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Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is expected to be applied for devices in various fields owing to its unique characteristics. Establishing a high-productivity manufacturing method which yields high quality films is an important and unresolved issue for the practical applications of MoS2. Among different techniques conducted by researchers all over the world, our approach is cold-wall metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and we previously reported the deposition of MoS2 with i-Pr2DADMo(CO)3, a novel Mo precursor [S. Ishihara, et al., MRS Advances 3, 379-384 (2018).]. In this study, with the aim of further improving the quality of the MoS2 film using this new Mo precursor, various film formation conditions were controlled and the influence on the film quality was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used as evaluation techniques of the samples. As a result, mm-scale uniform film was formed with the deposition time less than 30 min. at temperature as low as 400 °C to 500 °C. It was revealed that maintaining low Mo/S supply ratio (SRMo/S) is crucial in fabricating high quality films.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
It has been demonstrated that negatively distorted self-referential processing, in which individuals evaluate one's own self, is a pathogenic mechanism in subthreshold depression that has a considerable impact on the quality of life and carries an elevated risk of developing major depression. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective intervention for depression, including subthreshold depression. However, brain mechanisms underlying BA are not fully understood. We sought to examine the effect of BA on neural activation during other perspective self-referential processing in subthreshold depression.
A total of 56 subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during a self-referential task with two viewpoints (self/other) and two emotional valences (positive/negative) on two occasions. Between scans, while the intervention group (n = 27) received BA therapy, the control group (n = 29) did not.
The intervention group showed improvement in depressive symptoms, increased activation in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and increased reaction times during other perspective self-referential processing for positive words after the intervention. Also, there was a positive correlation between increased activation in the dmPFC and improvement of depressive symptoms. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times.
BA increased dmPFC activation during other perspective self-referential processing with improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times which were associated with improvement of self-monitoring function. Our results suggest that BA improved depressive symptoms and objective monitoring function for subthreshold depression.
Meiotic maturation of oocytes requires a variety of ATP-dependent reactions, such as germinal vesicle breakdown, spindle formation, and rearrangement of plasma membrane structure, which is required for fertilization. Mitochondria are accordingly expected be localized to subcellular sites of energy utilization. Although microtubule-dependent cellular traffic for mitochondria has been studied extensively in cultured neuronal (and some other somatic) cells, the molecular mechanism of their dynamics in mammalian oocytes at different stages of maturation remains obscure. The present work describes dynamic aspects of mitochondria in porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. After incubation of oocytes with MitoTracker Orange followed by centrifugation, mitochondria-enriched ooplasm was obtained using a glass needle and transferred into a recipient oocyte. The intracellular distribution of the fluorescent mitochondria was then observed over time using a laser scanning confocal microscopy equipped with an incubator. Kinetic analysis revealed that fluorescent mitochondria moved from central to subcortical areas of oocytes and were dispersed along plasma membranes. Such movement of mitochondria was inhibited by either cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D but not by colcemid, suggesting the involvement of microfilaments. This method of visualizing mitochondrial dynamics in live cells permits study of the pathophysiology of cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular traffic of mitochondria and associated energy metabolism during meiotic maturation of oocytes.
Delirium and dementia are highly interrelated. However, few comprehensive epidemiological studies have examined this altered state of consciousness superimposed on dementia. We investigated the frequency of delirium in patients with dementia, its prevalence in patients with each dementia type, and its association with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in patients with neurodegenerative dementias.
We studied 261 consecutive outpatients in the memory clinic of a psychiatric hospital between April 2010 and September 2011. All patients underwent routine laboratory tests and computed tomography (CT), and their Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS), and Delirium Rating Scale – Revised 98 scores were recorded. The diagnosis of delirium was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision. CVD was detected by CT.
Among the 206 patients with dementia, delirium was present in 40 (19.4%). The proportion of patients who experienced episodes of delirium was 14.7% in the Alzheimer's disease, 34.4% in the vascular dementia, 31.8% in the dementia with Lewy bodies, and none in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Delirium was frequently observed in patients with dementia and CVD. The NPI total and agitation subscale scores were significantly higher in dementia patients with delirium than in those without delirium. PSMS scores were significantly lower for patients with delirium than for patients without delirium.
The frequency of delirium varies with each dementia type. In addition, delirium decreases activities of daily living, exaggerates behavioral and psychological symptoms dementia, and is associated with CVD in patients with neurodegenerative dementias.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief suicide management training programme for Japanese medical residents compared with the usual lecture on suicidality.
In this multi-center, clustered randomized controlled trial, the intervention group attended a structured suicide management programme and the control group, the usual lecture on depression and suicidality. The primary outcome was the difference in residents' cumulative competency score to manage suicidal persons from baseline (T0) to 1 month after the intervention (T2), determined using the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-1) score, at individual level.
Analysis of 114 residents (intervention group n = 65, control group n = 49) assigned to two clusters in each group revealed no change in SIRI-1 score from T0 to T2 or immediately after the intervention (T1) between the two groups. As a secondary analysis, discrepancy in judgement between the participants and Japanese suicidologists was examined immediately after the intervention in the adjusted model, with a mean difference in score of 9.98 (95% confidence interval: 4.39–15.56; p = 0.001).
The structured programme was not proven to improve competency in suicide management when measured by the SIRI-1 score. Further elaboration of the programme and valid measurement of its outcome would be needed to show the program's effectiveness.
Phase equilibria among γ-Fe, ε-Fe2Nb Laves and δ-Ni3Nb phases in Fe-Ni-Nb ternary system at 1473 K and 1373 K were experimentally examined, and also assessed by calculation in order to calculate the phase equilibria among these phases at 973 K. A ternary compound with hP24 structure with its limited composition range of Fe-21.5Nb- (56.8-59.8) Ni exists between Fe2Nb and Ni3Nb phase regions at both temperatures. Including the hP24 phase, the calculated isotherms at both temperatures are in good agreement with experimental ones. By using the optimized interaction parameters among the three elements in each phase, the isothermal section calculated at 973 K revealed a γ-Fe+ Fe2Nb + Ni3Nb three-phase coexisting region extended to Fe-rich composition of 80 at. % Fe. This suggests a possibility to develop austenitic heatresistant steels strengthened by both intermetallics phases.
The focus of this present work is concerned with a novel and facile method for obtaining colored Ag nanoparticle films using a sulfide as a coloring agent. The Ag nanoparticle films change their colors depending on the dipping time in a solution of a sulfide and the dipping time is at most on the second time scale. The color of the films, initially sliver (shiny white), changes to shiny yellow, red, and blue. Our scanning electron microscopy studies indicate that the color of the Ag nanoparticle films depend on the particle size of the Ag nanoparticle films.
We present the spatially-resolved polarization measurements for the disk around the Herbig Ae star, AB Aurigae. The images were obtained in J, H, and Ks bands with the coronagraphic camera HiCIAO on the Subaru Telescope. The inner region beyond 30 AU from the star was imaged, which reveals an azimuthal dip, a radial gap at around 80 AU, and complex spiral-like emission in polarized light.