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The target backsheath field acceleration mechanism is one of the main mechanisms of laser-driven proton acceleration (LDPA) and strongly depends on the comprehensive performance of the ultrashort ultra-intense lasers used as the driving sources. The successful use of the SG-II Peta-watt (SG-II PW) laser facility for LDPA and its applications in radiographic diagnoses have been manifested by the good performance of the SG-II PW facility. Recently, the SG-II PW laser facility has undergone extensive maintenance and a comprehensive technical upgrade in terms of the seed source, laser contrast and terminal focus. LDPA experiments were performed using the maintained SG-II PW laser beam, and the highest cutoff energy of the proton beam was obviously increased. Accordingly, a double-film target structure was used, and the maximum cutoff energy of the proton beam was up to 70 MeV. These results demonstrate that the comprehensive performance of the SG-II PW laser facility was improved significantly.
This study investigated, and discusses the integration of, the shift-and-persist (SAP) and skin-deep resilience (SDR) theories. The SAP theory states that the combination of shifting (adjusting oneself to stressful situations through strategies like emotion regulation) and persisting (enduring adversity with strength by finding meaning and maintaining optimism) will be beneficial to physical health in children experiencing adversity. The SDR theory states that high striving/self-control will be beneficial to mental health but detrimental to physical health among those confronting adversity. This study investigated 308 children ages 8–17 experiencing the adversity of a chronic illness (asthma). SAP and SDR (striving/self-control) were assessed via questionnaires, and physical health (asthma symptoms, inflammatory profiles), mental health (anxiety/depression, emotional functioning), and behavioral (medication adherence, activity limitations, collaborative relationships with providers) outcomes were measured cross-sectionally. SAP was associated with better physical health, whereas SDR was associated with worse physical health. Both were associated with better mental health. Only SDR was associated with better behavioral outcomes. Implications of findings and discussion of how to integrate these theories are provided. We suggest that future interventions might seek to cultivate both SAP and SDR to promote overall better health and well-being across multiple domains in children experiencing adversity.
Laser interaction with an ultra-thin pre-structured target is investigated with the help of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. With the existence of a periodic structure on the target surface, the laser seems to penetrate through the target at its fundamental frequency even if the plasma density of the target is much higher than the laser’s relativistically critical density. The particle-in-cell simulations show that the transmitted laser energy behind the pre-structured target is increased by about two orders of magnitude compared to that behind the flat target. Theoretical analyses show that the transmitted energy behind the pre-structured target is actually re-emitted by electron ‘islands’ formed by the surface plasma waves on the target surfaces. In other words, the radiation with the fundamental frequency is actually ‘surface emission’ on the target rear surface. Besides the intensity of the component with the fundamental frequency, the intensity of the high-order harmonics behind the pre-structured target is also much enhanced compared to that behind the flat target. The enhancement of the high-order harmonics is also related to the surface plasma waves generated on the target surfaces.
Dysregulation of the striatum and altered corticostriatal connectivity have been associated with psychotic disorders. Social anhedonia has been identified as a predictor for the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine corticostriatal functional connectivity in individuals with high social anhedonia.
Twenty-one participants with high social anhedonia score and 30 with low social anhedonia score measured by the Chinese version of the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale were recruited from university undergraduates (age 17–21 years) to undergo resting-state functional MRI scans. Six subdivisions of the striatum in each hemisphere were defined as seeds. Voxel-wise functional connectivity analyses were conducted between each seed and the whole brain voxels, followed by repeated-measures ANOVA for the group effect.
Participants with high social anhedonia showed hyper-connectivity between the ventral striatum and the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula, and between the dorsal striatum and the motor cortex. Hypo-connectivity in participants with high social anhedonia was also observed between the ventral striatum and the posterior cingulate cortex. Partial correlation analyses further showed that the functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the prefrontal cortex was associated with pleasure experience and emotional suppression.
Our findings suggest that altered corticostriatal connectivity can be found in participants with high levels of social anhedonia. Since social anhedonia has been considered a predictor for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, our results may provide novel evidence on the early changes in brain functional connectivity in at-risk individuals.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) has been prevalent for some time in China and it was first identified in 2010. However, the seroprevalence of SFTSV in the general population in southeastern China and risk factors associated with the infection are currently unclear. Blood samples were collected from seven counties across Zhejiang province and tested for the presence of SFTSV-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. A total of 1380 blood samples were collected of which 5·51% were seropositive for SFTSV with seroprevalence varying significantly between sites. Seroprevalence of SFTSV in people who were family members of the patient, lived in the same village as the patient, or lived in a different village than the patient varied significantly. There was significant difference in seroprevalence between participants who bred domestic animals and participants who did not. Domestic animals are probably potential reservoir hosts and contact with domestic animals may be a transmission route of SFTSV.
Alterations in gray matter (GM) are commonly observed in schizophrenia. Accumulating studies suggest that the brain changes associated with schizophrenia are distributed rather than focal, involving interconnected networks of areas as opposed to single regions. In the current study we aimed to explore GM volume (GMV) changes in a relatively large sample of treatment-naive first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and covariation analysis.
High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 86 first-episode drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and 86 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). GMV was assessed using optimized VBM and in 16 regions of interest (ROIs), selected on the basis of a previous meta-analysis. The relationships between GMVs in the ROIs were examined using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).
The VBM analysis revealed that first-episode patients showed reduced GMV in the hippocampus bilaterally. The ROI analysis identified reductions in GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral hippocampus and right thalamus. The ANCOVA revealed different patterns of regional GMV correlations in patients and controls, including of inter- and intra-insula, inter-amygdala and insula–postcentral gyrus connections.
Schizophrenia involves regional reductions in GMV and changes in GMV covariance in the insula, amygdala and postcentral gyrus. These findings were evident at the onset of the disorder, before treatment, and therefore cannot be attributable to the effects of chronic illness progression or medication.
It is not clear whether the progressive changes in brain microstructural deficits documented in previous longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies might be due to the disease process or to other factors such as medication. It is important to explore the longitudinal alterations in white-matter (WM) microstructure in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia during the very early phase of treatment when relatively ‘free’ from chronicity.
Thirty-five patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 22 healthy volunteers were recruited. High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was obtained from participants at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment. A ‘difference map’ for each individual was calculated from the 6-week follow-up fractional anisotropy (FA) of DTI minus the baseline FA. Differences in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores between baseline and 6 weeks were also evaluated and expressed as a 6-week/baseline ratio.
Compared to healthy controls, there was a significant decrease in absolute FA of WM around the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus and the right anterior corona radiata of the frontal lobe in first-episode drug-naive patients with schizophrenia following 6 weeks of treatment. Clinical symptoms improved during this period but the change in FA did not correlate with the changes in clinical symptoms or the dose of antipsychotic medication.
During the early phase of treatment, there is an acute reduction in WM FA that may be due to the effects of antipsychotic medications. However, it is not possible to entirely exclude the effects of underlying progression of illness.
Evidence shows that cognitive deficits and white matter (WM) dysconnectivity can independently be associated with clinical manifestations in schizophrenia. It is important to explore this triadic relationship in order to investigate whether the triplet could serve as potential extended endophenotypes of schizophrenia.
Diffusion tensor images and clinical performances were evaluated in 122 individuals with first-episode schizophrenia and 122 age- and gender-matched controls. In addition, 65 of 122 of the patient group and 40 of 122 controls were measured using intelligence quotient (IQ) testing.
The schizophrenia group showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values than controls in the right cerebral frontal lobar sub-gyral (RFSG) WM. The schizophrenia group also showed a significant positive correlation between FA in the RFSG and performance IQ (PIQ); in turn, their PIQ score showed a significant negative correlation with negative syndromes.
Overall, these findings support the hypothesis that WM deficits may be a core deficit that contributes to cognitive deficits as well as to negative symptoms.
The magnetic reconnection (MR) configuration was constructed by using two approaching laser-produced plasma bubbles. The characteristics of the MR current sheet were investigated. The driving energy of the laser pulse affects the type of the current sheet. The experiments present “Y-type” and “X-type” current sheets for larger and smaller driving energy, respectively. The energetic electrons were found to be well-collimated. The formation and ejection of plasmoid from the “Y-type” current sheet was expected to enhance the number of accelerated electrons.
Brain structure appears to alter after antipsychotic administration, but it is unknown whether these alterations are associated with improvement of psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. In this study, the authors explore this relationship.
Altogether, 66 first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and 23 well-matched healthy controls underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline. All 23 healthy controls and 42 of the patients were rescanned after 6 weeks follow-up. The patients received regular antipsychotic treatment during the 6-week period and their psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and 6 weeks. The difference in PANSS scores between baseline and 6 weeks was expressed as a ratio of the scores at baseline – ‘PANSS reduction ratio’. A modified tensor-based morphometry procedure was applied to analyse longitudinal images. Correlations between regional volume changes, PANSS reduction ratio and antipsychotic drug dosages were explored.
Compared with healthy controls, there was a significant increase in grey-matter volume of the right putamen in patients after 6 weeks treatment. This volume change was positively correlated with a positive PANSS reduction score but not related to drug dosages.
Putaminal volume increased after 6 weeks antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia. The increased volume was closely correlated with improved psychopathology, suggesting the putamen might be a biomarker to predict the treatment response in schizophrenia.
Abnormalities in the connectivity of white-matter (WM) tracts in schizophrenia are supported by evidence from post-mortem investigations, functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The aims of this study were to explore the microstructural changes in first-episode schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population and to investigate whether a family history of psychiatric disorder is related to the severity of WM tract integrity abnormalities in these patients.
T1-weighted MR and DT images were collected in 68 patients with first-episode schizophrenia [22 with a positive family history (PFH) and 46 with a negative family history (NFH)] and 100 healthy controls. Voxel-based analysis was performed and WM integrity was quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA). Cluster- and voxel-level analyses were performed by using two-sample t tests between patients and controls and/or using a full factorial model with one factor and three levels among the three sample groups (patients with PFH or NFH, and controls), as appropriate.
FA deficits were observed in the patient group, especially in the left temporal lobe and right corpus callosum. This effect was more severe in the non-familial schizophrenia than in the familial schizophrenia subgroup.
Overall, these findings support the hypothesis that loss of WM integrity may be an important pathophysiological feature of schizophrenia, with particular implications for brain dysmaturation in non-familial and familial schizophrenia.
This study investigated further the association between the Beijing family Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in rural China and anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance. In total, 351 M. tuberculosis isolates were collected through a population-based epidemiological study, 223 (63·5%) of which were resistant to at least one anti-TB drug, including 53 (15·1%) multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Spoligotyping found 243 isolates (69·2%) that belonged to the Beijing family. A major subgroup of the Beijing family identified by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) genotyping (223325173533), showed significantly higher frequencies of MDR (44·7% vs. 13·7%, OR 6·18, 95% CI 2·68–14·23), katG and rpoB mutations (31·6% vs. 9·3%, OR 4·27, 95% CI 1·86–9·80), and being clustered by IS6110 RFLP genotyping (60·5% vs. 21·0%, OR 6·14, 95% CI 2·82–13·37) in comparison with other Beijing family isolates. Our data suggest that MIRU genotype 223325173533 of the Beijing family is associated with MDR and increased transmissibility.
Schistosomiasis control in China has, in general, been very successful during the past several decades. However, the rebounding of the epidemic situation in some areas in recent years raises concerns about a sustainable control strategy of which locating active transmission sites (ATS) is a necessary first step. This study presents a systematic approach for locating schistosomiasis ATS by combining the approaches of identifying high risk regions for schisotosmiasis and extracting snail habitats. Environmental, topographical, and human behavioural factors were included in the model. Four significant high-risk regions were detected and 6 ATS were located. We used the normalized difference water index (NDWI) combined with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to extract snail habitats, and the pointwise ‘P-value surface’ approach to test statistical significance of predicted disease risk. We found complicated non-linear relationships between predictors and schistosomiasis risk, which might result in serious biases if data were not properly treated. We also found that the associations were related to spatial scales, indicating that a well-designed series of studies were needed to relate the disease risk with predictors across various study scales. Our approach provides a useful tool, especially in the field of vector-borne or environment-related diseases.
Since pigs are important in the zoonotic transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in China, a veterinary vaccine might contribute to the control of the disease in humans. Pigs were immunized with three doses each of 10000 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum attenuated with ultraviolet light (400 μWatt·min/cm2). The experiment was performed with portable irradiation equipment in a rural area of the Hubei Province (P.R. China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given 2·5 or 6 months after the last immunization, and age-matched naive pigs were challenged as a control. Immunized pigs developed about 90% resistance against the challenge. The liver egg load of these animals was reduced by over 90%. Less than 0·01 % of the immunizing cercariae developed to adult parasites and the vaccination had no apparent adverse influence on the pigs' health.
Phenotypic information about several pig meat quality traits on 334 Large White × Meishan F2 pigs was collected. Effects of the association of the FokI variants in the seventh intron of the skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1) gene and the PstI variants in the ninth intron of the palmitoyl acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) gene on the meat quality traits were examined on all pigs. The FokI variants of the GYS1 gene showed significant effects on pH of m. semipinalis capitis (P < 0.05). Linkage analysis indicated that the peak of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) curve was located around this marker for pH, but it did not reach significance (P > 0.05). The results may be due to several reasons such as linkage disequilibrium to the causal mutations, the limited number of animals or balance of another QTL or marker with negative effects. Significant effects of PstI variants of ACOX1 gene were also found on meat colour value and meat marbling score of both m. longissimus dorsi and m. biceps femoris (P < 0.05). Dominant effects for the affected traits at those two loci were significant except for meat marbling score of m. biceps femoris (P < 0.05). The results of this study give us some evidence for the potential of those dominant markers used in the marker-assisted selection of crossbreeding of the Large White pig sire lines and Meishan-derived synthetic dam lines.
The microstructural features of highly damaged 4H–SiC implanted with Al22+ ions at 450 K were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Conventional TEM images reveal that the crystalline SiC domains are highly strained/distorted when the relative disorder on the Si sublattice ranges between about 0.4 and 0.8, as determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling geometry. As the relative disorder approaches 1.0, the high strain contrast appears to be relieved, and localized amorphized domains are observed. Plasmon-loss energy shows a red shift following the implantation, and the magnitude of the red shift increases with increasing relative disorder. Based on the red shift, the estimated volume expansion is approximately 8% for highly damaged crystalline SiC and approximately 16% for the amorphous state. Energy-loss near-edge-structure of both the C and Si K edge reveals the existence of Si–Si and C–C bonding in the Al22+ implanted SiC.
The field of infrared imaging for analytical chemical analysis has developed over the last few years into a technique that has clearly demonstrated its utility in a variety of applications(l-6). This imaging system is based upon the coupling of an infrared array detector to an infrared spectrometer and microscope, where the use of an array detector allows both spatial and spectral information to be generated simultaneously. Because of the high spatial content and data acquisition speed, researchers have been able to apply this technique to samples and experiments where traditional infrared microscopy has not proven successful.
Previously, in order to obtain an infrared image, the researcher was required to undertake a step and collect mapping experiment. In the mapping experiment, an aperture is set to obtain the desired spatial resolution at the sample. If high spatial resolution is required, most of the energy is discarded and long data collection times are needed to obtain a reasonable signal-to-noise
The dielectric constant and dispersion of sputtered barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films deposited on Ir electrodes have been measured as a function of frequency and dielectric film thickness. Based on the measured variation in capacitance density with BST film thickness, an interfacial capacitance and thin film capacitance have been extracted. The variation of the interfacial capacitance density and the thin film capacitance density with frequency indicates that the majority of dispersion measured for BST deposited on Ir electrodes is due to the interfacial capacitance, in contrast to results found for Pt electrodes . The temperature dependence of the interfacial capacitance and thin film capacitance has also been measured for these electrodes.
We report on the properties and characterization of SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT, or Y − 1) thin film capacitors for ferroelectric random access memory (FERAM) applications. The films were prepared by spin-coating from carboxylate precursors. The remanent polarization (Pr) was 5−6 μC/cm2 and the coercive field was ∼55 kV/cm. Excellent fatigue endurance was observed up to 1011 cycles. Auger analysis indicates bismuth diffusion through the Pt electrode after capacitor anneal which might require excess Bi in the precursor solution for stoichiometry control. No detectable amount of α emission was found from SBT films, which reduces the possibility of soft error when used in the memory devices.