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Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) at a light–heavy single-mode interface over a wide range of post-shock Atwood numbers $A_1$ is studied systematically through elaborate experiments. The interface generation and $A_1$ variation are achieved by the soap-film technology and gas-layer scheme, respectively. Qualitatively, the nonlinear interface evolution features, including spike, bubble and roll-up structures, are more significant in RMI with higher $A_1$. Quantitatively, both the impulsive model and an analytical linear model perform well in predicting the linear growth rate under a wide range of $A_1$ conditions. For the weakly nonlinear stage, the significant spike acceleration occurring when $A_1$ is high, which is observed experimentally for the first time, results in the evolution law of RMI with high $A_1$ being different from the counterpart with low or intermediate $A_1$. None of the considered nonlinear models is found to be applicable for RMI under all $A_1$ conditions, and the predictive capabilities of these models are analysed and summarized. Based on the present experimental results, an empirical nonlinear model is proposed for RMI over a wide range of $A_1$. Further, modal analysis shows that in RMI with high (low or intermediate) $A_1$, high-order harmonics evolve rapidly (slowly) and cannot (can) be ignored. Accordingly, for RMI with high (low or intermediate) $A_1$, the modal model proposed by Zhang & Sohn (Phys. Fluids, vol. 9, 1997, pp. 1106–1124) is less (more) accurate than the one proposed by Vandenboomgaerde et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 14, 2002, pp. 1111–1122), since the former ignores perturbation solutions higher than fourth order (the latter retains only terms with the highest power in time).
Environment-induced epigenetics are involved in diapause regulation, but the molecular mechanism that epigenetically couples nutrient metabolism to diapause regulation remains unclear. In this study, we paid special attention to the significant differences in the level of N6-adenosine methylation (m6A) of dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (DHAPAT) and phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) genes in the lipid metabolism pathway of the bivoltine silkworm (Bombyx mori) strain Qiufeng developed from eggs incubated at a normal temperature (QFHT, diapause egg producer) compared to those from eggs incubated at a low temperature (QFLT, non-diapause egg producer). We knocked down DHAPAT in the pupal stage of the QFLT group, resulting in the non-diapause destined eggs becoming diapausing eggs. In the PAP knockdown group, the colour of the non-diapause destined eggs changed from light yellow to pink 3 days after oviposition, but they hatched as normal. Moreover, we validated that YTHDF3 binds to m6A-modified DHAPAT and PAP mRNAs to promote their stability and translation. These results suggest that RNA m6A methylation participates in the diapause regulation of silkworm by changing the expression levels of DHAPAT and PAP and reveal that m6A epigenetic modification can be combined with a lipid metabolism signal pathway to participate in the regulation of insect diapause traits, which provides a clearer image for exploring the physiological basis of insect diapause.
We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes ‘Murriyang’ radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 yr with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with $\sim$3 yr of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations and compare this data release with our previous release.
We present the results of two population surveys conducted 10 years apart (December 2010–February 2011 and December 2020–January 2021) of the Critically Endangered white-headed langur Trachypithecus leucocephalus in the Chongzuo White-Headed Langur National Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, China. In the first survey, we recorded 818 individuals in 105 groups and 16 solitary adult males. In the second survey, we recorded 1,183 individuals in 128 groups and one solitary adult male. As a result of government policies, poaching for food and traditional medicine is no longer a primary threat to these langurs. However, severe forest loss and fragmentation caused by human activities could limit any future increase of this langur population.
High-power femtosecond mid-infrared (MIR) lasers are of vast importance to both fundamental research and applications. We report a high-power femtosecond master oscillator power amplifier laser system consisting of a single-mode Er:ZBLAN fiber mode-locked oscillator and pre-amplifier followed by a large-mode-area Er:ZBLAN fiber main amplifier. The main amplifier is actively cooled and bidirectionally pumped at 976 nm, generating a slope efficiency of 26.9%. Pulses of 8.12 W, 148 fs at 2.8 μm with a repetition rate of 69.65 MHz are achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power ever achieved from a femtosecond MIR laser source. Such a compact ultrafast laser system is promising for a wide range of applications, such as medical surgery and material processing.
Electronic health record (EHR) data have many quality problems that may affect the outcome of research results and decision support systems. Many methods have been used to evaluate EHR data quality. However, there has yet to be a consensus on the best practice. We used a rule-based approach to assess the variability of EHR data quality across multiple healthcare systems.
To quantify data quality concerns across healthcare systems in a PCORnet Clinical Research Network, we used a previously tested rule-based framework tailored to the PCORnet Common Data Model to perform data quality assessment at 13 clinical sites across eight states. Results were compared with the current PCORnet data curation process to explore the differences between both methods. Additional analyses of testosterone therapy prescribing were used to explore clinical care variability and quality.
The framework detected discrepancies across sites, revealing evident data quality variability between sites. The detailed requirements encoded the rules captured additional data errors with a specificity that aids in remediation of technical errors compared to the current PCORnet data curation process. Other rules designed to detect logical and clinical inconsistencies may also support clinical care variability and quality programs.
Rule-based EHR data quality methods quantify significant discrepancies across all sites. Medication and laboratory sources are causes of data errors.
Given the rising burden of palliative care and the limited human resources for its facilitation in China, volunteers are becoming increasingly indispensable. In particular, there is a high demand for volunteers who can serve as spiritual caregivers. However, a volunteer’s ability to provide good spiritual care in a palliative setting may be influenced by their attitude toward palliative care. To uncover the current state of spiritual caregiving in palliative settings in China and insights into best practices for its improvement, this study measured spiritual care competence and identified its influencing factors and explored its relationship with attitudes toward palliative care among volunteers. Notably, this study is the first to consider spiritual care competence alongside attitudes toward palliative care.
A descriptive cross-sectional study using online survey methods was conducted with 385 volunteers in Shanghai, China. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire.
Volunteers demonstrated relatively low levels of spiritual care competence (58.50 ± 10.92). Statistically significant correlations were found between spiritual care competence and the following variables: age, educational background, marital status, religious beliefs, occupational status, and relevant training and practical experience. Attitude toward palliative care significantly correlated with spiritual care competence (r = 0.49, p < 0.001).
Significance of results
To continually improve volunteers’ spiritual care competence, diversified education and training programs about spiritual care should be designed for different kinds of volunteers; moreover, because attitude toward palliative care significantly impacted spiritual care competence, such programs should encourage positive attitudes toward palliative care.
‘Freeze-out’ of amplitude growth, i.e. the amplitude growth stagnation of a shocked helium–air interface, is realized through a reflected shock, which produces baroclinic vorticity of the opposite sign to that deposited by the first shock. Theoretically, a model is constructed to calculate the relations among the initial parameters for achieving freeze-out. In particular, if the amplitude growth is within the linear regime at the arrival of the reflected shock, the time interval between the impacts of two shock waves is linearly related to the initial perturbation wavelength, and is independent of the initial perturbation amplitude. Experimentally, an air–SF$_6$ (or air–argon) plane interface is adopted to produce a weak reflected shock. Seven experimental runs with specific initial conditions are examined. For all cases, freeze-out is achieved after the reflected shock impact under the designed conditions.
The new mineral, gysinite-(La), with the ideal formula PbLa(CO3)2(OH)⋅H2O, has been discovered in lujavrite from the Saima alkaline complex, Liaoning Province, China. It commonly occurs as subhedral to anhedral, granular and platy crystals of 5 to 50 μm in size, in interstices or enclosed in microcline, aegirine and nepheline. Associated minerals include nepheline, aegirine, microcline, natrolite, eudialyte, lamprophyllite, bastnäsite-(Ce), parasite-(Ce), ancylite-(La), ancylite-(Ce), bobtraillite, britholite-(Ce), thorite, calcite and galena. The crystallisation of gysinite-(La) may be related to the post-magmatic carbonation event. Gysinite-(La) crystals are generally transparent, colourless, or pale yellow, with a vitreous lustre and white streak. It is brittle with an uneven fracture, and the estimated Mohs hardness is 3½ to 4. The calculated density is 5.007 g/cm3. Optically, gysinite-(La) is biaxial (–), α= 1.832(2), β= 1.849(4), γ = 1.862(5) in white light and 2Vmeas = 81.6°. The empirical formula of gysinite-(La) is (La0.93Pb0.61Nd0.23Pr0.14Sr0.04Gd0.02Sm0.01Eu0.01Ca0.01)Σ2(CO3)2(OH)1.34⋅0.66H2O, which is calculated on the basis of general formula (REExM2+2–x)(CO3)2(OH)x⋅(2–x)H2O. The strongest eight lines of its powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 5.596 (21) (011), 4.349 (100) (110), 3.732 (68) (111), 2.984 (61) (121), 2.667 (21) (031), 2.363 (48) (131), 2.090 (29) (221) and 2.028 (21) (212). Gysinite-(La) is orthorhombic, in the space group Pmcn, and unit-cell parameters refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data are: a = 5.0655(2) Å, b = 8.5990(3) Å, c = 7.3901(4) Å, V = 321.90(2) Å3 and Z = 2. It is a new member of the ancylite group and isostructural with gysinite-(Nd), but with La and Pb dominant in the metal cation sites in the structure.
It has been suggested that added sugar intake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, previous studies only focused on sugar-sweetened beverages; the evidence for associations with total added sugars and their sources is scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of total added sugars, their physical forms (liquid v. solid) and food sources with risk of NAFLD among adults in Tianjin, China. We used data from 15 538 participants, free of NAFLD, other liver diseases, CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline (2013–2018 years). Added sugar intake was estimated from a validated 100-item FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography after exclusion of other causes of liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95 % CI for NAFLD risk with added sugar intake. During a median follow-up of 4·2 years, 3476 incident NAFLD cases were documented. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and its change from baseline to follow-up, lifestyle factors, personal and family medical history and overall diet quality, the multivariable HR of NAFLD risk were 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32) for total added sugars, 1·20 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·33) for liquid added sugars and 0·96 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·07) for solid added sugars when comparing the highest quartiles of intake with the lowest quartiles of intake. In this prospective cohort of Chinese adults, higher intakes of total added sugars and liquid added sugars, but not solid added sugars, were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.
Fluorsigaiite, ideally Ca2Sr3(PO4)3F, is a new Sr analogue of fluorphosphohedyphane and a new member of the apatite supergroup. It was discovered in lujavrite from the Saima alkaline complex, Liaoning Province, China. Fluorsigaiite commonly occurs as individual prismatic, columnar and platy crystals of 10 to 50 μm in size, associated with microcline, nepheline, aegirine, natrolite, eudialyte, fluorapatite, a fluorstrophite-like mineral, stronadelphite and calcite. Occasionally, crystals of fluorsigaiite form prismatic aggregates in the interstices of lujavrite. Fluorsigaiite is translucent to transparent, colourless to yellowish white with a vitreous lustre and without fluorescence. The estimated Mohs hardness is 5, and the tenacity is brittle with uneven fractures. The calculated density is 3.842 g/cm3. Optically, fluorsigaiite is uniaxial (–) with ω = 1.64(1) and ɛ = 1.63(1) in white light and without dispersion. The mean chemical composition (in wt.%) of fluorsigaiite is Na2O 0.75, CaO 15.17, SrO 44.44, La2O3 3.64, Ce2O3 2.22, Pr2O3 0.19, Nd2O3 0.13, Sm2O3 0.05, Gd2O3 0.23, P2O5 31.87, F 1.91, H2O 0.46, sum 100.26, giving the empirical formula (Sr2.82Ca1.79Na0.16La0.15Ce0.09Pr0.01Nd0.01Gd0.01)Σ5.04P2.97O12[F0.66(OH)0.34]Σ1, which is calculated on the basis of 13 total anions and F+(OH) = 1. The strongest eight lines of its powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 3.563 (15) (002), 3.275 (15) (102), 3.144 (19) (120), 2.876 (100) (121), 2.861 (96) (112), 2.772 (27) (300), 1.991 (17) (222) and 1.895 (23) (213). Fluorsigaiite is hexagonal, in the space group P63/m and unit-cell parameters refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data are: a = 9.6101(2) Å, c = 7.1311(1) Å, V = 570.35(3) Å3 and Z = 2. It is isostructural with hedyphane-group minerals, and contains different prevailing (species-defining) Ca and Sr cations at the Ca1 and Ca2 sites, respectively. Fluorsigaiite was probably formed from Sr-rich fluids at late-magmatic or hydrothermal stage of the Saima lujavrite.
The 4.2 ka event is widely presumed to be a globally widespread aridity event and has been linked to several episodes of societal changes across the globe. Whether this climate event impacted the cultural development in south-central China remains uncertain due to a lack of regional paleorainfall records. We present here stalagmite stable carbon isotope and trace element–based reconstruction of hydroclimatic conditions from south-central China. Our data reveal a sub–millennial scale (~5.6 to 4.3 ka) drying trend in the region followed by a gradual transition to wetter conditions during the 4.2 ka event (4.3–3.9 ka). Together with the existing archaeological evidence, our data suggest that the drier climate before 4.3 ka may have promoted the Shijiahe culture, while the pluvial conditions during the 4.2 ka event may have adversely affected its settlements in low-lying areas. While military conflicts with the Wangwan III culture may have accelerated the collapse of Shijiahe culture, we suggest that the joint effects of climate and the region's topography also played important causal roles in its demise.
Prospective cohort studies linking organ meat consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD in a general Chinese adult population. This prospective cohort study included a total of 15 568 adults who were free of liver disease, CVD and cancer at baseline. Dietary information was collected at baseline using a validated FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound after excluding other causes related to chronic liver disease. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD. During a median of 4·2 years of follow-up, we identified 3604 incident NAFLD cases. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, vegetable, fruit, soft drink, seafood and red meat consumption, the multivariable hazard ratios (95 % CI) for incident NAFLD across consumption of organ meat were 1·00 (reference) for almost never, 1·04 (0·94, 1·15) for tertile 1, 1·08 (0·99, 1·19) for tertile 2 and 1·11 (1·01, 1·22) for tertile 3, respectively (Pfor trend < 0·05). Such association did not differ substantially in the sensitivity analysis. Our study indicates that organ meat consumption was related to a modestly higher risk of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.
We investigated the drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV, and those diagnosed with only TB in Sichuan, China. TB isolates were obtained from January 2018 to December 2020 and subjected to drug susceptibility testing (DST) to 11 anti-TB drugs and to GeneXpert MTB/RIF testing. The overall proportion of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) isolates was 32.1% (n = 10 946). HIV testing was not universally available for outpatient TB cases, only 29.5% (3227/10 946) cases had HIV testing results. The observed proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) isolates was almost double than that of the national level, with approximately 1.5% and 0.1% of the isolates being extensively drug resistant and universally drug resistant, respectively. The proportions of resistant isolates were generally higher in 2018 and 2019 than in 2020. Furthermore, the sensitivities of GeneXpert during 2018–2020 demonstrated a downward trend (80.9, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 76.8–85.0; 80.2, 95% CI 76.4–84.1 and 75.4, 95% CI 70.7–80.2, respectively). Approximately 69.0% (7557/10 946) of the TB cases with DST results were subjected to GeneXpert detection. Overall, the DR-TB status and the use of GeneXpert in Sichuan have improved, but DR-TB challenges remain. HIV testing for all TB cases is recommended.
High dietary fibre intake has been associated with a lower risk of diabetes, but the association of dietary fibre with prediabetes is only speculative, especially in China, where the supportive data from prospective studies are lacking. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary fibre intake and risk of incident prediabetes among Chinese adults. We performed a prospective analysis in 18 085 participants of the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health cohort study who were free of diabetes, prediabetes, cancer and CVD at baseline. Dietary data were collected using a validated 100-item FFQ. Prediabetes was defined based on the American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI. During 63 175 person-years of follow-up, 4139 cases of incident prediabetes occurred. The multivariable HR of prediabetes for the highest v. lowest quartiles were 0·85 (95 % CI 0·75, 0·98) (P for trend = 0·02) for total dietary fibre, 0·84 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·95) (P for trend < 0·01) for soluble fibre and 1·05 (95 % CI 0·93, 1·19) (P for trend = 0·38) for insoluble fibre. Fibre from fruits but not from cereals, beans and vegetables was inversely associated with prediabetes. Our results indicate that intakes of total dietary fibre, soluble fibre and fibre derived from fruit sources were associated with a lower risk of prediabetes.
We present a microfluidic method to measure the elastic properties of a population of microcapsules (liquid drops enclosed by a thin hyperelastic membrane). The method is based on the observation of flowing capsules in a cylindrical capillary tube and an automatic inverse analysis of the deformed profiles. The latter requires results from a full numerical model of the fluid–structure interaction accounting for nonlinear membrane elastic properties. For ease of use, we provide them under the form of databases, when the initially spherical capsule has a membrane governed by a neo-Hookean or a general Hooke's law with different surface Poisson ratios. Ultimately, the microfluidic method yields information on the type of elastic constitutive law that governs the capsule wall material together with the value of the elastic parameters. The method is applied to a population of ovalbumin microcapsules and is validated by means of independent experiments of the same capsules subjected to a different flow in a microrheological device. This is of great interest for quality control purposes, as small samples of capsule suspensions can be diverted to a measuring test section and mechanically tested with a 10 % precision using an automated process.
The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity obtained by reduced-rank regression (RRR) with visceral fat index (VFI) as a dependent variable and dyslipidemia in rural adults in Henan, China. A total of 29538 people aged 18–79 were selected from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. RRR analysis was used to identify dietary patterns; logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline regression models were applied to analyze the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. VFI was used as a mediator to estimate the mediation effect. The dietary pattern in abdominal obesity was characterized by high carbohydrate and red meat intake and low consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, milk, etc. After full adjustment, the highest quartile of dietary pattern scores was significantly associated with an increased risk of dyslipidemia (OR: 1·33, 95 % CI 1·23–1·44, Ptrend < 0·001), there was a non-linear dose–response relationship between them (Poverall-association < 0·001, Pnon-lin-association = 0·022). The result was similar in dose-response between the dietary pattern scores and VFI. The indirect effect partially mediated by VFI was significant (OR: 1·07, 95 % CI 1·06–1·08). VIF explained approximately 53·3 % of odds of dyslipidemia related to the dietary pattern. Abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores positively affected VFI and dyslipidemia; there was a dose-response in both relationships. Dyslipidemia progression increased with higher abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores. In addition, VFI played a partial mediating role in relationship between abdominal obesity dietary pattern and dyslipidemia.