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Germplasm innovation can provide materials for breeding sugarcane cultivars. Saccharum officinarum is the main source of high-sugar and high-yield genes in sugarcane breeding. ‘Nobilization’ is the theoretical basis for exploiting S. officinarum, and S. officinarum authenticity directly affects sugarcane nobility breeding efficiency. Herein, the authenticity of 22 SLC-series S. officinarum clones imported from Sri Lanka and preserved in the China National Germplasm Repository of Sugarcane (NGRS) was explored by four-primer amplification-arrested mutation PCR (ARMS PCR) and somatic chromosome number counting. The amplified bands from SLC 08 120 and SLC 08 131 were the same with those from S. officinarum clone Badila, i.e. a common band of 428 bp and a S. officinarum-specific band of 278 bp, hence they were tentatively assigned as S. officinarum clones. The other 20 SLC clones had both 278 bp (S. officinarum-specific) and 203 bp (S. spontaneum-specific) bands, which are hybrid characteristics. In addition, the chromosome numbers of SLC 08 120 and SLC 08 131 are both 80, belong to typical S. officinarum. While the chromosome numbers of the other 20 materials are ranging from 101 to 129, consistent with hybrids of S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. This molecular cytological characterization indicates that among the 22 introduced SLC-series clones, only two, SLC 08 120 and SLC 08 131, were S. officinarum. Future agronomic trait and resistance analyses could facilitate their use as crossing parents in sugarcane breeding.
This paper, in allusion to the limitations of traditional transfer alignment methods based on the external measurement equipment or the empirical model of angular deformation, proposes a rapid and accurate transfer alignment method without relying on the empirical angular deformation model. Firstly, the relationship between the actual angular deformation and the angular velocities measured by the gyroscopes in the master and slave inertial navigation systems (INSs) is derived to roughly estimate the angular deformation. Secondly, according to the error characteristics of gyroscopes, the error model of angular deformation is established. Thirdly, expanding the angular deformation error instead of the installation error angle, flexure angle and flexure angle rate into the state vector, a low-order transfer alignment filtering model independent of the empirical angular deformation model is established. The proposed method not only gets rid of the dependence on an empirical angular deformation model, but also realises the rapid and accurate initial alignment of the slave INS without adding any external measurement equipment. The simulations and experiments evidence the validity of the proposed transfer alignment method.
In view of many problems associated with the availability of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals in high-altitude space, this paper presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis. First, the coverage and strength characteristics of GNSS signals in high-altitude space (i.e., space above the GNSS constellation) are presented, and the visibility of GNSS signals is evaluated by combining these two factors. Second, the geometric configuration and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) of visible GNSS satellites are analysed. Then, the Doppler shift range of the GNSS signals is deduced based on the dynamic performance of high-altitude spacecraft. Finally, taking GaoFen-4 (GF-4) as the application object, the availability of GNSS signals is simulated and evaluated. GNSS signals in high-altitude space are generally weak, and the visible GNSS satellites are concentrated in the high-elevation range. The combination of main and side lobe signals and compatibility of multiple constellations can increase the number of visible satellites, improve the geometry configuration, reduce GDOP, and thus improve the availability of GNSS signals. The results of this research can provide technical support for the design and development of GNSS receivers suitable for high-altitude space.
Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers meet numerous challenges in a high-orbit environment, including weak and discontinuous signal, and time-varying strength. To resolve these issues and enhance reliability, an innovative adaptive vector tracking loop (VTL) scheme is proposed. Non-linear models of the VTL filter are established to calculate code phase and carrier frequency errors accurately. Based on this, a deep analysis has been developed on the measurement noise. To reduce the impact of the interdependent noises among channels in VTL, an adaptive VTL algorithm assisted by the variational Bayesian (VB) learning network is proposed to estimate the measurement noise and maintain the error convergence in the time-varying noise or signal outage conditions. Further, the implementation steps of the adaptive algorithm have been designed in detail. In particular, the carrier-to-noise power ratio (C/N0) estimation method is further employed to update the a prior probability density in case of change of tracking satellite. The simulation results indicate that the proposed VTL scheme with VB algorithm is a promising method to improve the accuracy and reliability of GNSS receivers significantly under a high-orbit degraded signal environment.
In order to utilise the position and attitude information of a Celestial Navigation System (CNS) to aid a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS) and make it possible to achieve long-range and high-precision navigation, a new SINS/CNS integrated navigation scheme based on overall optimal correction is proposed. Firstly, the optimal installation angle of the star sensor is acquired according to the geometric relationship between the refraction stars area and the star sensor's visual field. Secondly, an analytical method to determine position and horizontal reference is introduced. Thirdly, the mathematical model of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system is established. Finally, some simulations are carried out to compare the navigation performance of the proposed SINS/CNS integrated scheme with that of the traditional gyro-drift-corrected integration scheme. Simulation results indicate that in the proposed scheme, without the aid of SINS, CNS can provide attitude and position information and the errors of the SINS are able to be estimated and corrected efficiently. Therefore, the navigation performance of the proposed SINS/CNS scheme is superior to that of a more traditional scheme in long-range flight.
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