To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The 4.2 ka event is widely presumed to be a globally widespread aridity event and has been linked to several episodes of societal changes across the globe. Whether this climate event impacted the cultural development in south-central China remains uncertain due to a lack of regional paleorainfall records. We present here stalagmite stable carbon isotope and trace element–based reconstruction of hydroclimatic conditions from south-central China. Our data reveal a sub–millennial scale (~5.6 to 4.3 ka) drying trend in the region followed by a gradual transition to wetter conditions during the 4.2 ka event (4.3–3.9 ka). Together with the existing archaeological evidence, our data suggest that the drier climate before 4.3 ka may have promoted the Shijiahe culture, while the pluvial conditions during the 4.2 ka event may have adversely affected its settlements in low-lying areas. While military conflicts with the Wangwan III culture may have accelerated the collapse of Shijiahe culture, we suggest that the joint effects of climate and the region's topography also played important causal roles in its demise.
Aeolian dust deposits from continent and ocean have been extensively investigated to reflect past changes in source aridity and atmospheric circulations. Aeolian flux (AF) as a quantitative dust proxy has been widely used in both palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and numerical simulation. However, available AF data on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) is too limited to assess the temporal–spatial variations at glacial–interglacial timescales, and therefore cannot be used as robust input parameters in palaeoclimate models. Here we investigate eight loess profiles along two N–S-aligned transects on the CLP to quantitatively estimate the AF variations over the last glacial–interglacial cycle. We first establish a refined chronological framework based on optically stimulated luminescence chronology and pedostratigraphic correlation. AF was then estimated by multiplying the sedimentation rate and bulk density. The results show that the AF increases from 2–18 g cm−2 ka−1 in the southeastern CLP to 14–105 g cm−2 ka−1 in the northwestern CLP. At glacial–interglacial scales, the AF varies from 2–20 g cm−2 ka−1 during the last interglacial to 8–105 g cm−2 ka−1 in the last glaciation. Due to more spatial coverage and better age constraints, our AF data can be used to refine other AF datasets and to improve the proxy–model comparison.
In view that most Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) users are still using single-frequency receivers due to the low costs, single-frequency Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has been attracting increasing attention in the GNSS community. For a long period, single-frequency PPP technology has mainly relied on the Global Positioning System (GPS). With the recent revitalisation of the Russian GLONASS constellation and two newly emerging constellations, BeiDou and Galileo, it is now feasible to investigate the performance of Four-Constellation integrated Single-Frequency PPP (FCSF-PPP) with GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo measurements. In this study, a FCSF-PPP model is presented to simultaneously process observations from all four GNSS constellations. Datasets collected at 47 globally distributed four-system Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations on seven consecutive days and a kinematic experimental dataset are employed to fully assess the performance of FCSF-PPP. The FCSF-PPP solutions are compared to GPS-only and combined GPS/GLONASS single-frequency PPP solutions. The results indicate that the positioning performance is significantly improved by integrating multi-constellation signals.
Aeolian deposits at four sites in the Gonghe Basin were used to reconstruct the history of aeolian activity over the late Quaternary. These deposits include well-sorted aeolian sand, paleosols and/or loess. Aeolian sand represents dune-field expansion and/or dune buildup, whereas paleosols indicate stabilization of dunes, accompanying ameliorated vegetation cover. On the basis of 25 dates by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), it appears that aeolian activities occurred episodically at 33.5, 20.3, 13.9, 11.8–11.0, 9.4, 7.8, and 5.7 (5.5) ka, which is largely consistent with the recent findings from the adjacent semi-arid areas. Aeolian sand mobility occurring during the early to mid Holocene conflicts with a climatic optimum inferred from lacustrine records in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This inconsistency may be resolved by interpreting aeolian activity as a response to decreased effective moisture due to enhanced evaporation, induced by higher summer insolation at that time, together with local terrain and its effects on moisture. Our results suggest that aeolian sand and paleosol cannot be simply ascribed to regional dry and wet climates, respectively, and they most likely reflect changes in effective moisture.
The extended Korteweg-de Vries (eKdV) equation is an important model for the description of internal solitary waves (ISWs) in shallow seas. The N-soliton solution of the eKdV equation is investigated by Hirota bilinear method. Direct simulation of the eKdV equation is performed for several ISWs phenomena including polarity conversion, packets and collisions by virtue of the N-soliton solution. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image simulations of those phenomena are also presented. Furthermore, the comparison between the simulated SAR image and the observed SAR image in the South China sea is provided, which shows that the N-soliton solution may describe various ISWs phenomena.
We first study the regularised version of a modified two-component Camassa–Holm shallow water system and obtain the energy estimates of the corresponding approximate solutions. Then, we present a sufficient condition which guarantees that these approximate solutions converge to a low regularity weak solution of the modified two-component Camassa–Holm shallow water system.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.