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Spodoptera litura is an important pest that causes significant economic damage to numerous crops worldwide. Sex pheromones (SPs) mediate sexual communication in S. litura and show a characteristic degree of rhythmic activity, occurring mainly during the scotophase; however, the specific regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we employed a genome-wide analysis to identify eight candidate circadian clock genes in S. litura. Sequence characteristics and expression patterns were analyzed. Our results demonstrated that some circadian clock genes might regulate the biosynthesis and perception of SPs by regulating the rhythmic expression of SP biosynthesis-related genes and SP perception-related genes. Interestingly, all potential genes exhibited peak expression in the scotophase, consistent with the SP could mediate courtship and mating behavior in S. litura. Our findings are helpful in elucidating the molecular mechanism by which circadian clock genes regulate sexual communication in S. litura.
The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors and psychological stress of health-care workers (HCWs) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a nonfrontline clinical department.
Data of 2 source patients and all HCWs with infection risk were obtained in a department in Wuhan from January to February 2020. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate psychological stress of COVID-19 on HCWs.
The overall infection rate was 4.8% in HCWs. Ten of 25 HCWs who contacted with 2 source patients were diagnosed with confirmed COVID-19 (8/10) and suspected COVID-19 (2/10). Other 2 HCWs were transmitted by other patients or colleagues. Close care behaviors included physical examination (6/12), life nursing (4/12), ward rounds (4/12), endoscopic examination (2/12). Contacts fluctuated from 1 to 24 times and each contact was short (8.1 min ± 5.6 min). HCWs wore surgical masks (11/12), gloves (7/12), and isolation clothing (3/12) when providing medical care. Most HCWs experienced a mild course with 2 asymptomatic infections, taking 9.8 d and 20.9 d to obtain viral shedding and clinical cure, respectively. Psychological stress included worry (58.3%), anxiety (83.3%), depression (58.3%), and insomnia (58.3%).
Close contact with COVID-19 patients and insufficient protection were key risk factors. Precaution measures and psychological support on COVID-19 is urgently required for HCWs.
The aim of this research was to identify variation in the yak lipin-1 gene (LPIN1) and determine whether this variation affects milk traits. PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used to detect variation in the 5′ untranslated region of LPIN1 in 500 yaks from four populations: Tianzhu white yaks, Qinghai yaks, wild × domestic-cross yaks and Gannan yaks. Four unique PCR-SSCP patterns, representing four different DNA sequence variants (named A, B, C and D), were observed. These contained six single nucleotide polymorphisms. Female Gannan yaks with BC genotype produced milk with a higher fat content (P < 0.001) and total milk solids (P < 0.001), than those with the AA, AB and BB genotypes. These results would suggest that LPIN1 is having an effect on yak milk fat synthesis.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
Owing to the development of new technologies, the epigenome, a second dimensional method for genome analysis has emerged. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs, regulate gene expression without changing the genetic sequence. These epigenetic mechanisms normally modulate gene expression, trans-generational effects and inherited expression states in various biological processes. Abnormal epigenetic patterns typically cause pathological conditions, including cancers, age-related diseases, and specific cartilage and bone diseases. Facing the rapidly developing epigenetic field, we reviewed epigenetic mechanisms and their involvement with the skeletal system and their role in skeletal development, homeostasis and degeneration. Finally, we discuss the prospects for the future of epigenetics.
In this paper, zircon U–Pb geochronology, major and trace elements, and Sr–Nd isotope geochemistry of the Baiyanghe dolerites in northern West Junggar of NW China are presented. The U–Pb dating of zircons from the dolerites yielded ages of 272.2±4 Ma and 276.7±6.2 Ma, which indicate the emplacement times. The dolerites are characterized by minor variations in SiO2 (46.89 to 49.07 wt%), high contents of Al2O3 (13.60 to 13.92 wt%) and total Fe2O3 (11.14 to 11.70 wt%), and low contents of MgO (2.67 to 3.64 wt%) and total alkalis (Na2O+K2O, 5.1 to 5.97 wt%, K2O/Na2O = 0.37–0.94), which indicate affinities to metaluminous tholeiite basalt. The REE pattern ((La/Sm)N = 2.25–2.34, (La/Yb)N = 7.42–8.36), V–Ti/1000 and 50*Zr–Ti/50–Sm discrimination diagrams show that these rocks are OIB-type. The high contents of Zr and Ti indicate a within-plate tectonic setting, and samples plot in the ‘plume source’ field shown on the Dy/Yb(N) versus Ce/Yb(N) diagram. The positive εNd(t) values (+7.09 to +7.48), high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70442 to 0.70682) and depletions of Nb and Ta elements in the samples can be explained by the involvement of subducted sediments. In summary, it is possible that the Baiyanghe dolerites were derived from an OIB-like mantle source and associated with a mantle plume tectonic setting. Therefore, our samples provide the youngest evidence for the existence of a mantle plume, which may provide new insights into the Late Palaeozoic tectonic setting of West Junggar.
Brief cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is an emerging treatment for
schizophrenia in community settings; however, further trials are needed,
especially in non-Western countries.
To test the effects of brief CBT for Chinese patients with schizophrenia
in the community (trial registration: ChiCTR-TRC-13003709).
A total of 220 patients with schizophrenia from four districts of Beijing
were randomly assigned to either brief CBT plus treatment as usual (TAU)
or TAU alone. Patients were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and at
6- and 12-month follow-ups by raters masked to group allocation.
At the post-treatment assessment and the 12-month follow-up, patients who
received brief CBT showed greater improvement in overall symptoms,
general psychopathology, insight and social functioning. In total, 37.3%
of those in the brief CBT plus TAU group experienced a clinically
significant response, compared with only 19.1% of those in the TAU alone
group (P = 0.003).
Brief CBT has a positive effect on Chinese patients with schizophrenia in
Schizophrenia patients have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) than normals. We examined the relationship between IGT and clinical phenotypes or cognitive deficits in first-episode, drug-naïve (FEDN) Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
A total of 175 in-patients were compared with 31 healthy controls on anthropometric measures and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. They were also compared using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Patient psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
Of the patients, 24.5% had IGT compared with none of the controls, and they also had significantly higher levels of fasting blood glucose and 2-h glucose after an oral glucose load, and were more insulin resistant. Compared with those patients with normal glucose tolerance, the IGT patients were older, had a later age of onset, higher waist or hip circumference and body mass index, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides and higher insulin resistance. Furthermore, IGT patients had higher PANSS total and negative symptom subscale scores, but no greater cognitive impairment except on the emotional intelligence index of the MCCB.
IGT occurs with greater frequency in FEDN schizophrenia, and shows association with demographic and anthropometric parameters, as well as with clinical symptoms but minimally with cognitive impairment during the early course of the disorder.
The present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of active components from Costus speciosus against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Bioassay-guided fractionation was employed to identify active compounds from C. speciosus yielding 2 bioactive compounds: Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin. In-vitro assays revealed that Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis at concentrations of 0·8 and 4·5 mg L−1, with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 0·53 and 3·2 mg L−1, respectively. All protomonts and encysted tomonts were killed when the concentrations of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin were 1·0 and 5·0 mg L−1. In-vivo experiments demonstrated that fish treated with Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin at concentrations of 1·0 and 5·0 mg L−1 carried significantly fewer parasites than the control (P<0·05). Mortality of fish did not occur in the treatment group (Zingibernsis newsaponin at 5·0 mg L−1) during the trial, although 100% of untreated fish died. Acute toxicities (LD50) of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin for grass carp were 1·64 and 20·7 mg L−1, respectively. These results provided evidence that the 2 compounds can be selected as lead compounds for the development of new drugs against I. multifiliis.
The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between age and risk for depression among the old and the oldest old.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library database were used to identify potential studies. The studies were divided into cross-sectional and longitudinal subsets. For each study, the numbers of the total participants, cases (for cross-sectional study), or incident cases (for longitudinal study) of depression in each age group were extracted and entered into Review Manager 4.2 software. Qualitative meta-analyses of cross-sectional studies and of longitudinal studies were performed. For prevalence and incidence rates of depression, odds risk (OR) and relative risk (RR) were calculated, respectively.
The qualitative meta-analyses showed that, compared with younger participants (above vs. below 65 years, above vs. below 70 years, above vs. below 75 years, and above vs. below 80 years), older age groups had a significantly higher risk for depression. (All of the ORs and RRs were significant.) Compared with participants aged 55–89, those aged above 90 years had no higher risk for depression. (Neither the OR nor the RR was significant.)
Despite the methodological limitations of this meta-analysis, older age appears to be an important risk factor for depression in the general elderly population (aged below 80 years), but not in the oldest population (aged above 85 years).
Background: We assessed the relationship between cognitive impairment (including mild cognitive impairment with no signs of dementia, and dementia) and risk for depression in old age (60 years and older).
Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library database were used to identify potential studies. All of the clinical studies that produced data on the association between cognitive function and risk of depression among individuals aged 55 years or older were identified and included in this review. The studies were classified into cross-sectional and longitudinal subsets. The quantitative meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were performed. For prevalence and incidence rates of depression, odds risk (OR) and relative risk (RR) were calculated, respectively.
Results: Since all but two studies found in the search were for individuals aged 60 years or over, we assessed and reported on results for this larger group only. In this review we included 13 cross-sectional and four prospective longitudinal studies. The quantitative meta-analysis showed that, in old age, individuals with non-dementia cognitive impairment had neither significant higher prevalence nor incidence rates of depression than those without (odds risk (OR): 1.48, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 0.87–2.52; relative risk (RR): 1.12, 95% CI: 0.62–2.01). In old age, individuals with dementia had both significant higher prevalence and incidence rates of depression than those without (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.15–2.89; RR: 3.92, 95% CI: 1.93–7.99).
Conclusions: Despite the methodological limitations of this meta-analysis, we found that in old age, there was no association between depression and cognitive impairment with no dementia; however, there was a definite association between depression and dementia and thus dementia might be a risk for depression.
The strategies of repair of tetralogy of Fallot change with the age of patients. In children older than 4 years and adults, the optimal strategy may be to use different method of reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract from those followed in younger children, so as to avoid, or reduce, the pulmonary insufficiency that is increasingly known to compromise right ventricular function.
From April, 2001, through May, 2008, we undertook complete repair in 312 patients, 180 male and 132 female, with a mean age of 11.3 years ±0.4 years, and a range from 4 to 48 years, with typical clinical and morphological features of tetralogy of Fallot, including 42 patients with the ventriculo-arterial connection of double outlet right ventricle. The operation was performed under moderate hypothermia using blood cardioplegia. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a Dacron patch. When it was considered necessary to resect the musculature within the right ventricular outflow tract, or perform pulmonary valvotomy, we sought to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve by protecting as far as possible the native leaflets, or creating a folded monocusp of autologous pericardium.
The repair was achieved completely through right atrium in 192, through the right ventricular outflow tract in 83, and through the right atrium, the outflow tract, and the pulmonary trunk in 36 patients. A transjunctional patch was inserted in 169 patients, non-valved in all but 9. There were no differences regarding the periods of aortic cross-clamping or cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the patients, 5 died (1.6%), with no influence noted for the transjunctional patch. Of those having a non-valved patch inserted, three-tenths had pulmonary regurgitation of various degree, while those having a valved patch had minimal pulmonary insufficiency and good right ventricular function postoperatively, this being maintained after follow-up of 8 to 24-months.
Based on our experience, we suggest that the current strategy of repair of tetralogy of Fallot in older children and adults should be based on minimizing the insertion of transjunctional patches, this being indicated only in those with very small ventriculo-pulmonary junctions. If such a patch is necessary, then steps should be taken to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve.
The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing pig transgenic blastocysts expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) and to examine the effects of shape and preparation methods of donor cells on in vitro developmental ability of pig nuclear transferred embryos (NTEs). In experiment 1, the effect of GFP transfection on development of pig NTEs was evaluated. The cleavage and blastocyst rates showed no significant difference between NTEs derived from transfected and non-transfected donors. In experiment 2, the effect of different nuclear donor preparation methods on in vitro development of NTEs was examined. The cleavage rate showed no statistically significant differences among three preparation methods. The blastocyst rates of donor cells treated once at −4 °C and those of freshly digested cells were similar to each other (26.3% vs 17.9%). The lowest blastocyst rates (5.88%) were observed when cells cryopreserved at −196 °C were used as donors. In experiment 3, the effect of different cell cycle synchronization methods on the in vitro development potential of pig NTEs was evaluated. The cleavage rate of NTEs derived from cycling cells was much better than that of NTEs derived from serum-starved cells (64.4% vs 50.5%, p < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the the blastocyst rates of the two groups. In experiment 4, the effect of different shapes of cultured fibroblast cells on the in vitro development of pig NTEs was examined. The fusion rate for couplets derived from rough cells was poorer than that observed in couplets derived from round smooth cells (47.8% vs 76.8%, p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences observed in the cleavage rate and blastocyst rate. In conclusion, the present study indicated that (i) refrigerated pig GFP-transfected cells could be used as donors in nuclear transfer and these NTEs could be effectively developed to blastocyst stage; (ii) serum starvation of GFP-transfected cells is not required for preimplantation development of pig NTEs; and (iii) a rough surface of GFP-transfected donor cells affects fusion rate negatively but has no influence on the cleavage rate or blastocyst rate of pig NTEs.
A pair of mutant mice with a first sparse coat appeared spontaneously in the production stock of
BALB/c mice with a normal coat. After being sib-mated, they produced three phenotypes in their
progeny: mice with normal hair, mice with a first sparse coat and then a fuzzy coat, and
uncovered mice. Genetic studies revealed the mutants had inherited an autosomal monogene that
was semi-dominant. By using 11 biochemical loci – Idh, Car2,
Mup1, Pgm1, Hbb, Es1, Es10, Gdc,
Ce2, Mod1 and Es3 – as genetic markers, two-point linkage tests were made. The results showed
the gene was assigned to chromosome 11. The result of a three-point test with Es3 and D11Mit8
(microsatellite DNA) as markers showed that the mutation was linked to Es3 with the
recombination fraction 7·89±2·19%, and linked to D11Mit8 with the recombination fraction
26·30±3·57%. The recombination fraction between Es3 and D11Mit8 was 32·90±3·81%. It is
suggested that the mutation is a new genetic locus that affected the skin and hair structure of the
mouse. The mutation was named uncovered, with the symbol Uncv. Further studies showed the
mutation affected not only the histology of skin and hair but also the growth and reproductive
performance of the mice. The molecular characterization of the Uncv locus needs to be further
Although pseudocyst of the auricle is a common disease in China, its cause and mechanism are still not clear. Several methods of treatment have been advocated: repeated aspirations combined with physiotherapy, and incision and drainage with contour pressure dressing, magnetotherapy etc. In recent years, a new technique with a drainage tube inserted into the pseudocyst using a guide needle has been used in our hospital in the treatment of this condition. We report 45 cases treated by this method, none of whom had the condition previously.
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