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Giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca exhibits are popular attractions for zoos and wildlife parks. However, it remains to be investigated whether such exhibits enhance visitor knowledge about pandas and broader conservation issues. We conducted questionnaire surveys at giant panda exhibits at three city zoos and five wildlife parks in China. Although visitors were generally interested in the giant panda, this was not reflected in their post-exhibit knowledge of giant panda biology. Socio-demographically, men were more knowledgeable of giant panda biology than women. Knowledge correlated positively with respondent level of education. Younger respondents (< 45 years) knew most about giant pandas and expressed an interest in learning more about them using social media. The most informed respondents had visited other giant panda exhibits previously. Respondents were generally satisfied with the giant panda exhibits (mean score 4.44/5). Wildlife parks delivered a better educational outcome than city zoos. We recommend approaches to improve the visitor experience further and to leverage public interest in broader conservation engagement and action in China.
Nonlinear compression has become an obligatory technique along with the development of ultrafast lasers in generating ultrashort pulses with narrow pulse widths and high peak power. In particular, techniques of nonlinear compression have experienced a rapid progress as ytterbium (Yb)-doped lasers with pulse widths in the range from hundreds of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds have become mainstream laser tools for both scientific and industrial applications. Here, we report a simple and stable nonlinear pulse compression technique with high efficiency through cascaded filamentation in air followed by dispersion compensation. Pulses at a center wavelength of 1040 nm with millijoule pulse energy and 160 fs pulse width from a high-power Yb:CaAlGdO4 regenerative amplifier are compressed to 32 fs, with only 2.4% loss from the filamentation process. The compressed pulse has a stable output power with a root-mean-square variation of 0.2% over 1 hour.
The age-related heterogeneity in major depressive disorder (MDD) has received significant attention. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such heterogeneity still need further investigation. This study aimed to explore the common and distinct functional brain abnormalities across different age groups of MDD patients from a large-sample, multicenter analysis.
The analyzed sample consisted of a total of 1238 individuals including 617 MDD patients (108 adolescents, 12–17 years old; 411 early-middle adults, 18–54 years old; and 98 late adults, > = 55 years old) and 621 demographically matched healthy controls (60 adolescents, 449 early-middle adults, and 112 late adults). MDD-related abnormalities in brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns were investigated in each age group separately and using the whole pooled sample, respectively.
We found shared FC reductions among the sensorimotor, visual, and auditory networks across all three age groups of MDD patients. Furthermore, adolescent patients uniquely exhibited increased sensorimotor-subcortical FC; early-middle adult patients uniquely exhibited decreased visual-subcortical FC; and late adult patients uniquely exhibited wide FC reductions within the subcortical, default-mode, cingulo-opercular, and attention networks. Analysis of covariance models using the whole pooled sample further revealed: (1) significant main effects of age group on FCs within most brain networks, suggesting that they are decreased with aging; and (2) a significant age group × MDD diagnosis interaction on FC within the default-mode network, which may be reflective of an accelerated aging-related decline in default-mode FCs.
To summarize, these findings may deepen our understanding of the age-related biological and clinical heterogeneity in MDD.
Family functioning is associated with anxiety and depression. Perinatal depression and anxiety are common and influence the well-being of women, partners and their offspring. However, little is known about differences in associations between family functioning and mood symptoms in women and their partners in early pregnancy.
Investigating differences in associations between family functioning and anxious and depressive symptoms in women and their partners in early pregnancy.
In total, 171 woman–partner pairs were enrolled. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item scale (GAD-7) and Family Assessment Device (FAD) were performed. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were applied to investigate the associations.
In pregnant women, all the subscale scores on the FAD were correlated with total scores on the EPDS and GAD-7 (all P < 0.05), whereas only the Roles subscale showed a predicting effect in regression models (P < 0.01). In partners, all the subscale scores on the FAD were related to total scores on the PHQ-9 (all P < 0.05), whereas only the Problem Solving subscale showed a predicting effect (P = 0.029).
Our findings indicate that family functioning in the domain of roles is associated with anxious and depressive symptoms in pregnant women and functioning in the domain of problem solving is associated with depressive symptoms in partners. Clinicians should pay special attention to roles and problem solving when assessing mood symptoms in pregnant women and their partners. This study also provides a basis for family health education in early pregnancy.
To investigate the effects of dietary fibre on follicular atresia in pigs fed a high-fat diet, we fed thirty-two prepubescent gilts a basal diet (CON) or a CON diet supplemented with 300 g/d dietary fibre (fibre), 240 g/d soya oil (SO) or both (fibre + SO). At the 19th day of the 4th oestrus cycle, gilts fed the SO diet showed 112 % more atretic follicles and greater expression of the apoptotic markers, Bax and caspase-3, and these effects were reversed by the fibre diet. The abundance of SCFA-producing microbes was decreased by the SO diet, but this effect was reversed by fibre treatment. Concentrations of serotonin and melatonin in the serum and follicular fluid were increased by the fibre diet. Overall, dietary fibre protected against high fat feeding-induced follicular atresia at least partly via gut microbiota-related serotonin–melatonin synthesis. These results provide insight into preventing negative effects on fertility in humans consuming a high-energy diet.
China has made great achievements in health insurance coverage and healthcare financing. Nonetheless, the rate of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) in China was 13 percent in 2008, which is higher than in some other countries. There are differences among the provinces in China in terms of the lifestyles, customs, prevalent medical conditions, and health consciousness of their populations. This study aimed to compare the proportion of households with CHE and the factors influencing this expenditure between the Zhejiang and Qinghai province in China.
Data were derived from household surveys conducted in Zhejiang and Qinghai. Sampling was based on a multi-stage, stratified random cluster method. Households with CHE were defined as those with an out-of-pocket payment for health care that was at least 40 percent of the household income. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with CHE.
A total of 1,598 households were included: 995 in Zhejiang and 603 in Qinghai. The average rates of CHE in Zhejiang and Qinghai were 10 percent and 31 percent, respectively. The economic status of a household influenced the likelihood of experiencing CHE; households headed by an employed person were less likely to experience CHE. In contrast, households that included outpatients or individuals with chronic diseases had a higher risk of experiencing CHE across the two provinces. Poorer or uninsured households in Zhejiang were more likely to experience CHE, as were households in Qinghai that included outpatients or were headed by a person from a minority nationality.
This study highlighted the importance of promoting economic development, expanding employment, and adjusting policies to better protect individuals with chronic diseases and outpatients from the risk of CHE. The Chinese government should pay more attention to actual conditions in different provinces to ensure that policy decisions incorporate local knowledge.
The aim of the study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of esophageal cancer (EC) screening compared to non-screening in China.
A Markov model was conducted that followed the history of EC. Screening strategies targeted a population aged 40-69 years, classified into six age groups. Each age group had three cohorts: screening without follow-up, screening with yearly follow-up for low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), and non-screening. Life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) presented the effectiveness and utility. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) were evaluating indicators. Eighteen cohorts from 100,000 hypothetical individuals were used to run the model, until aged 79 years or death. Costs were changed into USD using the purchasing power parity of 3.506 in 2017. The willingness-to-pay was set as three times the gross domestic product per capita (USD 51,340.6) in 2017. A sensitivity analysis was introduced to assess model robustness.
Screening with follow-up compared to non-screening, ages 40-44, 45-49, and 50-54 years, showed cost-effectiveness, with one LY gained costing USD 6,875.0, USD 9,204.6, and USD 25,278.6, respectively. Ages 40-44 and 45-49 years explained cost-utility, with ICURs of USD 6,709.4/QALY and USD 13,991.4/QALY, respectively. Screening without follow-up compared to non-screening, ages 40-54 years, addressed cost-effectiveness, with one LY gained costing USD 6,934.8, USD 9,760.0, and USD 35,126.0 in ages 40-44, 45-49, and 50-54 years, respectively; the 40-44 years age group demonstrated cost-utility with an ICUR of USD 8,512.3/QALY. Screening with follow-up compared to screening without follow-up, all ages, explained cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis supported the outcome of the base cohort analysis.
Compared to non-screening, screening with follow-up targeting ages 40-54 years was highly recommended with the ICER as the evaluated indicator, whereas it targeting ages 40-49 years was suggested with the ICUR as indicator.
There are multiple antidiabetic drugs available in China, which vary in their efficacy and safety. However, no study exists that compares all the classes of antidiabetic drugs simultaneously. This study aimed to estimate and compare the efficacy of alternative classes of antidiabetic drugs for Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, either in a monotherapy regimen or combined with metformin.
A systematic literature review was conducted by searching various literature databases to identify relevant randomized controlled trials published from 1990 to 2016. A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy of antidiabetic drug monotherapy and placebo or lifestyle interventions (i.e., diet and exercise), and antidiabetic drug plus metformin versus metformin alone, in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. An indirect comparison was used to estimate the efficacy of antidiabetic drug plus metformin versus placebo or lifestyle-intervention using metformin as the common comparator.
The database search identified 354 relevant studies. Compared with placebo or lifestyle interventions, combination therapies achieved greater reductions in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level (1.9% versus 0.9%), body mass index (BMI) (2.66 versus 0.98 kg/m2), and total cholesterol level (1.07 versus 0.35 mmol/L) than monotherapies. For monotherapies, the top three treatments for reducing HbA1c level were insulin, sulfonylurea, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. The top three monotherapies for reducing BMI level were metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, and α-glycosidase inhibitor. The top three monotherapies for reducing total cholesterol level were metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor. For combination therapies, the top three treatments for reducing HbA1c level were GLP-1 receptor agonist plus metformin, insulin plus metformin, and glinide plus metformin. The top three combination therapies for reducing BMI level were glinide plus metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonist plus metformin, and DPP-4 inhibitor plus metformin. The top three combination therapies for reducing total cholesterol level were insulin plus metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonist plus metformin, and α-glycosidase inhibitor plus metformin.
Pharmacological treatments had better efficacy than placebo or lifestyle interventions, while combination drug therapies were superior to monotherapies.
Studies show that the gain from China's remarkable growth of the past 35 years has not been evenly shared, especially through the intergenerational transmission of income. To address this concern, we use data from China Health and Nutrition Survey and find the intergenerational income elasticity to be 0.466 in 2011, which suggests that sons’ incomes are affected by their fathers’ economic statuses to a large extent. A cross-country comparison indicates that the degree of generational income mobility in China is lower than that in many developed nations. Meanwhile, by investigating possible transmission channels, we find that the fathers’ investments in the sons’ education and occupation play substantial roles in intergenerational transmission of income. The results not only demonstrate the trends in intergenerational income mobility in China, but also identify the most likely transmission channels, which is of great importance to improving social equality.
The effect of zirconium alloying on the crystal structures and mechanical properties of binary tungsten–zirconium alloys is investigated in this study using the first-principles method. Firstly, we investigate the cell volumes, lattice constants, and formation energies of binary W1−xZrx (x = 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.1875, 0.25, and 0.5) alloys. It is shown that binary tungsten–zirconium alloys maintain BCC structures. When the concentration of zirconium atoms is lower than 12.5%, the structures of binary tungsten–zirconium alloys can be thermodynamically stable. The elastic constants of binary tungsten–zirconium alloys are calculated based on the optimized atomic lattice. Then, the elastic modulus and other mechanical parameters are deduced according to the relevant formulas. It is shown that the mechanical strength of binary tungsten–zirconium alloy decreases with an increasing concentration of zirconium atoms, which is lower than the mechanical strength of pure tungsten metal. However, the mechanical strength of binary tungsten–zirconium alloys is higher than that of pure zirconium metal. In addition, zirconium alloying can be effective in improving the ductility of pure tungsten metal.
Multiple drug resistance (MDR) intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are associated with noteworthy direct and societal costs. Compared to previous studies, the present one takes both resistance rate and total medical costs (TMCs) into consideration, focusing on the impact of MDR on TMCs in IAIs, as well as further estimating the additional costs at a national level.
All inpatients discharged between 1 January 2014, and 31 December 2015 from a teaching hospital were included. Due to limits in budget and the large number of inpatients, the randombetween (bottom, top) function was applied to randomly select 40 percent of patients per year. Subsequently, we manually screened out 254 patients with IAIs, according to the International Classification of Disease (tenth revision) and electronic medical records. Eventually, 101 IAIs patients were included, in which 37 were infected by non-MDR bacteria and 64 by MDR bacteria. The Kruskal-wallis non-parametric test and multiple linear regression were employed to analyze the effect of single and multiple variables on TMCs.
Compared to patients with non-MDR infections, those with MDR were associated with significantly higher TMCs, higher antimicrobial costs, increased insurance, combination antimicrobial therapy, higher usage of antimicrobial agents, greater number of pathogens, longer length of stay, and longer intensive care unit stays. In addition, the average TMCs among patients with MDR were CNY131,801.17 (1USD was equal to CNY 6.227 in 2015), which were CNY 90,200.99 higher than those with non-MDR infections. If our results are generalizable to the whole country, the total attributable TMCs are estimated to be CNY37.06 billion, and the societal costs of CNY111.18 billion in 2015.
This real-world data analysis demonstrated the significant excessive burden MDR infections are posing to the current Chinese healthcare system in terms of both TMCs and healthcare resource utilization. Enhanced antimicrobial stewardship in China is necessary to curb the distribution of MDR bacteria.
The evolution of arid environments in northern China was a major environmental change during the Quaternary. Here we present the dating and environmental proxy results from a 35 m long core (A-WL10ZK-1) collected from the Ulan Buh Desert (UBD), along with supplemental data from four other cores. The UBD is one of the main desert dune fields in China and our results indicate the UBD has undergone complex evolution during the late Quaternary. Most of the present UBD was covered by a Jilantai-Hetao Mega-paleolake lasting until ~ 90 ka ago. A sandy desert environment prevailed throughout the UBD during the last glacial period and early Holocene. A wetland environment characterized by the formation of numerous interdunal ponds in the northern UBD occurred at ~ 8–7 ka, although a dune field persisted in the southern UBD. The modern UBD landscape formed after these wetlands dried up. During the last 2000 years, eolian sand from the Badain Jaran Desert has invaded the northern UBD, while farming and overgrazing resulted in the formation of the eastern UBD. We suggest that the formation of UBD landforms is related to the disintegration of the megalake Jilantai-Hetao and to summer monsoon changes during the last glaciation and Holocene.
Three-dimensional (3D) density distribution of inhomogeneous dense deuterium tritium plasmas in laser fusion is revealed by the energy loss of fast protons going through the plasmas. The fast protons generated in the laser–plasma interaction can be used for the simulation of a plasma density diagnostics. The large linear and ill-posed equation set of the densities of all grids is obtained and then solved by the Tikhonov regularization method after dividing a 3D area into grids and knowing the initial and final energies of the protons. 3D density reconstructions with six proton sources are done without and with random noises added to the final energy. The revealed density is a little smaller than the simulated one in most simulated zones and the error is as much as those of 2D reconstructions with four proton sources. The picture element N is chosen as 2744 with consideration of smoothness and calculation memory of the computers. With fast calculation speed and low error, the Tikhonov regularization method is more suitable for 3D density reconstructions with large calculation amount than simultaneous iterative reconstruction method. Also the analytical expressions between the errors and the noises are established. Furthermore, the density reconstruction method in this paper is particularly suitable for plasmas with small density gradient. The errors without noises and with 2% noises added to the final proton energies are 3 and 20%, respectively, for the homogeneous plasma.
Lead halide perovskites have proven their great power conversion efficiency (PCE) in the last few years and attracted more and more attentions. Evaporation is an important method to get high quality perovskite films, especially for surface and interface investigation, which is important for the solar cell performance. In this paper, we present our investigations on growing PbI2 and CH3NH3I films by evaporation, and then CH3NH3PbI3 films by co-evaporation. X-ray photoemisson spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the films. The results showed that CH3NH3I film was not stable in vacuum. Both N and I decreased in vacuum with time elapsing. PbI2 and CH3NH3PbI3 films are quite stable. The atomic ratio of CH3NH3PbI3 films (C: N: Pb: I =1.29:1.07:1.00:2.94) is very close to the ideal CH3NH3PbI3, which indicates that evaporation is a good method to get high quality perovskite films with accurate atomic ratio.
Methylammonium lead halide perovskites have been developed as highly promising
materials to fabricate efficient solar cells in the past few years. We have
investigated degradation of co-evaporated
CH3NH3PbI3 films in ambient air, oxygen and
water respectively using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), small angle
x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron
microscopy (SEM). The CH3NH3PbI3 film has an
excellent atomic ratio and crystallinity. XPS results indicate that the film is
not sensitive to oxygen and dry air, while ambient and water exposures achieve
similar effects. XRD further indicates a structural conversion to
PbI2 and a drastic morphology change from smooth to rough is revealed
by AFM and SEM. The experiment indicated that H2O plays a dominated
role in the degradation of CH3NH3PbI3 films.
The degradation can be characterized by almost complete removal of N,
substantial reduction of I, residual of PbI2, C, O, and I compounds
on the surface.
The Dong carpentry rule is reflective of the Dong's culture, traditions and construction methods related to human measurement. It is dimensioned by a comparable set of lucky and unlucky units instead of abstract geometries, indicating the favorable and unfavorable units that can be applied in construction. As a measurement system derived from the human body, the units celebrate more critical sections such as the head, feet or joints, relating to the proportions of the ‘master craftsman's body. Thus, on a construction site, the representation of the human body acts to convey scale and measurement, and particularly, this ruler holds the human proportion for sacred and public buildings, specifically Drum Towers and ‘Wind and Rain’ bridges. In this paper, the measuring system will be explored to show how it is made and assists the carpenters in dimensioning their buildings. This measurement system establishes a relationship between the construction and their beliefs.
The structure of Ag nanoparticles, embedded in crystalline SiO2 by high-dose implantation, was investigated. It was found that single crystal is favored over multiple-twinned particles. In addition, the contracted (111) lattice spacing of the Ag nanocrystals was measured by x-ray diffraction.
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