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It is important to know how much of the increased atmospheric CO2 is derived from fossil fuel emissions. Here, we review the progress in atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) tracing over recent years by measurement of Δ14C in Chinese cities. In this paper we make progress by expanding the analysis from some locations to more regional views, by combining observations with modeling, and by making a preliminary comparison of observation-derived CO2ff with inventory-derived CO2ff. We have obtained a general picture of Chinese urban CO2ff and characteristics of its spatio-temporal variations at different scale, and identified the corresponding influencing factors. Interestingly, we found that the weekend effect of CO2ff was less evident in Chinese cities. In addition, we observed simultaneous variations in CO2ff and PM2.5 in a winter haze event in Beijing and a simultaneous decrease in annual averages of CO2ff and PM2.5 in Xi’an based on multi-year (2011–2016) Δ14CO2 monitoring. We found that local coal combustion was the main source of CO2ff in Xi’an, which is located in the Guanzhong basin, by applying a WRF-Chem model and looking at δ13C signatures. Thus, reduction of coal consumption is a crucial target for carbon emissions reduction in China.
The reproductive cycle requires complex interactions and feedback between gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and the ovarian sex steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone. To improve the success rate of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) by optimizing oocyte retrieval, controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) has been widely performed. Exogenous gonadotropins were used to achieve supraphysiological levels during the follicular phase to override the process of dominant follicle selection and enable multiple follicular recruitment, which lead to a rapidly increasing serum estradiol level and induce a premature LH surge. GnRH agonist (GnRHa) and GnRH antagonist were used to prevent the premature LH surge and premature ovulation . In 2003, based on ultrasonographic studies, Baerwald et al. demonstrated that multiple cohorts or “waves” of 2–5 mm follicles were recruited continuously during a menstrual cycle, including in the luteal phase [2;3].
Lacustrine sediments are important archives for paleoclimate research, but there are evident carbon reservoir effects. Radiocarbon (14C) ages of lake sediments must be corrected for these effects before applying them to paleoclimate research. The authors review the lacustrine research from the last 20 years from different climatic regions in China, and systematically investigate the 14C age and correction methods used in the studies of 81 lakes. It is found that the climate-vegetation cover and distribution of carbonate around lakes are dominant factor controlling radiocarbon reservoir effects. In eastern China, the average 14C reservoir age is about 500 14C years and is associated with relatively dense vegetation. However, in northwest China and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, widespread carbonate bedrock may markedly increase the radiocarbon reservoir age which frequently is about 1500 and 2500 14C years. A piecewise linear regression model provides more reliable 14C reservoir age correction that accounts for sedimentary facies and sedimentation rate changes. It is worth mentioning that when analyzing 14C ages deviated greatly from time sequence, the age anomalies may indicate important effects relevant to the study of climate and environmental changes.
Sites dated to the early late Pleistocene are still limited in North China, which has hindered the detailed analysis of the development of Paleolithic industries in the late Pleistocene in this area. The Youfangbei (YFB) site is a newly excavated small-flake-tool Paleolithic site near the Youfang (YF) microblade site in the Nihewan Basin, North China. Because the small-flake-tool industry still existed in the late part of the late Pleistocene and might be related to the emergence of microlithic industries, the relationship between the two sites needs to be determined through a chronological study. Two profiles were excavated, and most of the artifact assemblages were unearthed in the lower profile (T1) from a depth of 0.9 m from the bottom. In this study, the feldspar post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence method was applied to determine the age of the YFB site. Results showed that the upper profile was deposited from 86–0.5 ka, and the cultural layer in T1 yielded age of 124–82 ka, corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, with an irregular but generally mild climate. The age of the YFB site is too old to be directly related to that of the YF site, but it partly bridges a chronological gap of human occupation in the Nihewan Basin.
Thousands of Paleolithic artifacts have been recovered from Paleolithic sites in the Luonan Basin, in the upper South Luohe River of central China. Their discovery suggests that the basin was an important area for hominin settlement during the Pleistocene. However, the initial timing of this occupation and the environmental conditions for this period are still largely unknown. In addition, the sediments are not well dated and most of the artifacts lie on the surface. In an attempt to resolve these issues, a new systemic paleomagnetic analysis was carried out on the loess deposits that contain in situ stone tools. Our detailed loess–paleosol analyses of the stratigraphy of different sites in the basin and Chinese Loess Plateau shows the accumulation of the loess since at least 1.1 million years (Ma) ago. Moreover, recently discovered in situ cores, flakes and retouched stone tools in these deposits show that hominins used this region repeatedly from 0.8–0.7 Ma to 0.4–0.3 and 0.2–0.1 Ma. Pedostratigraphic analyses, magnetic susceptibility and carbon isotope analyses also indicate that these hominins lived in a subtropical to warm-temperate climate with broad-needle-leaf forest vegetation mixed with grasses.
Dating middle Pleistocene hominin occupations alongside the reconstruction of paleoenvironments in China between 700 and 100 ka has always been a challenging task. In this paper, we report thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) dating results for a Middle Paleolithic site in the Luonan Basin, central China, which we have named Longyadong Cave. The results suggest that the age of cave infilling and the deposition of sediments outside the cave range between 389 ± 18 and 274 ± 14 ka. These deposits are stratigraphically and geochronologically correlated with the L4 loess and S3 paleosol units of the typical loess–paleosol sequence of the Chinese Loess Plateau, and with Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 10 to 9, respectively. On the basis of these new ages and the available paleoenvironmental data, it is suggested that the Longyadong hominins might have occupied the site both in glacial and interglacial periods, demonstrating that they coped well with environmental change in this mountainous region in warm/wet and cold/dry climates. The study further implies that the hominins abandoned the Longyadong Cave between 274 ± 14 and 205 ± 19 ka, when it was sealed by alluvial and slope deposits.
Computer models suggest that the Holocene Optimum for East Asian summer monsoon precipitation occurred at different times in different regions of China. Previous studies indicate that this time-transgressive Holocene Optimum should have been experienced about 3000 yr ago in southern China. In this study we describe a section which allows us to test this timing directly. We have closely examined high-resolution eutrophic peat/mud sequences covering the past 18,000 cal yr at Dahu, Jiangxi, on the southern boundary of the mid subtropical zone in China. Late Pleistocene successions in the Dahu record indicate cooler and much wetter conditions relative to synchronous events in north-central China. Our results indicate that the Holocene Optimum occurred between ca. 10,000 and 6000 cal yr ago in southern China, consistent with the global pattern. Conditions were relatively dry and cold from 6000 to 4000 cal yr ago. Our data also support the conclusion that the last deglaciation to early Holocene in the south was much wetter, resulting in the formation of dense broad-leaved forests, which could have acted to moderate land temperature ∼10,000 to 6000 cal yr ago, yielding a stable early-Holocene climate. After 6000 cal yr, forest reduction led to unstable land temperatures, and possibly to a northerly shift of the subtropical high-pressure system. Whatever the mechanism, these changes resulted in decreased precipitation between 6000 and 4000 cal yr B.P. in southern China.
Radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) techniques were used to date total organic carbon and plant seeds in the lFs core sequence (36°48′N, 100°08′E) from Qinghai Lake, China. This core was drilled ∼18 m into Qinghai Lake sediments as part of an international cooperative research project, “Scientific Drilling at Qinghai Lake in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau: High-Resolution Paleoenvironmental Records of Eastern Asia Linked to Global Change,” which began in 2004. Based on the differences in lithology and total organic content (TOC) in core lFs, the core was divided into 3 sections for age-modeling purposes: the upper ∼499 cm lacustrine silty clay to clay; the middle unit of silty clay with silt layers from 499–901 cm; and the lower 901–1861 cm silty clay, loess-like silt, and fine sand layers. Three different approaches are applied to the reservoir age problem. First, a simple linear regression gives an offset of 1342 yr. If the core is divided into three sections, linear regressions can be applied separately for the three segments, which results in an age estimate for the average hardwater effect of ∼135 yr BP for the surface section up to 499 cm. If extrapolated for deeper sections, these results imply a higher reservoir offset for those two sections, which may be as much as 1143 and 2523 yr, but this assumes that there are no discontinuities in the core. A third approach using a wiggle-matching approach gave an offset of 196 yr. This study concludes that the reservoir age of Qinghai Lake is complex, but these new data add to our understanding of the 14C chronology of Qinghai Lake for the last 32 ka.
The chemical extraction of soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions from soils often does not produce satisfactory results for radiocarbon dating. In this study, a sequential pyrolysis technique was investigated. The soil was pyrolyzed at temperatures of 200, 400, 600, and 800 °C to partition organic carbon into pyrolytic volatile (Py-V) and pyrolytic residue (Py-R) fractions. The preliminary results show that the 14C dates of both fractions become progressively older as the pyrolysis temperature is increased. In addition, the ages of the Py-V fractions are consistently younger than the corresponding Py-R fractions extracted at the same temperature. Experimental results of known-age paleosol samples indicate that the Py-V fractions obtained between 600 and 800 °C yield the most reliable ages. This technique provides a new approach to improve the accuracy of 14C dating of loess-paleosol sequences.
A sample with a radiocarbon concentration estimated to be greater than 105 times Modern was inadvertently graphitized and measured in the Xi'an AMS system last year. Both the sample preparation lines and the ion source system were seriously contaminated and a series of cleaning procedures were carried out to remove the contamination from them. After repeated and careful cleaning as well as continuous flushing with dead CO2 gas, both systems have recovered from the contamination event. The machine background is back to 2.0 x 10–16 and the chemical blank is beyond 50 kyr.
We have carried out a multiproxy analysis of high-resolution eutrophic peat/mud, sand dune, and loess/paleosol sequences covering the Holocene period in both southern and northern China, in order to test the hypothesis of a time-transgressive Holocene optimum in the East Asian monsoon area (An et al. 2000). Samples were radiocarbon dated to establish the chronology. Our results indicate that the Holocene optimum occurred between ∼10,000–5000 cal yr ago in both southern and northern China, consistent with a global pattern rather than simply a local expression. Our data also support the conclusion that the evolution of Holocene climate in China is consistent with changes in Northern Hemisphere solar radiation.
A 3MV multi-element accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) has been installed in Xi'an, China, and preliminary tests have been completed. The results of both background and precision tests for 4 nuclides are 3.1 × 10–16, 0.2% (14C); 1.8 × 10–14, 1.4% (10Be); 2.3 × 10–15, 1.14% (26Al); and 2.0 × 10–14, 1.75% (129I). The unique features of this facility are the newly developed ion source accepting solid and CO2 samples; the specially designed low-energy injector, including a “beam blanking unit” and “Q-snout”; the acceleration tube structure with the combined magnetic and electrostatic suppression; and the function of the slit stabilization in the post-acceleration system. These features are discussed in terms of the end-user's point of view.
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