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A dual-band dual-linearly polarized waveguide slot array antenna is proposed in this paper. Two orthogonal slots share a short-circuit wall on broad side. The horizontal and vertical slots, which actualize dual-frequency bands and dual-linear polarization, generate vertically polarized electric fields in 9.39–9.78 GHz and horizontally polarized electric fields in 11.62–12.3 GHz, respectively. The equivalent permittivity of the waveguide is changed by two grooves at the bottom of the waveguide, which improves phase velocity. Two grooves can also reduce the distance between the elements while suppressing the side lobes. Compared to filling the medium in the waveguide, two grooves have less losses. Moreover, the antenna is simple with one input port. The array antenna also overcomes the problems of beam scanning compared with the traditional waveguide slot array antenna. A 1 × 8 antenna array is fabricated and measured to verify the design. The horizontal polarization is formed in 9.39–9.78 GHz, the vertical polarization is generated in 11.62–12.3 GHz, and the antenna gain can reach 15 dBi.
Everyone faces uncertainty on a daily basis. Two kinds of probability expressions, verbal and numerical, have been used to characterize the uncertainty that we face. Because our cognitive concept of living things differs from that of non-living things, and distinguishing cognitive concepts might have linguistic markers, we designed four studies to test whether people use different probability expressions when faced with animate or inanimate uncertainty. We found that verbal probability is the preferred way to express animate uncertainty, whereas numerical probability is the preferred way to express inanimate uncertainty. The “verbal-animate” and “numerical-inanimate” associations were robust enough to persist when tested with forced-choice response patterns regardless of the information (e.g., equally likely outcomes, frequencies, or personal beliefs) used to construct probabilities of events. When the response pattern was changed to free-responses, the associations were evident unless the subjects were asked to write their own probability predictions for vague uncertainty. Given that the world around us consists of both animate (i.e., living) and inanimate (i.e., non-living) things, “verbal-animate” and “numerical-inanimate” associations may play a major role in risk communication and may otherwise be useful for practitioners and consultants.
A novel wide 3-dB axial ratio (AR) circularly polarized 2 × 2 array antenna is proposed in this paper. The spindle-shaped coupling cavity with tilted waveguide is capable of generating circular polarization waves from incident linear waves, which improves the AR bandwidth (ARBW) of the antenna. With this structure, a similar amplitude of the two orthogonal transmitted wave components and a stable phase difference of nearly 90° can be generated. The circularly polarized antenna proposed herein has been fabricated. According to the measurement results, the operating bandwidth from 5.32 to 6.13 GHz is <−10 dB. In addition, the measured ARBW, which is below 3 dB, can cover the range of 5.41–6.02 GHz. The maximum gain of the antenna can attain 15.65 dBi, and the efficiency is better than 80%.
be the modular function obtained by applying the nth Hecke operator on the classical j-invariant. For
, we prove that between any two zeros of
on the unit circle of the fundamental domain, there is a zero of
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RFRP-3 synchronized with photoperiods on regulating the seasonal reproduction of striped hamsters. The striped hamsters were raised separately under long-day (LD; 16 h light/8 h dark), medium-day (MD; 12 h light/12 h dark) or short-day (SD; 8 h light/16 h dark) conditions for 8 weeks. RFRP-3 and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, testis or ovaries in three groups were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Melatonin (MLT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations in serum were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between RFRP-3 and GnRH mRNA and FSH and LH concentrations was also analyzed. MLT negatively regulated the expression of RFRP-3. Significant differences for RFRP-3 mRNA existed in the three groups, which positively correlated with the GnRH and the FSH and LH concentrations. RFRP-3 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly higher than those in ovaries or testis. RFRP-3 levels in the hypothalamus were significantly lower in female than in male under SD conditions, while those in ovaries were significantly higher than those in testes under LD conditions. MLT decreased RFRP neuron activity, and RFRP-3 regulated the reproduction of striped hamsters.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
In this study, differential mRNA expression patterns of prolactin receptor (PRLR) in the hypothalamus and gonads, and the correlation with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in striped hamster serum from spring, summer, autumn and winter were analyzed. Mature female and male striped hamsters in oestrus were used. Expression levels of PRLR in the hypothalamus, ovaries and testis from the summer and winter individuals were significantly higher compared with levels from the spring and autumn, whereas FSH and LH serum concentrations from summer and winter individuals were significantly lower compared with that from the spring and autumn. PRLR expression levels in hypothalamus, ovaries and testis were negatively correlated with FSH and LH serum concentrations, illustrating that PRLR might negatively regulate seasonal reproductive activity. PRLR expression levels in ovaries and testes were significantly higher compared with levels in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the regulative effects of PRLR in gonads might be significantly higher compared with that in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, PRLR expression levels from the spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons in the hypothalamus and gonads were significantly higher in females compared with levels in males, indicating that the regulative effect of PRLR might be sex dependent. Taken together, this study helps to understand in depth the seasonal regulative reproduction mechanism of striped hamsters to reasonably control population abundance.
People with serious mental illness are at great risk of suicide, but little is known about the suicide rates among this population. We aimed to quantify the suicide rates among people with serious mental illness (bipolar disorder, major depression, or schizophrenia).
PubMed and Web of Science were searched to identify studies published from 1 January 1975 to 10 December 2020. We assessed English-language studies for the suicide rates among people with serious mental illness. Random-effects meta-analysis was used. Changes in follow-up time and the suicide rates were presented by a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing (LOESS) curve. Suicide rate ratio was estimated for assessments of difference in suicide rate by sex.
Of 5014 identified studies, 41 were included in this analysis. The pooled suicide rate was 312.8 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 230.3–406.8). Europe was reported to have the highest pooled suicide rate of 335.2 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 261.5–417.6). Major depression had the highest suicide rate of 534.3 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 30.4–1448.7). There is a downward trend in suicide rate estimates over follow-up time. Excess risk of suicide in males was found [1.90 (95% CI 1.60–2.25)]. The most common suicide method was poisoning [21.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 3.7–50.4)].
The suicide rates among people with serious mental illness were high, highlighting the requirements for increasing psychological assessment and monitoring. Further study should focus on region and age differences in suicide among this population.
A mathematical model of variable inclination continuous transverse stub (VICTS) antenna for low sidelobe design is proposed in this paper. VICTS antenna is an antenna with continuous transverse stubs on the parallel-plate waveguide and additional branches attached to the transverse stubs to generate radiation. The antenna using this technique has high aperture efficiency and keeps a significant solution for high-gain antenna. However, the sidelobe level (SLL) of this antenna is relatively high and increases continuously as the pitch angle decreases. This paper presents a fast calculation model for the SLL of VICTS antennas using leaky-wave theory and antenna array theory. The full-wave simulation results and model calculation results are in good agreement, so this model can be used for SLL suppression of VICTS antennas in different frequency bands. By controlling the aperture field distribution to be tapered, the SLL is suppressed to − 23.7 dB using this mathematical model.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a public health emergency of international concern. The current study aims to explore whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are associated with the development of death in patients with COVID-19. A total of 131 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from 13 February 2020 to 14 March 2020 in a hospital in Wuhan designated for treating COVID-19 were enrolled in the current study. These 131 patients had a median age of 64 years old (interquartile range: 56–71 years old). Furthermore, among these patients, 111 (91.8%) patients were discharged and 12 (9.2%) patients died in the hospital. The pooled analysis revealed that the NLR at admission was significantly elevated for non-survivors, when compared to survivors (P < 0.001). The NLR of 3.338 was associated with all-cause mortality, with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 84.0% (area under the curve (AUC): 0.963, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.911–1.000; P < 0.001). In view of the small number of deaths (n = 12) in the current study, NLR of 2.306 might have potential value for helping clinicians to identify patients with severe COVID-19, with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 56.7% (AUC: 0.729, 95% CI 0.563–0.892; P = 0.063). The NLR was significantly associated with the development of death in patients with COVID-19. Hence, NLR is a useful biomarker to predict the all-cause mortality of COVID-19.
ALKS 3831, a combination of olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) in development for schizophrenia, is intended to mitigate olanzapine-associated weight gain. This thorough QT (tQT) study evaluated OLZ/SAM effects on electrocardiogram parameters.
In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, 100 patients with stable schizophrenia were randomized 3:2 to either receive OLZ/SAM 10/10 mg (therapeutic dose) on days 2–4, 20/20 mg on days 5–8, and 30/30 mg (supratherapeutic dose) on days 9–13 with moxifloxacin-matching placebo on days 1 and 14, or a single dose of moxifloxacin 400 mg and matching placebo on days 1 and 14 (nested crossover design). Drug concentration relation to change from baseline in Fridericia-corrected QTc (ΔQTcF) was evaluated using a linear mixed-effect concentration-QTc (C-QTc) model. Adverse events were assessed.
The slope (90% CI) of the C-QTc was not significant for olanzapine or samidorphan (0.03 [−0.01, 0.08] and 0.01 [−0.01, 0.04] msec per ng/mL, respectively). Predicted placebo-corrected ΔQTcF (90% CI) was 2.33 (−2.72, 7.38) and 1.38 (−3.37, 6.12) msec at the observed geometric mean maximal concentration of olanzapine (62.6 ng/mL) and samidorphan (75.1 ng/mL), respectively, on day 13. A clinically relevant QT effect (ie, placebo-corrected ΔQTcF ≥10 msec) can be excluded for olanzapine and samidorphan concentrations up to ≈110 and ≈160 ng/mL, respectively. Assay sensitivity was confirmed by the C-QTc relationship of moxifloxacin. OLZ/SAM was well tolerated.
OLZ/SAM, in doses and plasma concentrations up to supratherapeutic levels, was well tolerated and had no clinically relevant effects on electrocardiogram parameters, including QT interval, in patients with schizophrenia.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
We investigated the boron isotopic composition in loess–paleosol sequences in five different profiles in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Three possible boron sources are identified: atmospheric input, carbonates, and weathered silicate rocks. Variations of [Sr], [B], δ11B and the magnetic susceptibility correlate well with the pedogenetic intensity in three out of the five studied profiles, where pedogenesis under a cold–dry climate indicates lower δ11B, lower [B], lower magnetic susceptibility and higher [Sr] values. Exceptions to the variations between the δ11B and other known proxies were observed in arenaceous soils and the Red Clay sequence: the former suggested that vertical redistribution probably occurred with the boron migration, and the latter indicated an unknown mechanism of susceptibility enhancement. A better correlation between the δ11B and magnetic susceptibility and the quantitative estimation of boron budget from each source confirms the influence of paleoenvironmental changes on boron geochemical cycle. Significant positive correlations in Sr/Ca vs. B/Ca and Mg/Ca vs. B/Ca reflect consistent enrichment behavior of those mobile elements into calcium carbonate. The preliminary results imply that boron isotopic compositions in soils can be a potential geochemical proxy to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental changes in loess–paleosol sequences.
Trichinella spiralis is a parasitic helminth that can infect almost all mammals, including humans. Trichinella spiralis infection elicits a typical type 2 immune responses, while suppresses type 1 immune responses, which is in favour of their parasitism. DNA vaccines have been shown to be capable of eliciting balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses as well as humoral immune responses in small-animal models, which will be advantage to induce protective immune response against helminth infection. In this study, serine protease (Ts-NBLsp) was encoded by a cDNA fragment of new-born T. spiralis larvae, and was inserted after CMV promoter to construct a DNA vaccine [pcDNA3·1(+)-Ts-NBLsp]. Ts-NBLsp expression was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Sera samples were obtained from vaccinated mice, and they showed strong anti-Ts-NBLsp-specific IgG response. Mice immunized with the pcDNA3·1(+)-Ts-NBLsp DNA vaccine showed a 77·93% reduction in muscle larvae (ML) following challenge with T. spiralis ML. Our results demonstrate that the vaccination with pcDNA3·1(+)-Ts-NBLsp plasmid promoted the balance of type 1 and 2 immune responses and produced a significant protection against T. spiralis infection in mice.
We propose a Bayesian method to measure the total Galactic extinction parameters, RV and AV. Validation tests based on the simulated data indicate that the method can achieve the accuracy of around 0.01 mag. We apply this method to the SDSS BHB stars in the northern Galactic cap and find that the derived extinctions are highly consistent with those from Schlegel et al. (1998). It suggests that the Bayesian method is promising for the extinction estimation, even the reddening values are close to the observational errors.
The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that low concentrations of coated ZnO, as a substitute for a high concentration of ZnO (2250 mg Zn/kg), could improve intestinal immunity function and regulate microbiota composition, thus alleviating the incidence of diarrhoea in weaned piglets. A total of eighty-four cross-bred piglets, weaned at an age of 28 (sem 1) d, were allocated randomly, on the basis of average initial body weight (7·72 (sem 0·65) kg), to seven treatment groups as follows: a 250 mg Zn (ZnO)/kg group (low Zn; LZ) and a 2250 mg Zn (ZnO)/kg group (high Zn; HZ) that were offered diets containing ZnO at 250 and 2250 mg Zn/kg, respectively; and five experimental groups in which coated ZnO was added at 250, 380, 570, 760 and 1140 mg Zn/kg basal diet, respectively. The trial lasted 2 weeks. The results indicated that, compared with LZ treatment, supplementation with coated ZnO at 380 or 570 mg Zn/kg reduced (P< 0·05) diarrhoea index, increased (P< 0·05) duodenal villus height and the ratio of villus height:crypt depth, up-regulated (P< 0·05) the gene expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, zonula occludens protein-1, occludin, IL-10 and transforming growth factor β1, and elevated (P< 0·05) secretory IgA concentration in the jejunal mucosa. Microbiota richness and the Shannon diversity index were also decreased (P< 0·05). Furthermore, piglets in the group fed coated ZnO at 380 or 570 mg Zn/kg did not differ from those in the HZ-fed group in relation to the aforementioned parameters. Collectively, a low concentration of coated ZnO (380 or 570 mg Zn/kg) can alleviate the incidence of diarrhoea by promoting intestinal development, protecting the intestinal mucosal barrier from damage, stimulating the mucosal immune system and regulating the microbiota composition.
Numerical and theoretical investigations are carried out for the stability of the dust acoustic waves (DAWs) under the transverse perturbation in a two-ion temperature magnetized and collisionless dusty plasma. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, modified ZK equation, and Extended ZK (EZK) equation of the DAWs are given by using the reductive perturbation technique. The cut-off frequency is obtained by applying higher-order transverse perturbations to the soliton solution of the EZK equation. The propagation velocity of solitary waves, the real cut-off frequency, as well as the growth rate of the higher-order perturbation to the solitary wave are obtained.
Morphogenesis and identification of embryonic differentiation in porcine embryos are crucial issues for developmental biology and laboratory animal science. The current paper presents a study on the asynchronous development of hatched porcine embryos from days 7 to 13 post-insemination. Examination of semi-thin sections of the hypoblast showed that it had characteristics similar to those of the mouse anterior visceral endoderm during embryonic disc formation. Also, a cavity appeared in the epiblast, which was similar to a mouse proamniotic cavity. With the gradual disappearance of Rauber's layer, the cavity opened and contacted the external environment directly, all of which formed the embryonic disc. To confirm the differentiation characteristics, we performed immunohistochemical analyses and showed that GATA6 was detected clearly in parietal endoderm cells during embryonic disc establishment. OCT4 was expressed in the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoblast of hatched blastocysts and in the epiblast during formation of the embryonic disc. However, OCT4 showed comparatively decreased expression in the posterior embryonic disc, primitive streak and migrating cells. SOX2 was present in the ICM and epiblast. Therefore, both SOX2 and OCT4 can be used as markers of pluripotent cells in the porcine embryonic disc. At the start of gastrulation, staining revealed VIMENTIN in the posterior of the embryonic disc, primitive streak and in migrating cells that underlay the embryonic disc and was also expressed in epiblast cells located in the anterior primitive streak. Together with serial sections of embryos stained by whole mount immunohistochemistry, the mesoderm differentiation pattern was shown as an ingression movement that took place at the posterior of the embryonic disc and with bilateral migration along the embryonic disc borders.