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Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often exhibit difficulties in socialization and communication, especially in emotional understanding. These challenges not only affect their relationships with peers and families, but may also impact their learning and daily life. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of an emotionally interactive college-designed curriculum based intervention on emotional understanding for individuals with ASD, in order to help individuals with ASD better understand and express their emotions, and thus improve their social interactions and quality of life.
Subjects and Methods
The study divided 130 students with ASD into an experimental group and a control group. Students in the experimental group were enrolled in a college-designed course based on emotional interaction; students in the control group were enrolled in a regular course and the experiment was maintained for one semester. The study used the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a mental health measurement scale, to assess patients’ understanding of emotions.
Students in the experimental group had significantly higher emotional comprehension scores at the end of the experiment than before the experiment began (P < 0.05), as well as significantly higher emotional comprehension scores at the end of the experiment than students in the control group (P < 0.05).
A college-designed curriculum based on emotional interaction helps students with autism to make emotional understanding and produce positive effects for intervention treatment for students with autism.
With advancements in cancer treatments, the survival rates of patients with their first primary cancer (FPC) have increased, resulting in a rise in the number of patients with second primary cancer (SPC). However, there has been no assessment on the incidence of suicide among patients with SPC. This study assessed the occurrence of suicide among patients with SPC and compared them with that in patients with FPC.
This was a retrospective, population-based cohort study that followed patients with FPC and SPC diagnosed from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 17 registries database between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2019.
For patients with SPC, an age of 85+ years at diagnosis was associated with a higher incidence of suicide death (HR, 1.727; 95% CI, 1.075–2.774), while the suicide death was not considerably different in the chemotherapy group (P > 0.05). Female genital system cancers (HR, 3.042; 95% CI, 1.819–6.361) accounted for the highest suicide death among patients with SPC. The suicide death distribution of patients with SPC over time indicated that suicide events mainly occurred within 5 to 15 years of diagnosis. Compared with patients with FPC, patients with SPC in general had a lower risk of suicide, but increased year by year.
The risk of suicide was reduced in patients with SPC compared with patients with FPC, but increased year by year. Therefore, oncologists and related health professionals need to provide continuous psychological support to reduce the incidence of suicide. The highest suicide death was found among patients with female genital system cancer.
The alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos Kikuchi and Hashimoto, 2000, is an evolutionarily important deep-sea species in hydrothermal vents of north-western Pacific. A genome survey of S. leurokolos was carried out in order to provide a foundation for its whole-genome sequencing. A total of 599 Gb high-quality sequence data were obtained in the study, representing approximately 118× coverage of the S. leurokolos genome. According to the 17-mer distribution frequency, the estimated genome size was 5.08 Gb, and its heterozygosity ratio and percentage of repeated sequences were 2.85 and 87.03%, respectively, showing a complex genome. The final scaffold assembly accounted for a total size of 9.53 Gb (32,796,062 scaffolds, N50 = 597 bp). Repetitive elements nearly constituted 45% of the nuclear genome, among which the most ubiquitous were long interspersed nuclear elements, DNA transposons and long-terminal repeat elements. A total of 12,121,553 genomic simple sequence repeats were identified, with the most frequent repeat motif being di-nucleotide (70.27%), followed by tri-nucleotide and tetra-nucleotide. From the genome survey sequences, the mitochondrial genome of S. leurokolos was also constructed and 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by comparison with previous published reference. This is the first report of de novo whole-genome sequencing and assembly of S. leurokolos. These newly developed genomic data contribute to a better understanding of genomic characteristics of shrimps from deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems, and provides valuable resources for further molecular marker development.
Arazyme, an alkaline metalloprotease, is produced by Serratia proteamaculans, a symbiotic bacterium isolated from the intestinal ecosystem of Nephila clavata. Arazyme is known to play a crucial role in facilitating the digestion process in N. clavata. Recently, there has been increasing interest in exploring invertebrate-associated gut symbionts as a valuable source of novel and biologically active enzymes. Animal husbandry has shown significant interest in this spider-derived bioactive enzyme. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding and knowledge of arazyme in the context of animal husbandry, offering valuable references for potential applications of this enzyme.
Routine blood examination is an easy way to examine infectious diseases. This study is aimed to develop a model to diagnose serious bacterial infections (SBI) in ICU neonates based on routine blood parameters. This was a cross-sectional study, and data were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III). SBI was defined as suffering from one of the following: pyelonephritis, bacteraemia, bacterial meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, cellulitis, and osteomyelitis. Variables with statistical significance in the univariate logistic regression analysis and log systemic immune–inflammatory index (SII) were used to develop the model. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the performance of the model. A total of 1,880 participants were finally included for analysis. Weight, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, white blood cell, monocyte, premature delivery, and log SII were selected to develop the model. The developed model showed a good performance to diagnose SBI for ICU neonates, with an AUC of 0.812 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.737–0.888). A nomogram was developed to make this model visualise. In conclusion, our model based on routine blood parameters performed well in the diagnosis of neonatal SBI, which may be helpful for clinicians to improve treatment recommendations.
Germplasm innovation can provide materials for breeding sugarcane cultivars. Saccharum officinarum is the main source of high-sugar and high-yield genes in sugarcane breeding. ‘Nobilization’ is the theoretical basis for exploiting S. officinarum, and S. officinarum authenticity directly affects sugarcane nobility breeding efficiency. Herein, the authenticity of 22 SLC-series S. officinarum clones imported from Sri Lanka and preserved in the China National Germplasm Repository of Sugarcane (NGRS) was explored by four-primer amplification-arrested mutation PCR (ARMS PCR) and somatic chromosome number counting. The amplified bands from SLC 08 120 and SLC 08 131 were the same with those from S. officinarum clone Badila, i.e. a common band of 428 bp and a S. officinarum-specific band of 278 bp, hence they were tentatively assigned as S. officinarum clones. The other 20 SLC clones had both 278 bp (S. officinarum-specific) and 203 bp (S. spontaneum-specific) bands, which are hybrid characteristics. In addition, the chromosome numbers of SLC 08 120 and SLC 08 131 are both 80, belong to typical S. officinarum. While the chromosome numbers of the other 20 materials are ranging from 101 to 129, consistent with hybrids of S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. This molecular cytological characterization indicates that among the 22 introduced SLC-series clones, only two, SLC 08 120 and SLC 08 131, were S. officinarum. Future agronomic trait and resistance analyses could facilitate their use as crossing parents in sugarcane breeding.
Recently, neural abstractive text summarization (NATS) models based on sequence-to-sequence architecture have drawn a lot of attention. Real-world texts that need to be summarized range from short news with dozens of words to long reports with thousands of words. However, most existing NATS models are not good at summarizing long documents, due to the inherent limitations of their underlying neural architectures. In this paper, we focus on the task of long document summarization (LDS). Based on the inherent section structures of source documents, we divide an abstractive LDS problem into several smaller-sized problems. In this circumstance, how to provide a less-biased target summary as the supervision for each section is vital for the model’s performance. As a preliminary, we formally describe the section-to-summary-sentence (S2SS) alignment for LDS. Based on this, we propose a novel NATS framework for the LDS task. Our framework is built based on the theory of unbalanced optimal transport (UOT), and it is named as UOTSumm. It jointly learns three targets in a unified training objective, including the optimal S2SS alignment, a section-level NATS summarizer, and the number of aligned summary sentences for each section. In this way, UOTSumm directly learns the text alignment from summarization data, without resorting to any biased tool such as ROUGE. UOTSumm can be easily adapted to most existing NATS models. And we implement two versions of UOTSumm, with and without the pretrain-finetune technique. We evaluate UOTSumm on three publicly available LDS benchmarks: PubMed, arXiv, and GovReport. UOTSumm obviously outperforms its counterparts that use ROUGE for the text alignment. When combined with UOTSumm, the performance of two vanilla NATS models improves by a large margin. Besides, UOTSumm achieves better or comparable performance when compared with some recent strong baselines.
Trematodes of the genus Ogmocotyle are intestinal flukes that can infect a variety of definitive hosts, resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. However, there are few studies on molecular data of these trematodes. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ogmocotyle ailuri isolated from red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was determined and compared with those from Pronocephalata to investigate the mt genome content, genetic distance, gene rearrangements and phylogeny. The complete mt genome of O. ailuri is a typical closed circular molecule of 14 642 base pairs, comprising 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. In addition, 23 intergenic spacers and 2 locations with gene overlaps were determined. Sequence identities and sliding window analysis indicated that cox1 is the most conserved gene among 12 PCGs in O. ailuri mt genome. The sequenced mt genomes of the 48 Plagiorchiida trematodes showed 5 types of gene arrangement based on all mt genome genes, with the gene arrangement of O. ailuri being type I. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs revealed that O. ailuri was closer to Ogmocotyle sikae than to Notocotylus intestinalis. These data enhance the Ogmocotyle mt genome database and provide molecular resources for further studies of Pronocephalata taxonomy, population genetics and systematics.
Although ketamine can rapidly decrease suicidal ideation (SI), its neurobiological mechanism of action remains unclear. Several areas of the cingulate cortex have been implicated in SI; therefore, we aimed to explore the neural correlates of the anti-suicidal effect of ketamine with cingulate cortex functional connectivity (FC) in depression.
Forty patients with unipolar or bipolar depression with SI underwent six infusions of ketamine over 2 weeks. Clinical symptoms and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained at baseline and on day 13. Remitters were defined as those with complete remission of SI on day 13. Four pairs of cingulate cortex subregions were selected: the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), and posterior mid-cingulate cortex (pMCC), and whole-brain FC for each seed region was calculated.
Compared with non-remitters, remitters exhibited increased FC of the right pgACC–left middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and right aMCC–bilateral postcentral gyrus at baseline. A high area under the curve (0.91) indicated good accuracy of the combination of the above between-group differential FCs as a predictor of anti-suicidal effect. Moreover, the change of SI after ketamine infusion was positively correlated with altered right pgACC–left MOG FC in remitters (r = 0.66, p = 0.001).
Our findings suggest that the FC of some cingulate cortex subregions can predict the anti-suicidal effect of ketamine and that the anti-suicidal mechanism of action of ketamine may involve alteration of FC between the right pgACC and left MOG.
One of the most common harmful mites in edible fungi is Histiostoma feroniarum Dufour (Acaridida: Histiostomatidae), a fungivorous astigmatid mite that feeds on hyphae and fruiting bodies, thereby transmitting pathogens. This study examined the effects of seven constant temperatures and 10 types of mushrooms on the growth and development of H. feroniarum, as well as its host preference. Developmental time for the total immature stages was significantly affected by the type of mushroom species, ranging from 4.3 ± 0.4 days (reared on Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis Mou at 28°C) to 17.1 ± 2.3 days (reared on Auricularia polytricha Sacc. at 19°C). The temperature was a major factor in the formation of facultative heteromorphic deutonymphs (hypopi). The mite entered the hypopus stage when the temperature dropped to 16°C or rose above 31°C. The growth and development of this mite were significantly influenced by the type of species and variety of mushrooms. Moreover, the fungivorous astigmatid mite preferred to feed on the ‘Wuxiang No. 1’ strain of Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler and the ‘Gaowenxiu’ strain of P. pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél., with a shorter development period compared with that of feeding on other strains. These results therefore quantify the effect of host type and temperature on fungivorous astigmatid mite growth and development rates, and provide a reference for applying mushroom cultivar resistance to biological pest control.
We report here the first hundred-watt continuouswave fiber gas laser in H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by stimulated Raman scattering. The pump source is a homemade narrow-linewidth fiber oscillator with a 3 dB linewidth of 0.15 nm at the maximum output power of 380 W. To efficiently and stably couple several-hundred-watt pump power into the hollow core and seal the gas, a hollow-core fiber end-cap is fabricated and used at the input end. A maximum power of 110 W at 1153 nm is obtained in a 5 m long hollow-core PCF filled with 36 bar H2, and the conversion efficiency of the first Stokes power is around 48.9%. This work paves the way for high-power fiber gas Raman lasers.
Fat deposition and lipid metabolism are closely related to the morphology, structure and function of mitochondria. The morphology of mitochondria between fusion and fission processes is mainly regulated by protein posttranslational modification. Intermittent fasting (IF) promotes high expression of Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) and induces mitochondrial fusion in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, the mechanism by which Sirt3 participates in mitochondrial protein acetylation during IF to regulate mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics remains unclear. This article demonstrates that IF promotes mitochondrial fusion and improves mitochondrial function in HFD mouse inguinal white adipose tissue. Proteomic sequencing revealed that IF increased protein deacetylation levels in HFD mice and significantly increased Sirt3 mRNA and protein expression. After transfecting with Sirt3 overexpression or interference vectors into adipocytes, we found that Sirt3 promoted adipocyte mitochondrial fusion and improved mitochondrial function. Furthermore, Sirt3 regulates the JNK-FIS1 pathway by deacetylating malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) to promote mitochondrial fusion. In summary, our study indicates that IF promotes mitochondrial fusion and improves mitochondrial function by upregulating the high expression of Sirt3 in HFD mice, promoting deacetylation of MDH2 and inhibiting the JNK-FIS1 pathway. This research provides theoretical support for studies related to energy limitation and animal lipid metabolism.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
Chemical defoliants are widely used in cotton (Gossypium L.) to accelerate leaf abscission and boll maturation, as well as, to facilitate mechanical harvesting. The current study was conducted to determine the interactive effect of cotton cultivars and spraying time of defoliant on defoliation, boll opening, fibre yield and quality. An experiment was performed with four cultivars and three defoliant spraying time during 2019 and 2020 in split plot design with three replications. At harvest, the defoliation and boll opening rate of all treatments after spraying defoliant was 94.6 and 85.4%, while the blank control (water) was 73.9 and 79.1%, respectively. After spraying defoliant, the effects of defoliation rate, boll opening rate, fibre yield and quality were different among cultivars, indicating that different cultivars had different responses to defoliant. Among them, L7619 was the most sensitive to defoliant, with the average defoliation rate of 95.6% and a seed cotton yield reduction of 882.9 kg/ha. Among the different time of applications, late spraying (17 September, B3) of defoliant recorded the highest defoliation rate (97.3%), boll opening rate (89.8%), seed cotton yield (3991 kg/ha) and steadily increased the fibre strength by 0.59 cN/tex compared with the control. Late spraying of defoliant had little or even no adverse effect on the remaining fibre quality traits (length, uniformity, micronaire and elongation). In general, these results suggested that the appropriate time for spraying defoliant can be determined based on the sensitivity of the cotton cultivar, the weather conditions at the field and the harvest time.
Earlier research largely ignored the effects of climate change on the growth of agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) in Africa. This study shows how climate inputs impact TFP growth in addition to other productivity growth indicators and metrics, as well as how they can impact overall input efficiency as productivity drivers. We use a panel of 42 African nations from 1999 to 2019 and a nonparametric data envelopment analysis-Malmquist technique. The non-parametric analysis revealed that the average growth rate of the non-climate-induced TFP estimates was 1.9%, while the average growth rate of the climate-induced TFP estimates was 2.4%. Accounting for temperature and precipitation separately, TFP grew by 2.3% on average. This growth rate (2.3%) is slightly less than the combined effect of temperature and precipitation (2.4%) but higher than the typical TFP growth rate (1.9%) that ignores climate variables, indicating that TFP growth in African agriculture risks being underestimated when climate inputs are ignored. We also find the distribution of the climate effects to vary across regions. In northern Africa, for example, the temperature-induced TFP growth rates were negative due to rising temperature in the region. Evidence from the decomposed TFP estimates indicates that climate variables also influence productivity determinants. However, technology improvement is fundamental to mitigating the effects of extreme weather inputs on TFP growth in Africa's agriculture. As a result, a few policy suggestions are provided to help policymakers deal with the effects of climate change on TFP growth in Africa's agriculture and ensure food security. The study advocated for a reevaluation of the climate–agriculture effect in order to fully comprehend the role of climate factors and their contributions to agricultural TFP growth in Africa.
Trauma exposure can cause post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and persistently experiencing PTSS may lead to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research has shown that PTSS that emerged within days of trauma was a robust predictor of PTSD development.
To investigate patterns of early stress responses to trauma and their associations with development of PTSD.
We recruited 247 civilian trauma survivors from a local hospital emergency department. The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) were completed within 2 weeks after the traumatic event. Additionally, 3 months post-trauma 146 of these participants completed a PTSD diagnostic interview using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5.
We first used latent profile analysis on four symptom clusters of the PCL-5 and the dissociation symptom cluster of the ASDS and determined that a four-profile model (‘severe symptoms’, ‘moderate symptoms’, ‘mild symptoms’, ‘minimal symptoms’) was optimal based on multiple fit indices. Gender was found to be predictive of profile membership. We then found a significant association between subgroup membership and PTSD diagnosis (χ2(3) = 11.85, P < 0.01, Cramer's V = 0.263). Post hoc analysis revealed that this association was driven by participants in the ‘severe symptoms’ profile, who had a greater likelihood of developing PTSD.
These findings fill the knowledge gap of identifying possible subgroups of individuals based on their PTSS severity during the early post-trauma period and investigating the relationship between subgroup membership and PTSD development, which have important implications for clinical practice.
Two new species of the lichenized genus Lasioloma are described from Asia: Lasioloma longiramosum W. C. Wang & A. Abas (collected from Malaysia), is characterized by a distinct woolly prothallus between dispersed thallus patches, comparatively small, muriform ascospores, long filiform conidia (main branch 22–28 μm in length, the other three branches 65–80 μm) and a foliicolous habitat; L. verrucosum W. C. Wang & X. L. Wei (collected from China), is characterized by a warted thallus, filiform conidia (main branch 22–32 μm in length, the other three branches 50–65 μm) and a corticolous habitat. The placement of both new species was confirmed by a molecular phylogenetic approach based on combined ITS, mtSSU and mtLSU sequences, and both are compared in detail to other similar species of the genus. Our study also revealed that the length of the conidial branches, which has not been explored in previous studies, should be regarded as an important feature for species delimitation in Lasioloma.
Extensive evidence has demonstrated that bilinguals non-selectively activate lexicons of both languages when reading or hearing words in one language. Here, we further investigated the electrophysiological roles of cross-linguistic orthography and phonology in the processing of L2 spoken words in unbalanced Chinese (L1)–English (L2) bilinguals in a cross-modal situation. Relative to unrelated control, the recognition of auditory L2 words showed behavioral interference effects when paired with orthographic or phonological neighbors of the correct translations of L2 words. Moreover, the lexical effects were also exhibited in the electrophysiological data, as reflected by marginally less positive late positive component (500–800 ms) amplitudes in the frontal region. Importantly, the orthographic rather than phonological translation neighbor condition elicited less negative N400 (300–500 ms) amplitudes in the parietal–occipital regions, suggesting that this orthographic translation neighbor condition facilitated the co-activation of spoken L2 words. Taken together, these findings indicate that cross-linguistic orthographic and phonological activation have different temporal dynamics with both bottom-up parallel cross-linguistic activation and the top-down inhibitory control mechanism governing the two-language lexical organization in L2 spoken word recognition.
Many protected areas worldwide have been established to protect the last natural refuges of flagship animal species. However, long-established protected areas do not always match the current distributions of target species under changing environmental conditions. Here we present a case study of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus in Xishuangbanna, south-west China, to evaluate whether the established protected areas match the species’ current distribution and to identify key habitat patches for Asian elephant conservation. Our results show that currently only 24.5% of the predicted Asian elephant distribution in Xishuangbanna is located within Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, which was established for elephant conservation. Based on the predicted Asian elephant distribution, we identified the most important habitat patches for elephant conservation in Xishuangbanna. The three most important patches were outside Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve and together they contained 43.3% of the estimated food resources for Asian elephants in all patches in Xishuangbanna. Thus, we identified a spatial mismatch between immobile protected areas and mobile animals. We recommend the inclusion of the three identified key habitat patches in a new national park currently being planned by the Chinese authorities for the conservation of the Asian elephant.