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When the Symmetric Galerkin boundary element method (SGBEM) based on full-space elastostatic fundamental solutions is used to solve Neumann problems, the displacement solution cannot be uniquely determined because of the inevitable rigid-body-motion terms involved. Several methods that have been used to remove the non-uniqueness, including additional point support, eigen decomposition, regularization of a singular system and modified boundary integral equations, were introduced to amend SGBEM, and were verified to eliminate the rigid body motions in the solutions of full-space exterior Neumann problems. Because half-space problems are common in geotechnical engineering practice and they are usually Neumann problems, typical half-space problems were also analyzed using the amended SGBEM with a truncated free surface mesh. However, various levels of errors showed for all the methods of removing non-uniqueness investigated. Among them, the modified boundary integral equations based on the Fredholm’s theory is relatively preferable for its accurate results inside and near the loaded area, especially where the deformation varies significantly.
Bupropion is a catecholamine reuptake inhibitor and also a potent noncompetitive ion channel site antagonist at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Bupropion is indicated for use in combination with behavioral modification programs for smoking cessation. There have been a few studies about the effect of bupropion on smoking cessation in schizophrenia. Therefore, we aimed investigated the change of the symptomatology after smoking cessation with bupropion in the patients with schizophrenia.
There were fifty-six patients with smoking in the psychiatric ward of Hapcheon Korea Hospital. among them, thirty-nine inpatients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia were recruited. for 4 weeks, treatment team persuaded the patients to enter the program of smoking cessation. with the exception, if the patients did not agree the program, the patients were able to be transferred to another ward that smoking was permitted. All patients agreed to the program. Postive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Temperament and Character Inventory(TCI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI), Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence(FTND) were evaluated at the beginning of the study and 12 weeks of Bupropion treatment.
At 12 weeks after successful smoking cessation with bupropion, FTND scores were significantly decreased after smoking cessation. the scores of STAI and PANSS were not significantly changed. the subcale of TCI, Novelty Seeking showed decreasing tendency after smoking cessation, although there was no statistical significance(p=0.054).
These results suggest that bupropion is an effective antidepressant on smoking cessation and does not aggravate the psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Further investigation with larger number of subjects is needed.
The aims of this study were to examine whether different domains of quality of life (QOL) are differently affected by depressive disorders by comparing QOL of subjects with and without depressive disorders, and to examine the association of QOL with self-stigma, insight and adverse effects of medication among subjects with depressive disorders.
The QOL on the four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF Taiwan version were compared between the 229 subjects with depressive disorders and 106 control subjects without depressive disorder. Among the subjects in the depressive group, the association between the four QOL domains and subjects' self-stigma, insight, and adverse effects of medication were examined using multiple regression analyses by controlling for the influence of depression, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and family function.
The results found that subjects with depressive disorders had poorer QOL on the physical, psychological and social relationship domains than the non-depressive control group. The depressive subjects who had more severe self-stigma had poorer QOL on all four domains. The depressive subjects who had higher levels of awareness of illness had poorer QOL on the physical and psychological domains. The depressive subjects who perceived more severe adverse effects from medication had poorer QOL on the physical, psychological and environmental domains.
The results of this study demonstrate that different domains of QOL are differently affected by depressive disorders, and that clinicians must consider the negative influences of self-stigma, insight and adverse effects from medication on QOL of subjects with depressive disorders.
Internet addiction is a newly emergent disorder. It has been found to be associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Information about such coexisting psychiatric disorders is essential to understand the mechanism of Internet addiction. In this review, we have recruited articles mentioning coexisting psychiatric disorders of Internet addiction from the PubMed database as at November 3, 2009. We describe the updated results for such disorders of Internet addiction, which include substance use disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, hostility, and social anxiety disorder. We also provide discussion for possible mechanisms accounting for the coexistence of psychiatric disorders and Internet addiction. The review might suggest that combined psychiatric disorders mentioned above should be evaluated and treated to prevent their deteriorating effect on the prognosis of Internet addiction. On the other hand, Internet addiction should be paid more attention to when treating people with these coexisting psychiatric disorders of Internet addiction. Additionally, we also suggest future necessary research directions that could provide further important information for the understanding of this issue.
Persistent gaming, despite acknowledgment of its negative consequences, is a major criterion for individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). This study evaluated the adaptive decision-making, risky decision, and decision-making style of individuals with IGD.
We recruited 87 individuals with IGD and 87 without IGD (matched controls). All participants underwent an interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition) diagnostic criteria for IGD and completed an adaptive decision-making task; the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation Scale, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and Barratt Impulsivity Scale were also assessed on the basis of the information from the diagnostic interviews.
The results demonstrated that the participants in both groups tend to make more risky choices in advantage trials where their expected value (EV) was more favorable than those of the riskless choice. The tendency to make a risky choice in advantage trials was stronger among IGD group than that among controls. Participants of both groups made more risky choices in the loss domain, a risky option to loss more versus sure loss option, than they did in the gain domain, a risky option to gain more versus sure gain. Furthermore, the participants with IGD made more risky choices in the gain domain than did the controls. Participants with IGD showed higher and lower preferences for intuitive and deliberative decision-making styles, respectively, than controls and their preferences for intuition and deliberation were positively and negatively associated with IGD severity, respectively.
These results suggested that individuals with IGD have elevated EV sensitivity for decision-making. However, they demonstrated risky preferences in the gain domain and preferred an intuitive rather than deliberative decision-making style. This might explain why they continue Internet gaming despite negative consequences. Thus, therapists should focus more on decision-making styles and promote deliberative thinking processes to mitigate the long-term negative consequences of IGD.
We aimed to identify the association of hydration status with insulin resistance (IR) and body fat distribution. A total of 14 344 adults participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010. We used urine specific gravity (USG) to indicate hydration status, and HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment of IR) and trunk:leg fat ratio (TLR) as primary outcomes. In multivariate logistic regression, the OR per 0·01 increase in USG for high IR was 1·303 (95 % CI 1·185, 1·433; P < 0·001). In multivariate generalised additive model plots, increased USG showed a J-shaped association with logarithmic HOMA-IR, with the lowest Akaike’s information criterion score of USG 1·030. Moreover, increased USG was independently associated with increased trunk fat, decreased leg fat and increased TLR. In mediation analysis, the proportion of mediation effects of USG on TLR via IR was 0·193 (95 % CI 0·132, 0·285; P < 0·001), while the proportion of mediation effects of USG on IR via TLR was 0·130 (95 % CI 0·086, 0·188; P < 0·001). Increased USG, a sign of low hydration status and presumably high vasopressin, was associated with IR and poor fat distribution. Direct effect of low hydration status may be more dominant than indirect effect via IR or fat distribution. Further studies are necessary to confirm our findings.
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production has been very rare in serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae ST23 strains, which are well-known invasive community strains. Among 92 ESBL-producing strains identified in 218 isolates from nine Asian countries, serotype K1 K. pneumoniae strains were screened. Two ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates from Singapore and Indonesia were determined to be serotype K1 and ST23. Their plasmids, which contain CTX-M-15 genes, are transferable rendering the effective transfer of ESBL resistance plasmids to other organisms.
Magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere provide the energy for most varieties of solar activity, including high-energy electromagnetic radiation, solar energetic particles, flares, and coronal mass ejections, as well as powering the solar wind. Despite the fundamental role of magnetic fields in solar and heliospheric physics, there exist only very limited measurements of the field above the base of the corona. What is needed are direct measurements of not only the strength and orientation of the magnetic field but also the signatures of wave motions in order to better understand coronal structure, solar activity, and the role of MHD waves in heating and accelerating the solar wind. Fortunately, the remote sensing instrumentation used to make magnetic field measurements is also well suited to measure the Doppler signature of waves in the solar structures. We present here a mission concept for the Waves And Magnetism In the Solar Atmosphere (WAMIS) experiment which is proposed for a NASA long-duration balloon flight.
This multicentre surveillance study was conducted to investigate the trends in incidence and aetiology of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (HCA-BSIs) in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2011 a total of 56 830 HCA-BSIs were recorded at three medical centres, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the most common pathogens isolated (n = 9465, 16·7%), followed by E. coli (n = 7599, 13·4%). The incidence of all HCA-BSIs in each and all hospitals significantly increased over the study period owing to the increase of aerobic Gram-positive cocci and Enterobacteriaceae by 4·2% and 3·6%, respectively. Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, Bacteroides spp. and Candida spp. also showed an increase but there was a significant decline in the numbers of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. In conclusion, the incidence of HCA-BSIs in Taiwan is significantly increasing, especially for Enterobacteriaceae and aerobic Gram-positive cocci.
Individuals with chronic conditions often experience exacerbation of those conditions and have specialized medical needs after a disaster. Less is known about the level of disaster preparedness of this particular population and the extent to which being prepared might have an impact on the risk of disease exacerbation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-reported asthma, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes and levels of household disaster preparedness.
Data were analyzed from 14 US states participating in the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a large state-based telephone survey. Chi-square statistics and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated.
After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, as compared to those without each condition, persons with cardiovascular disease (aPR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17) and diabetes (aPR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.22) were slightly more likely to have an evacuation plan and individuals with diabetes (aPR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05) and asthma (aPR = 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04) were slightly more likely to have a 3-day supply of prescription medication. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence for all other preparedness measures (3-day supply of food and water, working radio and flashlight, willingness to leave during a mandatory evacuation) between those with and those without each chronic condition.
Despite the increased morbidity and mortality associated with chronic conditions, persons with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and asthma were generally not more prepared for natural or man-made disasters than those without each chronic condition.
KoJY, StrineTW, AllweissP. Chronic Conditions and Household Preparedness for Public Health Emergencies: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2006-2010. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(1):1-8.
Reported rates of child sexual abuse in China fall at the lower end of the range found in Western studies. However, most of the studies were conducted in only one city or province and thus their results may not be generalisable. Acknowledging the infeasibility of recruiting a truly representative sample, we conducted a survey during 2009–10 using a probability sampling procedure to obtain a large and diverse sample of school-aged adolescents from six regions in China. About one in every 13 children had had experience of sexual abuse. Routine screening in medical and social settings is urged. Efforts should be made to ensure wide awareness of this issue.
By surveying extensive epidemiological behavioural and sexual risk factors in a Korean twin cohort, risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection were investigated in South Korea. A total of 912 vaginal specimens were collected from the Healthy Twin Study, consisting of twins and their families. A range of epidemiological, behavioural, and sexual activity characteristics were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analyses of family and twin relationships, adjusted to elucidate the risk factors for HPV infection. Of the various epidemiological characteristics, the possibility of extramarital affairs [odds ratio (OR) 2·48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·02–6·02] significantly increased the prevalence of HPV infection. Our multivariate regression analysis indicated that oral contraceptive use (OR 40·64, 95% CI 0·99–1670·7) and history of sexually transmitted disease (OR 2·56, 95% CI 0·93–7·10) were strongly associated with an increase in HPV infection. On the other hand, more frequent vaginal douching (OR 0·32, 95% CI 0·13–0·77) significantly decreased the prevalence of HPV infection. Our results suggested that HPV infection is associated with both biological and behavioural factors.
To investigate the risk of completed suicide in offspring during adolescence in relation to prior history of the same-sex parent's death by suicide and other causes.
A total of 500 adolescents who died by suicide at age 15–19 years between 1997 and 2007 were identified from the Taiwan Mortality Registration (TMR). For each case, 30 age- and time-matched controls were selected randomly from all adolescents registered in the Taiwan Birth Registry (TBR). A multivariate conditional logistic regression model was used to assess the risk of adolescent completed suicide in relation to their same-sex parent.
Adolescent suicide risk was positively associated with both paternal [odds ratio (OR) 5.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17–13.33] and maternal suicide (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.82–23.91). The corresponding risk estimates associated with paternal and maternal deaths from non-suicidal causes were much lower, at 1.88 and 1.94 respectively. The risk of suicide in male adolescents was significantly associated with prior history of paternal death by suicide (OR 8.23, 95% CI 2.96–22.90) but not of maternal death by suicide (OR 3.50, 95% CI 0.41–30.13). On the other contrary, the risk of suicidal death in female adolescents was significantly associated with prior history of maternal suicide (OR 9.71, 95% CI 1.89–49.94) but not of paternal suicide (OR 2.42, 95% CI 0.30–19.57). However, these differences did not reach statistical significance.
Although limited by sample size, our study indicates that adolescent offspring suicidal death is associated with prior history of their same-sex parent's death by suicide.
The medical records of 84 patients with stool cultures positive for Clostridium difficile during the period August 2007 to June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. A case of confirmed (toxigenic) C. difficile infection (CDI) was defined by the presence of symptoms (fever, diarrhoea, abdominal discomfort or distension, ileus) and the presence of toxigenic C. difficile. Patients with compatible clinical symptoms and stool cultures positive for non-toxigenic C. difficile isolates were defined as probable (non-toxigenic) CDI cases. Of these 84 patients, 50 (59·5%) were diagnosed as confirmed CDI and 34 (40·5%) as probable CDI. Thirteen (15·5%) of the 84 patients died during their hospital stay. Usage of proton pump inhibitors was a significant independent risk factor for CDI (OR 3·21, P = 0·014). Of the 50 isolates associated with confirmed CDI, seven (8·3%) carried binary toxin genes (cdtAB), and six (7·1%) had a deletion in the tcdC gene. The mortality rate in confirmed CDI patients with isolates exhibiting deletion in the tcdC gene (2/6, 33·3%), those with isolates harbouring binary toxin genes (2/7, 28·6%), and those with isolates containing mutations in gyrA (2/7, 28·6%) and gyrB (1/2, 50%) was higher than the overall mortality rate (10/50, 20%) in patients with confirmed CDI.
Shigella flexneri 4a caused sustained outbreaks in a large long-stay psychiatric centre, Taiwan, 2001–2006. Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (SXT) prophylaxis was administered in 2004. We recovered 108 S. flexneri 4a isolates from 83 symptomatic (including one caregiver) and 12 asymptomatic subjects (11 contacts, one caregiver). The isolates were classified into eight antibiogram types and 15 genotypes (six clusters) by using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of NotI-digested DNA, respectively. These characteristics altered significantly after SXT prophylaxis (P < 0·05), with concomitant emergence of SXT-resistant isolates in two antibiogram types. P01 (n = 71), the predominant epidemic genotype, caused infection in two caregivers and five patients under their care; two P01 isolates were recovered from the same patient 6 months apart. These results indicate the importance of sustained person-to-person transmission of S. flexneri 4a by long-term convalescent, asymptomatic or caregiver carriers, and support the emergence of SXT-resistant strains following selective pressure by SXT prophylaxis.
The purpose of this study was to understand the seasonal, geographical and clinical characteristics of Taiwanese patients hospitalized for non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections and their economic burden. Hospital data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) database between 2006 and 2008 were analysed. Infants had the highest annual incidence of 525 cases/100 000 person-years. Elderly patients aged >70 years had the highest in-hospital mortality rate (2·6%). Most (82·6%) gastroenteritis occurred in children aged <10 years. Septicaemia, pneumonia, arthritis and osteomyelitis occurred mainly in patients aged >50 years. A median medical cost for NTS-associated hospitalizations was higher for patients with septicaemia than for those with gastroenteritis. Seasonal variation of NTS-associated hospitalizations was correlated with temperature in different areas of Taiwan. In summary, infants had a high incidence of NTS-associated hospitalizations. However, the elderly had a higher in-hospital mortality rate and more invasive NTS infections than children.