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We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes ‘Murriyang’ radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 yr with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with $\sim$3 yr of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations and compare this data release with our previous release.
We present the results of two population surveys conducted 10 years apart (December 2010–February 2011 and December 2020–January 2021) of the Critically Endangered white-headed langur Trachypithecus leucocephalus in the Chongzuo White-Headed Langur National Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, China. In the first survey, we recorded 818 individuals in 105 groups and 16 solitary adult males. In the second survey, we recorded 1,183 individuals in 128 groups and one solitary adult male. As a result of government policies, poaching for food and traditional medicine is no longer a primary threat to these langurs. However, severe forest loss and fragmentation caused by human activities could limit any future increase of this langur population.
The new mineral, gysinite-(La), with the ideal formula PbLa(CO3)2(OH)⋅H2O, has been discovered in lujavrite from the Saima alkaline complex, Liaoning Province, China. It commonly occurs as subhedral to anhedral, granular and platy crystals of 5 to 50 μm in size, in interstices or enclosed in microcline, aegirine and nepheline. Associated minerals include nepheline, aegirine, microcline, natrolite, eudialyte, lamprophyllite, bastnäsite-(Ce), parasite-(Ce), ancylite-(La), ancylite-(Ce), bobtraillite, britholite-(Ce), thorite, calcite and galena. The crystallisation of gysinite-(La) may be related to the post-magmatic carbonation event. Gysinite-(La) crystals are generally transparent, colourless, or pale yellow, with a vitreous lustre and white streak. It is brittle with an uneven fracture, and the estimated Mohs hardness is 3½ to 4. The calculated density is 5.007 g/cm3. Optically, gysinite-(La) is biaxial (–), α= 1.832(2), β= 1.849(4), γ = 1.862(5) in white light and 2Vmeas = 81.6°. The empirical formula of gysinite-(La) is (La0.93Pb0.61Nd0.23Pr0.14Sr0.04Gd0.02Sm0.01Eu0.01Ca0.01)Σ2(CO3)2(OH)1.34⋅0.66H2O, which is calculated on the basis of general formula (REExM2+2–x)(CO3)2(OH)x⋅(2–x)H2O. The strongest eight lines of its powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 5.596 (21) (011), 4.349 (100) (110), 3.732 (68) (111), 2.984 (61) (121), 2.667 (21) (031), 2.363 (48) (131), 2.090 (29) (221) and 2.028 (21) (212). Gysinite-(La) is orthorhombic, in the space group Pmcn, and unit-cell parameters refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data are: a = 5.0655(2) Å, b = 8.5990(3) Å, c = 7.3901(4) Å, V = 321.90(2) Å3 and Z = 2. It is a new member of the ancylite group and isostructural with gysinite-(Nd), but with La and Pb dominant in the metal cation sites in the structure.
In this paper, the feasibility of a high laser damage threshold liquid crystal spatial light modulator based on gallium nitride (GaN) transparent conductive electrodes is proved. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) is measured, and a high LIDT reflective optically addressed liquid crystal light valve (OALCLV) based on GaN is designed and fabricated. The proper work mode of the OALCLV is determined; the OALCLV obtained a maximum reflectivity of about 55% and an on–off ratio of 55:1, and an image response is demonstrated.
Fluorsigaiite, ideally Ca2Sr3(PO4)3F, is a new Sr analogue of fluorphosphohedyphane and a new member of the apatite supergroup. It was discovered in lujavrite from the Saima alkaline complex, Liaoning Province, China. Fluorsigaiite commonly occurs as individual prismatic, columnar and platy crystals of 10 to 50 μm in size, associated with microcline, nepheline, aegirine, natrolite, eudialyte, fluorapatite, a fluorstrophite-like mineral, stronadelphite and calcite. Occasionally, crystals of fluorsigaiite form prismatic aggregates in the interstices of lujavrite. Fluorsigaiite is translucent to transparent, colourless to yellowish white with a vitreous lustre and without fluorescence. The estimated Mohs hardness is 5, and the tenacity is brittle with uneven fractures. The calculated density is 3.842 g/cm3. Optically, fluorsigaiite is uniaxial (–) with ω = 1.64(1) and ɛ = 1.63(1) in white light and without dispersion. The mean chemical composition (in wt.%) of fluorsigaiite is Na2O 0.75, CaO 15.17, SrO 44.44, La2O3 3.64, Ce2O3 2.22, Pr2O3 0.19, Nd2O3 0.13, Sm2O3 0.05, Gd2O3 0.23, P2O5 31.87, F 1.91, H2O 0.46, sum 100.26, giving the empirical formula (Sr2.82Ca1.79Na0.16La0.15Ce0.09Pr0.01Nd0.01Gd0.01)Σ5.04P2.97O12[F0.66(OH)0.34]Σ1, which is calculated on the basis of 13 total anions and F+(OH) = 1. The strongest eight lines of its powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 3.563 (15) (002), 3.275 (15) (102), 3.144 (19) (120), 2.876 (100) (121), 2.861 (96) (112), 2.772 (27) (300), 1.991 (17) (222) and 1.895 (23) (213). Fluorsigaiite is hexagonal, in the space group P63/m and unit-cell parameters refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data are: a = 9.6101(2) Å, c = 7.1311(1) Å, V = 570.35(3) Å3 and Z = 2. It is isostructural with hedyphane-group minerals, and contains different prevailing (species-defining) Ca and Sr cations at the Ca1 and Ca2 sites, respectively. Fluorsigaiite was probably formed from Sr-rich fluids at late-magmatic or hydrothermal stage of the Saima lujavrite.
The 4.2 ka event is widely presumed to be a globally widespread aridity event and has been linked to several episodes of societal changes across the globe. Whether this climate event impacted the cultural development in south-central China remains uncertain due to a lack of regional paleorainfall records. We present here stalagmite stable carbon isotope and trace element–based reconstruction of hydroclimatic conditions from south-central China. Our data reveal a sub–millennial scale (~5.6 to 4.3 ka) drying trend in the region followed by a gradual transition to wetter conditions during the 4.2 ka event (4.3–3.9 ka). Together with the existing archaeological evidence, our data suggest that the drier climate before 4.3 ka may have promoted the Shijiahe culture, while the pluvial conditions during the 4.2 ka event may have adversely affected its settlements in low-lying areas. While military conflicts with the Wangwan III culture may have accelerated the collapse of Shijiahe culture, we suggest that the joint effects of climate and the region's topography also played important causal roles in its demise.
To assess the role of dietary creatine on myofibre characteristics and protein synthesis in muscle, we fed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, initial body weight: 88·47 ± 1·44 g) creatine-supplemented diets (1·84, 5·91, 8·48 and 15·44 g/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Creatine supplementation did not affect growth performance, but significantly increased creatine contents in muscle and liver. At 8·48 g/kg, creatine decreased the activities of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum and improved hardness and chewiness of muscle due to shorter myofibre mean diameter, higher myofibre density and the frequencies of the diameters of classes I and III and collagen content, longer sarcomere length and upregulated mRNA levels of slow myosin heavy chains. Creatine supplementation upregulated the mRNA expressions of myogenic regulatory factors. The 8·48 g/kg creatine-supplemented diet significantly increased the contents of protein, total amino acids (AA), essential AA and free flavour AAs in muscle, the protein levels of insulin-like growth factor I, myogenic differentiation antigen and PPAR-γ coactlvator-1α in muscle and stimulated the phosphorylation of target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway in muscle. In summary, 8·48 mg/kg creatine improved fish health and skeletal muscle growth and increased hardness and protein synthesis in muscle of grass carp by affecting myofibre characteristics and the TOR signalling pathway. A second-order regression model revealed that the optimal dietary creatine supplementation of grass carp ranges between 8·48 and 12·04 g/kg.
In this paper, we propose an effective method to compensate for the performance degradation of optically addressed spatial light modulators (OASLMs). The thermal deposition problem usually leads to the on-off ratio reduction of amplitude OASLM, so it is difficult to achieve better results in high-power laser systems. Through the analysis of the laser-induced temperature rise model and the liquid crystal layer voltage model, it is found that reducing the driving voltage of the liquid crystal light valve and increasing the driving current of the optical writing module can compensate for the decrease of on–off ratio caused by temperature rise. This is the result of effectively utilizing the photoconductive effect of Bi12SiO20 (BSO) crystal. The experimental results verify the feasibility of the proposed method and increase the laser withstand power of amplitude-only OASLM by about a factor of 2.5.
Renal fibrosis is common especially in the elderly population. Recently, we found that vitamin D deficiency caused prostatic hyperplasia. This study aimed to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency promotes renal fibrosis and functional impairment. All mice except controls were fed with vitamin D-deficient (VDD) diets, beginning from their early life. The absolute and relative kidney weights on postnatal week 20 were decreased in VDD diet-fed male pups but not in female pups. A mild pathological damage was observed in VDD diet-fed male pups but not in females. Further analysis showed that VDD-induced pathological damage was aggravated, accompanied by renal dysfunction in 40-week-old male pups. An obvious collagen deposition was observed in VDD diet-fed 40-week-old male pups. Moreover, renal α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), and Tgf-β mRNA were up-regulated. The in vitro experiment showed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 alleviated transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated down-regulation of E-cadherin and inhibited TGF-β1-evoked up-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin and α-SMA in renal epithelial HK-2 cells. Moreover, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppressed TGF-β1-evoked Smad2/3 phosphorylation in HK-2 cells. These results provide experimental evidence that long-term vitamin D deficiency promotes renal fibrosis and functional impairment, at least partially, through aggravating TGF-β/Smad2/3-mediated EMT in middle-aged male mice.
The X-ray emissions in the interaction of 3–6 MeV Xe23+ ions into thick solid In target are measured. The projectile-to-target and target Lα/Lβ X-ray production intensity ratios are observed to strongly depend on the projectile energy. The dependence deviates from Coulomb ionization predictions, which implies the important roles of coupling between subshells and the activation of 4fσ rotational couplings for projectile energy larger than 5 MeV.
In recent years, there has been a significant thrust toward the development of novel implant alloys based on β-Ti with low Young’s modulus to prevent stress shielding. In this study, porous Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr alloys with porosity of <55% and macro-pore size of 100–400 μm for biomedical applications were successfully fabricated by a space-holder method. The microstructure and compressive behavior were studied. The results show that the micro-pore size of porous Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr alloys decreases with an increase in the amount of the process control agent (PCA), which has no obvious effect on the porosity and the macro-pore size formed by the space holder. Porous Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr alloys fail mainly because of the cleavage and ductile fracture with some dimples in compression. The compressive modulus increases from 0.6 to 6.5 GPa with the increase in the PCA and decrease of the space holder. The influence mechanism has been analyzed by the finite element calculation and the Gibson–Ashby model.
The modification of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) as fillers is very effective at improving the performance of polymers. A novel modification of HNTs through grafting dodecylamine onto their surfaces was conducted here. Owing to the improvement in dispersibility of HNTs in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), the mechanical properties and wear resistance (in particular) of the dodecylamine-modified HNT-filled PTFE composite were enhanced significantly.
Objective: Deficits in the semantic learning strategy were observed in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in our previous study. In the present study, we explored the contributions of executive function and brain structure changes to the decline in the semantic learning strategy in aMCI. Methods: A neuropsychological battery was used to test memory and executive function in 96 aMCI subjects and 90 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs). The semantic clustering ratio on the verbal learning test was calculated to evaluate learning strategy. Medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were measured on MRI with the MTA and Fazekas visual rating scales, respectively. Results: Compared to HCs, aMCI subjects had poorer performance in terms of memory, executive function, and the semantic clustering ratio (P < .001). In aMCI subjects, no significant correlation between learning strategy and executive function was observed. aMCI subjects with obvious MTA demonstrated a lower semantic clustering ratio than those without MTA (P < .001). There was no significant difference in the learning strategies between subjects with high-grade WMH and subjects with low-grade WMH. Conclusion: aMCI subjects showed obvious impairment in the semantic learning strategy, which was attributable to MTA but independent of executive dysfunction and subcortical WMH. These findings need to be further validated in large cohorts with biomarkers identified using volumetric brain measurements. (JINS, 2019, 25, 706–717)
In order to improve the dispersibility of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), the modification of HNT surfaces was studied with three types of modifiers (polymethyl methacrylate [PMMA], sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS] and carboxylic acid). The modified HNTs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements. The HNTs were used to reinforce the mechanical properties of PTFE. The mechanical results indicated that the tensile strength of the modified HNT-filled PTFE nanocomposites (F-HNT/PTFE) improved to an acceptable degree and Young's modulus increased significantly. The tribological results showed that the wear rate of F-HNT/PTFE decreased by 21–82 and 9–40 times compared to pure PTFE and the pristine F-HNT/PTFE, respectively.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.