To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a type of behavioural addictions. One of the key features of addiction is the excessive exposure to addictive objectives (e.g. drugs) reduces the sensitivity of the brain reward system to daily rewards (e.g. money). This is thought to be mediated via the signals expressed as dopaminergic reward prediction error (RPE). Emerging evidence highlights blunted RPE signals in drug addictions. However, no study has examined whether IGD also involves alterations in RPE signals that are observed in other types of addictions.
To fill this gap, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 45 IGD and 42 healthy controls (HCs) during a reward-related prediction-error task and utilised a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to characterise the underlying neural correlates of RPE and related functional connectivity.
Relative to HCs, IGD individuals showed impaired reinforcement learning, blunted RPE signals in multiple regions of the brain reward system, including the right caudate, left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Moreover, the PPI analysis revealed a pattern of hyperconnectivity between the right caudate, right putamen, bilateral DLPFC, and right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in the IGD group. Finally, linear regression suggested that the connection between the right DLPFC and right dACC could significantly predict the variation of RPE signals in the left OFC.
These results highlight disrupted RPE signalling and hyperconnectivity between regions of the brain reward system in IGD. Reinforcement learning deficits may be crucial underlying characteristics of IGD pathophysiology.
The present study investigated the association between dietary patterns and hypertension applying the Chinese Dietary Balance Index-07 (DBI-07).
A cross-sectional study on adult nutrition and chronic disease in Inner Mongolia. Dietary data were collected using 24 h recall over three consecutive days and weighing method. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Generalized linear models and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between DBI-07 and dietary patterns, and between dietary patterns and hypertension.
Inner Mongolia (n 1861).
A representative sample of adults aged ≥18 years in Inner Mongolia.
Four major dietary patterns were identified: ‘high protein’, ‘traditional northern’, ‘modern’ and ‘condiments’. Generalized linear models showed higher factor scores in the ‘high protein’ pattern were associated with lower DBI-07 (βLBS = −1·993, βHBS = −0·206, βDQD = −2·199; all P < 0·001); the opposite in the ‘condiments’ pattern (βLBS = 0·967, βHBS = 0·751, βDQD = 1·718; all P < 0·001). OR for hypertension in the highest quartile of the ‘high protein’ pattern compared with the lowest was 0·374 (95 % CI 0·244, 0·573; Ptrend < 0·001) in males. OR for hypertension in the ‘condiments’ pattern was 1·663 (95 % CI 1·113, 2·483; Ptrend < 0·001) in males, 1·788 (95 % CI 1·155, 2·766; Ptrend < 0·001) in females.
Our findings suggested a higher-quality dietary pattern evaluated by DBI-07 was related to decreased risk for hypertension, whereas a lower-quality dietary pattern was related to increased risk for hypertension in Inner Mongolia.
Multiple drug resistance (MDR) intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are associated with noteworthy direct and societal costs. Compared to previous studies, the present one takes both resistance rate and total medical costs (TMCs) into consideration, focusing on the impact of MDR on TMCs in IAIs, as well as further estimating the additional costs at a national level.
All inpatients discharged between 1 January 2014, and 31 December 2015 from a teaching hospital were included. Due to limits in budget and the large number of inpatients, the randombetween (bottom, top) function was applied to randomly select 40 percent of patients per year. Subsequently, we manually screened out 254 patients with IAIs, according to the International Classification of Disease (tenth revision) and electronic medical records. Eventually, 101 IAIs patients were included, in which 37 were infected by non-MDR bacteria and 64 by MDR bacteria. The Kruskal-wallis non-parametric test and multiple linear regression were employed to analyze the effect of single and multiple variables on TMCs.
Compared to patients with non-MDR infections, those with MDR were associated with significantly higher TMCs, higher antimicrobial costs, increased insurance, combination antimicrobial therapy, higher usage of antimicrobial agents, greater number of pathogens, longer length of stay, and longer intensive care unit stays. In addition, the average TMCs among patients with MDR were CNY131,801.17 (1USD was equal to CNY 6.227 in 2015), which were CNY 90,200.99 higher than those with non-MDR infections. If our results are generalizable to the whole country, the total attributable TMCs are estimated to be CNY37.06 billion, and the societal costs of CNY111.18 billion in 2015.
This real-world data analysis demonstrated the significant excessive burden MDR infections are posing to the current Chinese healthcare system in terms of both TMCs and healthcare resource utilization. Enhanced antimicrobial stewardship in China is necessary to curb the distribution of MDR bacteria.
To selectively detect Cu2+ ions is very important for controlling daily intake of Cu2+ ions and monitoring numerous biological processes. Fluorescence spectroscopic technique is a useful one for detection of copper ions. Previous methods always involve the use of metal Cd-based quantum dots (QDs), which suffer to the photobleaching and subsequent release of toxic metal ions. Herein, a simple method has been developed to detect Cu2+ ions by using pristine graphene QDs. Graphene QDs are synthesized by chemical oxidation of pitch graphite fibers. Our results indicate the photoluminescence (PL) of as-synthesized graphene QDs could be quenched by a group of metal ions while adding biothiol cysteine can only cause the significant recovery of the PL of graphene QDs quenched by Cu2+ ions. Our approach provides an easy and environmental friendly method for detection of Cu2+ ions and has the potential for future practical applications.
Recent studies have shown that graphene paper (GP) is a promising candidate for novel applications in energy storage systems such as electrical batteries and supercapacitors. In this study, a low-cost and free-standing GP was produced by graphene oxide paper (GOP) in the thermal reduction method which heated GOP slowly to 500 °C in a special fixture. In the process of reduction, oxygen functional groups were decomposed and graphene oxide (GO) sheets were reduced to grapene sheets. Moreover, the smooth paper-like structure was maintained by the protection of the special fixture during the heat treatment. The GP paper showed good electrochemical property. The electrical conductivity of the GP reached 182 S cm−1 after the decomposition of oxygen functional groups. The GP as binder-free anodes of lithium ion batteries afforded a capacity of 576 mAh g−1 with good cycling stability.
The evolution of arid environments in northern China was a major environmental change during the Quaternary. Here we present the dating and environmental proxy results from a 35 m long core (A-WL10ZK-1) collected from the Ulan Buh Desert (UBD), along with supplemental data from four other cores. The UBD is one of the main desert dune fields in China and our results indicate the UBD has undergone complex evolution during the late Quaternary. Most of the present UBD was covered by a Jilantai-Hetao Mega-paleolake lasting until ~ 90 ka ago. A sandy desert environment prevailed throughout the UBD during the last glacial period and early Holocene. A wetland environment characterized by the formation of numerous interdunal ponds in the northern UBD occurred at ~ 8–7 ka, although a dune field persisted in the southern UBD. The modern UBD landscape formed after these wetlands dried up. During the last 2000 years, eolian sand from the Badain Jaran Desert has invaded the northern UBD, while farming and overgrazing resulted in the formation of the eastern UBD. We suggest that the formation of UBD landforms is related to the disintegration of the megalake Jilantai-Hetao and to summer monsoon changes during the last glaciation and Holocene.
The structure of Ag nanoparticles, embedded in crystalline SiO2 by high-dose implantation, was investigated. It was found that single crystal is favored over multiple-twinned particles. In addition, the contracted (111) lattice spacing of the Ag nanocrystals was measured by x-ray diffraction.
Transport, cleanup, and bioremediation properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bound to sediments depend on the specific components to which the PCBs are bound. Analysis of the sediment from Contaminant Cove on the St. Lawrence River by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector shows that the sediment contains 600 ppm PCBs. Previous work showed that there were both weak and strong binding of PCBs to sediment components, but gave no indication of which components were responsible for the binding.2 The average content of PCBs is below the limit of detectability by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX) for CI, but constituents which bind large quantities of PCBs could be detected. Sediment which is not contaminated with PCBs contains no detectable chlorine.
EDX analysis was performed on a JEOL JEM-4000FX, using a cryo-stage (operated at -160° C) and a Tracor TN5500 system.
Individual rings from 1899–1990 were pooled from four radii of four cross-sections obtained from trees at a managed forest site near Huangling, north of Xian in north central China. Splits of wood ground to 20-mesh were analyzed independently at both the Xian and Arizona laboratories, using their respective methods for cellulose isolation, combustion and mass-spectrometric analysis. The δ13C results were highly correlated (r2 = 0.66) and absolute values typically within 0.2–0.3‰. Inter-tree variability was estimated as 1–1.5‰. The Huangling δ13C curve shows an overall downward trend with year-to-year fluctuations of up to 1.5‰ superimposed. A subset of δ13C maxima corresponded with below-normal precipitation and above-normal temperature in May and June, and minima were associated with above-normal precipitation and below-normal temperature in May and June, perhaps signaling early arrival of the East Asian Summer Monsoon. The generally poor climate correlations with all δ13C values, however, could be a consequence of the fairly mesic environment or of human disturbance. Chronologies of isotopic discrimination (δ) and Ci/Ca had flat slopes, suggesting the δ13C trend was driven by global rather than local effects.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.