independent of vascular burden, of cognitive impairment on processing speed and executive function. Further studies to investigate if normalization of homocysteine can improve cognitive function will be suggested.
Hemostasis, a process which causes bleeding to stop, can be enhanced using chitosan; but the detailed mechanism is unclear. Red blood cells (RBCs) adhere to chitosan because of their opposite charges, but the adhesion force is small, 3.83 pN as measured here using an optical tweezer, such that the direct adhesion cannot be the sole cause for hemostasis. However, it was observed in this study that layer structures of aggregated RBCs were formed next to chitosan objects in both static and flowing environments, but not formed next to cotton and rayon yarns. The layer structure is the clue for the initiation of hemostatsis. Through the supporting measurements of zeta potentials of RBCs and pH's using blood-chitosan mixtures, it is proposed here that the formation of the RBC layer structure next to chitosan objects is due to the reduction of repulsive electric double layer force between RBCs, because of the association of H+ deprotonated from chitosan with COO− on RBC membrane, under the DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) theory. The results are beneficial for designing effective chitosan-based wound dressings, and also for general biomedical applications.
In our attempt to investigate the basic active galactic nucleus (AGN) paradigm requiring a centrally located supermassive black hole (SMBH), a close to Keplerian accretion disk and a jet perpendicular to its plane, we have searched for radio continuum in galaxies with H2O megamasers in their disks. We observed 18 such galaxies with the Very Large Baseline Array in C band (5 GHz, ~2 mas resolution) and we detected 5 galaxies at 8 σ or higher levels. For those sources for which the maser data is available, the positions of masers and those of the 5 GHz radio continuum sources coincide within the uncertainties, and the radio continuum is perpendicular to the maser disk’s orientation within the position angle uncertainties.
For nearly a century, the incidence of cancer in people with schizophrenia was lower than in the general population. In the recent decade, the relationship between cancer and schizophrenia has become obscured. Thus, we investigated the cancer risk among young and middle-aged patients with schizophrenia.
Records of newly admitted patients with schizophrenia (n = 32 731) from January 2000 through December 2008 were retrieved from the Psychiatric Inpatient Medical Claims database in Taiwan, and the first psychiatric admission of each patient during the same period was defined as the baseline. We obtained 514 incident cancer cases that were monitored until December 2010. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the risk of cancer between those with schizophrenia and the general population. Stratified analyses of cancer incidences were performed by gender, site of cancers and duration since baseline (first psychiatric admission).
The incidence of cancer for all sites was slightly higher than that of the general population for the period (SIR = 1.15 [95% CI 1.06–1.26], p = 0.001). Men had a significantly higher incidence of colorectal cancer (SIR = 1.48 [95% CI 1.06–2.06], p = 0.019). Women had a higher incidence of breast cancer (SIR = 1.47 [95% CI 1.22–1.78], p < 0.001). Intriguingly, the risk for colorectal cancer was more pronounced 5 years after the first psychiatric admission rather than earlier (SIR = 1.94 [1.36–2.75], p < 0.001) and so was the risk for breast cancer (SIR = 1.85 [1.38–2.48], p < 0.001). The cancer incidence was higher in patients with schizophrenia contradicting the belief that schizophrenia was protective of cancers.
Our analyses suggest that men and women with schizophrenia were more vulnerable to certain types of cancers, which indicates the need for gender-specific cancer screening programs. The fact that risk of colorectal cancer was more pronounced 5 years after the first psychiatric admission could imply the impact of unhealthy lifestyles or the possibility of delayed diagnoses.
The insert groove geometry is an important part of turning tool design. In this article, a systematic design approach is presented for the chip breaker design in turning. The chip breaking ability of various groove geometry of a turning insert is investigated. The ratio of chip thickness to chip curl radius is taken as the index of chip breaking performance. Taguchi method is applied to analyze the contribution to chip breaking performance of each geometric parameter. Response surface methodology is then used to construct a predictive model evaluating the effect of turning conditions and groove geometry on chip breaking performance. The result of this study shows that the feed rate significantly affects chip breaking performance, and that insert with larger land angle, higher back wall and smaller groove is more effective in chip breaking. Among the parameters of the insert groove, the width of the groove has the greatest contribution to chip breaking than the others. The simulation results and predictions are validated by turning experiments.
Through silicon via (TSV) is the critical structure for three dimensional (3D) integration, which provides vertical interconnection between stacking dies. In TSV structure, large coefficient differences of thermal expansion exist between silicon substrate, dielectric material, and filled metal. Due to the large thermal mismatch, the high thermal stress occurring at the interface of different materials would result in delamination. Therefore, thermal-mechanical reliability is a key issue for 3D integration. In this study, we investigated the thermal-mechanical stress distribution of TSV under the condition of the accelerated thermal cycling loading by finite element analysis based on a 3D model of TSV structure. Due to the thermal expansion, that the TSV structure squeezed the surface area between TSVs at a high temperature resulted in compressive stresses at the surface area between TSVs. Therefore, a proper distance between the stress-sensitive device and the TSV should be kept. The stress analysis shows that the maximum thermal stress occurs in the outside region of TSV interface and in the annular region of TSV at a high temperature and at a low temperature, respectively. This study helps to obtain a clear thermal stress distribution of TSV and possible failure regions can be determined.
This paper presents a robust reliability analysis method for systems of multimodular redundant (MMR) controllers using the method of partitioning and parallel processing of a Markov chain (PPMC). A Markov chain is formulated to represent the N distinct states of the MMR controllers. Such a Markov chain has N2 directed edges, and each edge corresponds to a transition probability between a pair of start and end states. Because N can be easily increased substantially, the system reliability analysis may require large computational resources, such as the central processing unit usage and memory occupation. By the PPMC, a Markov chain's transition probability matrix can be partitioned and reordered, such that the system reliability can be evaluated through only the diagonal submatrices of the transition probability matrix. In addition, calculations regarding the submatrices are independent of each other and thus can be conducted in parallel to assure the efficiency. The simulation results show that, compared with the sequential method applied to an intact Markov chain, the proposed PPMC can improve the performance and produce allowable accuracy for the reliability analysis on large-scale systems of MMR controllers.
We made dynamical black hole mass measurements from nineteen Seyfert 2 galaxies which host sub-parsec H2O maser disks using the H2O megamaser technique. The nearly perfect Keplerian rotation curves in many of these maser systems guarantee the high accuracy and precision of the black hole mass measurements. With the stellar velocity dispersion (σ∗) of the galaxy bulges measured with the Dupont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in the South and the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5m telescope in the North, we found that H2O maser galaxies, most of which host pseudo bulges rather than classical bulges, do not all follow the MBH–σ∗ relation shown in the literature. This result is well consistent with the latest findings by Kormendy & Ho (2013) that only early type galaxies and galaxies with classical bulges follow a tight MBH–σ∗ relation. Such a tight correlation may not exist in pseudo bulge galaxies.
This paper reports a novel means of integrating a high-performance dual-modal ZnO piezoelectric transducer with a flexible stainless steel substrate (SUS304) to construct dual-modal vibration-power transducers. To fabricate vibration-power transducers, the off-axis RF magnetron sputtering method for the growth of ZnO piezoelectric thin films is adopted. The stainless steel substrate has a higher Young’s modulus than those of the other substrates, and behaves the long-term stability under vibration. The transducer includes a ZnO piezoelectric thin film deposited on the stainless steel substrate combined with Pt/Ti layers at room temperature, which is fabricated by an RF magnetron two-step sputtering system. In this report, the ZnO piezoelectric thin films deposited with the tilting angle of 34° are set by controlling the deposition parameters. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction of ZnO piezoelectric thin films reveal a rigid surface structure and a high dual-modal orientation. To investigate the generating characteristics of the dual-modal transducer, two basic experiments of longitudinal and shear modes are carried out. Based on cantilever vibration theory, the cantilever length of 1 cm and a vibration area of 1 cm2 are used to fabricate a transducer with a low resonant-frequency of 65 Hz for the natural vibration. A mass loading at the front-end of the cantilever is critical to increase the amplitude of vibration and the power generated by the piezoelectric transducer. The maximum open circuit voltage of the power transducer is 19.4 V.
Transcritical flow of a stratified fluid past a broad localised topographic obstacle is studied analytically in the framework of the forced extended Korteweg–de Vries, or Gardner, equation. We consider both possible signs for the cubic nonlinear term in the Gardner equation corresponding to different fluid density stratification profiles. We identify the range of the input parameters: the oncoming flow speed (the Froude number) and the topographic amplitude, for which the obstacle supports a stationary localised hydraulic transition from the subcritical flow upstream to the supercritical flow downstream. Such a localised transcritical flow is resolved back into the equilibrium flow state away from the obstacle with the aid of unsteady coherent nonlinear wave structures propagating upstream and downstream. Along with the regular, cnoidal undular bores occurring in the analogous problem for the single-layer flow modelled by the forced Korteweg–de Vries equation, the transcritical internal wave flows support a diverse family of upstream and downstream wave structures, including kinks, rarefaction waves, classical undular bores, reversed and trigonometric undular bores, which we describe using the recent development of the nonlinear modulation theory for the (unforced) Gardner equation. The predictions of the developed analytic construction are confirmed by direct numerical simulations of the forced Gardner equation for a broad range of input parameters.
This paper is a contemporary review of QMC (‘quasi-Monte Carlo’) methods, that is, equal-weight rules for the approximate evaluation of high-dimensional integrals over the unit cube [0,1]s, where s may be large, or even infinite. After a general introduction, the paper surveys recent developments in lattice methods, digital nets, and related themes. Among those recent developments are methods of construction of both lattices and digital nets, to yield QMC rules that have a prescribed rate of convergence for sufficiently smooth functions, and ideally also guaranteed slow growth (or no growth) of the worst-case error as s increases. A crucial role is played by parameters called ‘weights’, since a careful use of the weight parameters is needed to ensure that the worst-case errors in an appropriately weighted function space are bounded, or grow only slowly, as the dimension s increases. Important tools for the analysis are weighted function spaces, reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, and discrepancy, all of which are discussed with an appropriate level of detail.
We report a rare case of concurrent myeloid sarcoma and acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis in a patient with relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia.
A 73-year-old man was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia and developed relapse one year later. After two courses of azacytidine, he began suffering from a dull pain in the left temporal and orbital regions. Sinus computed tomography showed a localised lesion in the left ethmoid sinus, which rapidly progressed to an extensive intracranial mass within one month. Surgical debridement was performed, and histopathological analysis revealed the coexistence of myeloid sarcoma and acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis. The patient responded well to prompt surgical debridement, antifungal medication and radiotherapy.
Coexistence of sinonasal myeloid sarcoma and acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis poses an urgent diagnostic and management challenge to clinicians. Timely recognition of this rare comorbid condition is warranted as application of appropriate treatment can save lives.
MOS capacitor composed of nc-CdSe embedded ZrHfO high-k gate dielectric stack was fabricated and characterized for nonvolatile memory functions. Detailed material and electrical properties have been investigated. With a large charge trapping capability, this kind of device can trap electrons or holes depending on the polarity and magnitude of the applied gate voltage. For the same stress time, the device trapped more holes than electrons under the same magnitude of gate voltage but different polarity. The negative differential resistance peak was observed at the room temperature due to the Coulomb blockade effect. The charge trapping mechanism was delineated with the constant voltage stress test. After 10 years of storage, about 56% of trapped charges still remain in the device.
The influence of the red and green LED light exposure on the memory function of the nanocrystalline MoOx embedded ZrHfO high-k gate dielectric has been investigated. Since the performance of the device is mainly dependent on the hole trapping and detrapping mechanisms, the light exposure affects the hole generation, transfer, and storage to and in the dielectric structure. Both the charge storage capacity and the leakage current were increased from the light exposure. The Coulomb blockade phenomenon in the leakage current density vs. gate voltage curve disappears under the light exposure condition. The light exposure effect is potentially important for practical application of the device.
This paper studies the behavior of second grade viscoelastic fluid past a cavity in a horizontal channel. The effects of Reynolds number, fluid elasticity and the aspect ratio of the cavity on the flow field are simulated numerically. The equations are converted into the vorticity and stream function equations. The solution is obtained by the finite difference method.
The behavior of viscoelastic fluids is quite different from the Newtonian fluid, due to the effects of fluid elasticity. Only one flow pattern appears when the Newtonian fluid past the cavity. However, three kinds of flow patterns appear while the viscoelastic fluids past the cavity by increasing Reynolds number from 20 to 300. The flow field is affected by the fluid elasticity as well as the aspect ratio of the cavity. The transitional flow pattern appears at lower Reynolds number as the higher elasticity fluid past the cavity with larger aspect ratio.
In this paper a system of depth-integrated equations for over-saturated debris flows on three-dimensional topography is derived. The lower layer is a saturated mixture of density preserving solid and fluid constituents, where the pore fluid is in excess, so that an upper fluid layer develops above the mixture layer. At the layer interface fluid mass exchange may exist and for this a parameterization is needed. The emphasis is on the description of the influence on the flow by the curvature of the basal surface, and not on proposing rheological models of the avalanching mass. To this end, a coordinate system fitted to the topography has been used to properly account for the geometry of the basal surface. Thus, the modeling equations have been written in terms of these coordinates, and then simplified by using (1) the depth-averaging technique and (2) ordering approximations in terms of an aspect ratio ϵ which accounts for the scale of the flowing mass. The ensuing equations have been complemented by closure relations, but any other such relations can be postulated. For a shallow two-layer debris with clean water in the upper layer, flowing on a slightly curved surface, the equilibrium free surface is shown to be horizontal.