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The “Health Legal Preparedness Model” developed in the US aims to provide better health-related responses in times of emergency. It includes four components: (1) law; (2) competencies; (3) information; and (4) coordination.
The aim of this study is to examine the usefulness of the “Health Legal Preparedness Model” in the present state of affairs in the field of emergency preparedness in Israel.
A qualitative study was conducted. In-depth interviews were performed with leading experts in the past or at present in the Israeli emergency health system.
The Israeli healthcare system already has elements of the model in place at various levels. The relative perceived importance of each of the four aspects of the model varied between the experts. Of the four components, law and coordination were perceived as a major system concern. Training of specialists in emergency legislation was controversial. In addition, differences were found in the experts' perceptions as of the optimal way to operate the health system during an emergency. Variability also was found in the perception of the private sector growth and in the importance of its incorporation into emergency response plans. The study found that the emergency preparedness system resembles military practices in its conduct. Nevertheless, there is willingness toward mutual emergency systems drills, including aspects of legal preparedness.
The model already is applied partially in the Israeli emergency healthcare system. Results indicate that the Health Legal Preparedness Model might be useful in identifying gaps in emergency response plans. It also crystallized gaps related to optimal operation during emergencies in the country. Therefore, it is important to reach agreement upon solutions that will incorporate a regulatory guideline in order to improve the function of the emergency healthcare system.
Effective function of the community care system is important during a pandemic. Self-protective behavior might help stop the spread of the disease during a pandemic and prevent system dysfunction because of personnel morbidity.
To compare the immunization rate and reported self-protective behavior of healthcare workers between hospitals and community care clinics during the peak of the winter A/H1N1 pandemic in Israel.
A questionnaire was completed by 1,147 healthcare workers in 21 hospitals and 40 primary care clinics in Israel between 26 November 2009 and 10 December 2009 (the peak of the winter A/H1N1 flu outbreak).
The rate of vaccination against A/H1N1 among hospital workers (27.9%) was significantly higher compared with primary care clinics workers (19.3%) (OR = 0.691 (0.821–0.582)).
The purpose of this article is to define the distinguishing characteristics of food-borne streptococcal pharyngitis by reviewing the literature. The main cause of this infection lies in poor handling and preservation of cold salads, usually those which contain eggs and are prepared some hours before serving. A shorter incubation period and a higher attack rate (51–90%) than in transmission by droplets was noted. The epidemics tend to occur in warm climates and in the hottest months of the year. Streptococcus pyogenes seems to originate from the pharynx or hand lesions of a food handler. In comparison to airborne transmission symptoms such as sore throat, pharyngeal erythema, and enlarged tonsils, submandibular lymphadenopathy are more frequent than coughing and coryza. Seven out of 17 reports revealed an M-untypeable serotype, which may possess virulent characteristics. Penicillin prophylaxis was shown to limit additional spread of the infection. There were no non-suppurative sequels, and suppurative sequels were very rare. We assume that the guidelines for the prevention of food poisoning would apply to food-borne streptococcal pharyngitis. Food handlers should be supervised to ensure they comply with strict rules of preparation and storage of food. Cold salads, especially those containing eggs, should not be left overnight before serving.
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