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The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
Transition metal dichalcogenides are 2D structures with remarkable electronic, chemical, optical and mechanical properties. Monolayer and crystal properties of these structures have been extensively investigated, but a detailed understanding of the properties of their few-layer structures are still missing. In this work we investigated the mechanical differences between monolayer and multilayer WSe2 and MoSe2, through fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations (MD). It was observed that single layer WSe2/MoSe2 deposited on silicon substrates have larger friction coefficients than 2, 3 and 4 layered structures. For all considered cases it is always easier to peel off and/or to fracture MoSe2 structures. These results suggest that the interactions between first layer and substrate are stronger than interlayer interactions themselves. Similar findings have been reported for other nanomaterials and it has been speculated whether this is a universal-like behavior for 2D layered materials. We have also analyzed fracture patterns. Our results show that fracture is chirality dependent with crack propagation preferentially perpendicular to W(Mo)-Se bonds and faster for zig-zag-like defects.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
Cicatricial pemphigoid can affect all mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract; however, hypopharyngeal involvement is less frequent.
This paper presents a 69-year-old male diagnosed as having cicatricial pemphigoid who was experiencing difficulty swallowing. Videofluorography with barium swallow demonstrated narrow flow through the medial hypopharynx, but not through the lateral hypopharynx. Direct laryngoscopy revealed that the postcricoid hypopharyngeal lumen had become narrow due to circumferential scar formation. Interestingly, detached thin membranous webs were observed beyond the circumferential scar.
This report describes important videofluorographic and direct laryngoscopic findings showing rare hypopharyngeal involvement in a case of cicatricial pemphigoid.
Δ14C values of leaves of deciduous trees provide a means to map the regional-scale fossil fuel ratio in the atmosphere. We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus, a deciduous tree) leaf samples from across Korea in the month of July in both 2010 and 2011 to obtain the regional distribution of Δ14C. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). The average of the Δ14C values from clean air sites in Korea in 2011 measured slightly lower than the average of Δ14C values in 2010. Distribution maps of Δ14C of 2011 and 2010 in Korea were made based on a series of Δ14C values of ginkgo leaf samples from Korea using the Geostatistical and Spatial analyst tools in ESRI's ArcMap software. The distribution maps of Δ14C showed that Δ14C values in the western part of Korea are lower than those in the eastern part of Korea. This is because the western part of Korea is densely populated and contains many industrial complexes, and also because westerly winds from China, containing CO2 from fossil fuel use, blow into Korea. We compared the distribution maps of 2010 and 2011 and tried to find traces of the Fukushima power plant accident in Japan.
As the Nobeyama Radio Observatory Legacy Project: Survey of Giant Molecular Clouds in M33, we have been mapping M33 in CO(1-0) with the multi-beam receiver BEARS equipped on the 45-m telescope using the OTF mapping technique since 2007. The purpose of this project is to investigate the physical properties of GMCs and understand the evolutionary process from GMC formation to star formation in GMCs by comparing with various data such as CO(3-2), 1.1 mm continuum obtained with ASTE10m telescope at Atacama and the optical data obtained with SUBARU. We identified 87 GMCs using the first year data of CO(1-0) and observed 28 GMCs among them in CO(3-2) with ASTE (Onodera 2009, PhD thesis, University of Tokyo). From the comparison of these lines, it was shown that the CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio increases with star forming activity in the GMCs. Furthermore, we found that more massive GMCs tend to have higher CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio. Since the ratio is thought to be an indicator of the fraction of warm and dense molecular gas, our results imply that the fraction of warm and dense gas increases with GMC mass. Especially, since the ratio in the GMCs with low star forming activity is in the range where the ratio depends mainly on the density, we speculate that dense gas fraction increases with GMC mass.
Wepresent 12CO(J = 3–2) and 12CO(J = 1–0) observations
of the supergiant Hii region NGC 604 in the nearest face-on
spiral galaxy M 33 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope
Experiment (ASTE) 10-m and the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) 45-m
telescopes. We found high 12CO(J = 3–2)/12CO(J = 1–0)
ratio gas with an arc-like distribution (“high-ratio gas arc”)
surrounding the central star cluster of NGC 604. Our results
suggest that dense gas formation and second-generation star
formation occur in the surrounding gas compressed by the stellar
wind and/or supernova of the first-generation stars of NGC 604,
i.e., the central star cluster of NGC 604. Thus, NGC 604 is an
example of large-scale sequential star formation.
We report our recent progress on extragalactic spectroscopic and continuum observations,
including HCN(J=1–0), HCO+(J=1–0), and CN(N=1–0) imaging surveys
of local Seyfert and starburst galaxies
using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array,
high-J CO observations (J=3–2 observations
using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE)
and J=2–1 observations with the Submillimeter Array) of galaxies,
and λ 1.1 mm continuum observations of high-z violent starburst galaxies
using the bolometer camera AzTEC mounted on ASTE.
We made a CO(1 – 0) mapping survey of 40 nearby spiral galaxies with the Nobeyama 45-m telescope to provide useful data for detailed and systematic studies of molecular gas in the galaxies (Kuno et al. 2006). Using these data we have compared the distribution of molecular gas in barred and non-barred spirals and investigated the influence of the bar. We confirmed that the degree of the central concentration of molecular gas within the radial distances of the order of a bar length in barred spirals is significantly higher than that in non-barred spirals as shown by Sakamoto et al. (1999) and Sheth et al. (2005). This is contrast with the degree of the concentration of the total molecular gas mass within the radial distances of the order of the bar, which is similar for both barred and non-barred spirals. This implies that the bars appear to be efficient in driving gas that lies within their radial scales toward the center of the host galaxies, but that they play quite a smaller role at larger spatial scales on the disks. Thus the characteristic feature of the radial distribution of molecular gas seen in barred spirals, i.e. the strong intensity peaks at their centers, the shallow gradients within the bar regions or/and the secondary peaks at the radius of the bar-ends, can be explained by the accumulation of molecular gas within the bar regions. The accumulated gas by bars accounts for about half of molecular gas mass within the central region. We also found a correlation between the degree of central concentration of molecular gas and the bar strength. Galaxies with stronger bars tend to have higher central concentrations. The result indicates that stronger bar accumulate molecular gas toward the center more efficiently. The correlation between the degree of central concentration of molecular gas and the strength seems to be consistent with long-lived bars rather than short-lived ones which are destroyed by the gas accumulation toward the center many times in the Hubble time.
We present the high-resolution 12CO(J = 1 − 0), 13CO(J = 1 − 0) and 12CO(J = 3 − 2) maps toward a GMA located on the southern arm region of M31 using Nobeyama 45 m and ASTE 10 m telescopes. The GMA consists of two velocity-components, i.e., red and blue. The blue component shows a strong and narrow peak, whereas the red one shows a weak and broad profile. The red component has a lower 12CO(J = 1 − 0)/13CO(J = 1 − 0) ratio (~ 5) than that of the blue one (~ 16), indicating that the red component is denser than the blue one. The red component could be the decelerated gas if we consider the galactic rotational velocity in this region. We suggest that the red component is “post shock” dense gas decelerated due to a spiral density wave. This could be observational evidence of dense molecular gas formation due to galactic shock by spiral density waves.
We also present results from on-going observations toward NGC 604, which is the supergiant HII region of M33, using Nobeyama 45 m and ASTE 10 m telescopes. The ratio of 12CO(J = 3 − 2) to 12CO(J = 1 − 0) ranges from 0.3 to 1.2 in NGC 604. The 12CO(J = 1 − 0) map shows the clumpy structure while 12CO(J = 3 − 2) shows a strong peak near to the central star cluster of NGC 604. The high ratio gas is distributed on the arc-like or shell-like structure along with Hα emission and HII region detected by radio continuum. These suggest that the dense gas formation and second generation star formation occur in the surrounding gas compressed by the stellar wind and/or supernova in central star cluster.
A novel process to fabricate a thick silica gel film on an aluminum substrate, named the “gap filling method”, has been developed. The process is based on a sol-gel method accompanied by phase separation in a submillimeter thick space defined by two facing substrates. Dielectric thick film integrated on a metal ground plate is successfully formed by using a SiO2 coated aluminum substrate and a cap plate covered with an amorphous carbon thin film, which control the hydrophilicity and the hydrophobicity of the plates, respectively. A thin continuous layer of less than 0.5 μm thick is formed at the interface between the porous film and the cap plate, which gives the film a smooth surface preferable for patterning metal circuits of an antenna. The observed dielectric constants (εr) at 60 GHz measured by the Fabry-Perot resonator method are in the range between 1.4 and 1.6. Methyl groups homogeneously distributed in the siloxane network give a hydrophobic siloxane gel film, thus the obtained films have enough environmental stability. These results show that the gap filling method is applicable to the preparation of the porous thick film that is needed for antenna applications.
Zn1-yMgyO bandgap controllable transparent conducting films were used for the wide-gap Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film solar cells. Undoped Zn1-yMgyO and Al doped Zn1-yMgyO films were deposited by co-sputtering using a carousel type sputtering apparatus. Zn1-yMgyO films with Mg content y of up to 0.10 were examined. For Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 with band gap energy ˜1.38 eV, the cell performance was slightly improved by using Zn1-yMgyO and Al doped Zn1-yMgyO instead of ZnO and Al doped ZnO. An unexpected improvement of short circuit current density was observed.
Synthetic conditions for the preparation of amphiphilic two-photon absorptive poly(ethylene glycolated) diphenylaminofluorenefullerene conjugates C60(>DPAF-PEG6) were investigated. UV-vis spectra of C60(>DPAF-PEG6) collected at the concentration of 1.0 × 10–5 M in water showed absorption bands with a slight red shift, broadened, and in a less intensity as compared with those of the bands obtained in CHCl3. These features are important characteristics of C60(>DPAF-PEG6) molecular aggregation in water. Transmission electron micrographs taken at the concentration of 1.0 × 10–5 M in H2O clearly displayed images of spherical aggregates in a diameter of 200–400 nm. That substantiated high hydrophobic intermolecular interactions between these amphiphilic molecules for assemblies in water.
A family of nonlinear optical chromophores has been synthesized containing novel donor systems based on functionalized guanidines. Chromophores utilizing these donor systems display superior transparency and stability properties. The unusual and highly desirable characteristics of these chromophores make them very promising candidates for electro-optic applications. Systematic study of the molecular hyperpolarizabilities and bulk electro-optic properties of polymers containing these chromophores is being used to guide optimization of these systems.
An efficient flexible top-emitting organic light-emitting device (OLED) was fabricated on an aluminum-laminated polyethylene terephthalate substrate. A spin-coated light-emitting polymer layer was sandwiched between a silver anode and a multi-layered semitransparent cathode. The performance of polymer OLEDs was analyzed and compared with that of the devices having a conventional structure. An optical microcavity formed in the device enables to tune the emission color by varying the thickness of the active polymer layer. The OLEDs having a 110-nm-thick active polymer layer exhibited superior electroluminescence performance, with a turn-on voltage of 2.5V and a luminance efficiency of 4.56 cd/A at an operating voltage of 10V.
The geometrical properties of co-continuous macroporous silica monoliths have been studied by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and a comparison with mercury intrusion method has been made. From three-dimensional images obtained by LSCM observation, probability density distributions of curvatures have been calculated on gel skeleton surface by the “sectioning and fitting method”. Measured liquid transport behavior in macroporous siloxane gels has been related to the obtained curvature distributions.
Eu3+ doped Y2O3 and Lu2O3 nanocrystalline powders were synthesized via combustion technique using urea as a fuel and the metal nitrates as oxidants. The compacted nanopowders were vacuum sintered in order to form the translucent ceramics. A significant enhancement of emission characteristics was observed from the ceramics synthesized from the nanoparticles by controlling the vacuum-sintering conditions. Although the processed ceramics display superior emission characteristics, the nanocrystalline phosphor powders also display reasonably good emission characteristics. Highly epitaxial Y2O3:Eu3+ and Lu2O3:Eu3+ films were deposited on various substrates under different growth and optimization conditions using pulsed-laser deposition technique using high-density translucent ceramic target. Superior spectroscopic performance was obtained on films grown on sapphire substrates due to high-quality and epitaxial nature of the film.