To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
From the signing of the Treaty of San Francisco to the resumption of diplomatic relations between China and Japan, Japan has always adopted a political and economic separation policy that maintains diplomacy with Taiwan and economic and cultural relations with China. Within the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, to break the existing deadlock, Kenzo Matsumura of the Japanese House of Representatives and others formed a foreign policy group in 1959. This group spoke highly of China's importance to Japan's development on the grounds of national interests rather than ideology and national sentiments, played a bridging role in the political communication between China and Japan, and created a precedent for the nontraditional improvement of international relations in Japan.
We derive an analytical approximation for the price of a credit default swap (CDS) contract under a regime-switching Black–Scholes model. To achieve this, we first derive a general formula for the CDS price, and establish the relationship between the unknown no-default probability and the price of a down-and-out binary option written on the same reference asset. Then we present a two-step procedure: the first step assumes that all the future information of the Markov chain is known at the current time and presents an approximation for the conditional price under a time-dependent Black–Scholes model, based on which the second step derives the target option pricing formula written in a Fourier cosine series. The efficiency and accuracy of the newly derived formula are demonstrated through numerical experiments.
Depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment often coexisted in the elderly. This study investigates the effect of late-life depressive symptoms on risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
A total of 14,231 dementia- and MCI free participants aged 60+ from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe were followed-up for 10 years to detect incident MCI. MCI was defined as 1.5 standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the standardized global cognition score. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a 12-item Europe-depression scale (EURO-D). Severity of depressive symptoms was grouped as: no/minimal (score 0–3), moderate (score 4–5), and severe (score 6–12). Significant depressive symptoms (SDSs) were defined as EURO-D score ≥ 4.
During an average of 8.2 (SD = 2.4)-year follow-up, 1,352 (9.50%) incident MCI cases were identified. SDSs were related to higher MCI risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.26, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.10–1.44) in total population, individuals aged 70+ (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.14–1.61) and women (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.08–1.51) in Cox proportional hazard model adjusting for confounders. In addition, there was a dose–response association between the severity of depressive symptoms and MCI incidence in total population, people aged ≥70 years and women (p-trend <0.001).
Significant depressive symptoms were associated with higher incidence of MCI in a dose–response fashion, especially among people aged 70+ years and women. Treating depressive symptoms targeting older population and women may be effective in preventing MCI.
To explore the accuracy of estimated 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-h UIEest) in assessing iodine nutritional status.
Fasting venous blood, 24-h and spot urine samples were collected during the day. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and urinary creatinine concentration (UCrC) were measured, and the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Cr), 24-h UIEest, and 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-h UIE) were calculated. At the population level, correlation and consistency between UIC, UI/Cr, 24-h UIEest and 24-h UIE were assessed using correlation analysis and Bland–Altman plots. At the individual level, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyse the accuracy of the above indicators for evaluating insufficient and excessive iodine intake. The reference interval of 24-h UIEest was established based on percentile values.
Indicator can accurately evaluate individual iodine nutrition during pregnancy remains controversial.
Pregnant women (n 788).
Using 24-h UIE as standard, the correlation coefficients of 24-h UIEest from different periods of the day ranged from 0·409 to 0·531, and the relative average differences ranged from 4·4 % to 10·9 %. For diagnosis of insufficient iodine intake, the area under the ROC curve of 24-h UIEest was 0·754, sensitivity and specificity were 79·6 % and 65·4 %, respectively. For diagnosis of excessive iodine intake, the area of 24-h UIEest was 0·771, sensitivity and specificity were 66·7 % and 82·0 %, respectively. The reference interval of 24-h UIEest was 58·43–597·65 μg.
Twenty-four-hour UIEest can better indicate iodine nutritional status at a relatively large sample size in a given population of pregnant women. It can be used for early screening at the individual level to obtain more lead time for pregnant women.
Empirical research is largely supportive of the assertion of instrumental stakeholder theory that a positive relationship exists between “managing for stakeholders” and firm performance. However, despite considerable debate on the subject, the amount of variation across firm investments in stakeholders (stakeholder management performance) has not been adequately investigated. We address this gap using a sample of more than eighteen thousand firm-level observations over ten years. We find evidence to support an inverted U–shaped relationship between variation in stakeholder management performance and Tobin’s q, suggesting that firms that have some imbalance in their stakeholder management, but not too much, perform best. We discuss the implications of our study for instrumental stakeholder theory and managerial practice.
This paper presents a method to solve the kinematics of a rigid-flexible and variable-diameter continuous manipulator. The multi-segment underwater manipulator is driven by McKibben water hydraulic artificial muscle (WHAM). Considering the effect of elasticity and friction, we optimized the static mathematical model of WHAM. The kinematic model of the manipulator with load is established based on the hypothesis of piecewise constant curvature (PCC). We developed an optimization algorithm to calculate the length of the WHAMs according to the principle of minimum strain energy and obtain the configuration space parameters of the kinematic model. Based on the infinitesimal method, the homogeneous transformation matrices of the variable-diameter bending sections are computed, and the terminal position and attitude are obtained. In this paper, we studied the working space of the manipulator by quantitative analysis of the impact factors including pressure and load. A deep neural network (DNN) with six hidden layers is designed to solve inverse kinematics. The forward kinematic results are used to train and test the DNN, and the correlation coefficient between the output and target samples reaches 0.945. We carried out an underwater experiment and verified the effectiveness of the kinematic modeling and solution method.
We assessed longitudinal association between calcium intake during adolescence and hypertension in adulthood. Longitudinal study data of 1611 participants from the China Health and Nutrition Survey during 1991–2011 were used. On average they were followed for 11·4 years. Dietary calcium intake during adolescence was assessed based on three 24-hour dietary recalls collected in each visit/survey between 1991 and 2009 (seven waves). The intake was recoded into quartiles. Cumulative mean±SD calcium intake was 199·9±144·8 mg/1000 kcal/day during adolescence. In total 102 participants had hypertension in adulthood (97 men and 5 women). There was a clear U-shaped association between adolescence calcium intake quartiles and adulthood hypertension: across the quartiles, hypertension prevalence was 6·7%, 4·0%, 5·2% and 9·5%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders including weight status and dietary pattern, odds ratios (OR, 95% CI) for hypertension were 2·32 (95% CI 1·07–5·00) for lowest quartile, 1·00 (reference), 1·34 (95% CI 0·61–2·97), and 3·10 (95% CI 1·49–6·46) across the quartiles. Lower or higher calcium intake during adolescence was associated with hypertension in adulthood independent of weight status and dietary pattern.
China accounts for 17% of the global disease burden attributable to mental, neurological and substance use disorders. As a country undergoing profound societal change, China faces growing challenges to reduce the disease burden caused by psychiatric disorders. In this review, we aim to present an overview of progress in neuroscience research and clinical services for psychiatric disorders in China during the past three decades, analysing contributing factors and potential challenges to the field development. We first review studies in the epidemiological, genetic and neuroimaging fields as examples to illustrate a growing contribution of studies from China to the neuroscience research. Next, we introduce large-scale, open-access imaging genetic cohorts and recently initiated brain banks in China as platforms to study healthy brain functions and brain disorders. Then, we show progress in clinical services, including an integration of hospital and community-based healthcare systems and early intervention schemes. We finally discuss opportunities and existing challenges: achievements in research and clinical services are indispensable to the growing funding investment and continued engagement in international collaborations. The unique aspect of traditional Chinese medicine may provide insights to develop a novel treatment for psychiatric disorders. Yet obstacles still remain to promote research quality and to provide ubiquitous clinical services to vulnerable populations. Taken together, we expect to see a sustained advancement in psychiatric research and healthcare system in China. These achievements will contribute to the global efforts to realize good physical, mental and social well-being for all individuals.
For torpedo electronic components tested by functional verification, there are characteristics of a few samples and few failures. During service life, it is difficult to analyse and predict the changes in reliability. At present, management's observation of quality is mainly base on failure data, and it is difficult to make predictions about the moments without failure in service life. In this paper, according to the failure data, we consider such factors as performance degradation and detection and use the model of instantaneous failure rate to evaluate the reliability of the detection moments periodically, and predict the reliability of stages through the results of detection moments. The method proposed in this paper, on the one hand, considers the service experience, and on the other combines the detection data, to make the final evaluation result more credible. In addition, this paper predicts the changing trend of reliability between adjacent detection moments, which can provide a useful reference for quality management work.
By integrating role theory and social identity theory, this study examines the differential effects of organizational identification of the chief executive officer (CEO) and the chief financial officer (CFO) on corporate philanthropy. We argue that CEO organizational identification can positively affect corporate philanthropy, whereas the opposite holds for CFO organizational identification. This is because the CEO and the CFO have varying attitudes about corporate philanthropy owing to their different role expectations; thus, those who identify strongly with their organizations would act for the best interests of the firm. Moreover, because the beliefs of top executives are probably influenced by those of other executives, we further explore the interaction between the CEO and the CFO. We propose that the positive influence of CEO organizational identification on corporate philanthropy will be weakened by CFO organizational identification, and the moderating effect of CFO organizational identification will become stronger when the CEO and the CFO have opposite genders or when the CFO has ownership. From a sample of 880 publicly traded firms in China, we found support for our hypotheses. Our study can contribute to the corporate philanthropy literature and research on executive organizational identification by highlighting the importance of executive roles and their interactions.
The late Palaeozoic Yong’an–Meizhou depression belt is an important iron (Fe) and polymetallic metallogenic belt in southern China. It has undergone a transformation from Tethys to the circum-Pacific tectonic domain. The Luoyang deposit is one of the typical Fe skarn deposits in the Yong’an–Meizhou depression belt of eastern China. Garnet is a characteristic mineral in the deposit. Two generations of garnets are detected in the deposit based on their textural characteristics and trace-element contents, and are represented by Fe-enriched andradite. The first generation of garnets (Grt1) have two types of garnets (Grt1-A and Grt1-B). Type A garnets of the first generation (Grt1-A) (Adr80-88) replaced by massive diopside-magnetite assemblage exhibit distinct oscillatory zonings and display patterns of enriched light rare earth elements (LREE) to weak heavy rare earth elements (HREE), with weak negative to positive Eu anomalies, and highest U, ΣREE and Sn contents. Type B garnets of the first generation (Grt1-B) are irregular zones (Adr94-96) coexisting with magnetite, in which Grt1-A is generally dissolved, and have obviously LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted patterns, with weak negative to positive Eu anomalies, and moderate U, ΣREE and Zn contents. Garnets of the second generation (Grt2) (Adr96-99) that replaced massive magnetite together with sphalerite show unzoned patterns, with a flat REE pattern and pronounced negative Eu anomalies as well as contents of lowest U and ΣREE, and highest W. The substitution of REEs in garnets occurs as [X2+]VIII –1[REE3+]VIII +1[Si4+]IV –1[Z3+]IV +1in an Al-enriched environment. Luoyang hydrothermal fluids shifted from reducing conditions with relatively high-U and -ΣREE characteristics to oxidizing conditions with relatively low-U and -ΣREE characteristics. The reduced siderophile elements and increased fO2 in fluid during Grt1-B formation caused magnetite mineralization and reduced Zn contents during Grt2 formation, causing the deposition of sphalerite. All garnets formed from magmatic fluid and were controlled by infiltrative metasomatism in an opened system.
Iodine is an important element in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Thyroid function is regulated by the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis. Excessive iodine leads to elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, but the mechanism is not yet clear. Type 2 deiodinase (Dio2) is a Se-containing protease that plays a vital role in thyroid function. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of hypothalamus Dio2 in regulating TSH increase caused by excessive iodine and to determine the effects of iodine excess on thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) levels. Male Wistar rats were randomised into five groups and administered different iodine dosages (folds of physiological dose): normal iodine, 3-fold iodine, 6-fold iodine, 10-fold iodine and 50-fold iodine. Rats were euthanised at 4, 8, 12 or 24 weeks after iodine administration. Serum TRH, TSH, total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) were determined. Hypothalamus tissues were frozen and sectioned to evaluate the expression of Dio2, Dio2 activity and monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). Prolonged high iodine intake significantly increased TSH expression (P < 0·05) but did not affect TT3 and TT4 levels. Prolonged high iodine intake decreased serum TRH levels in the hypothalamus (P < 0·05). Dio2 expression and activity in the hypothalamus exhibited an increasing trend compared at each time point with increasing iodine intake (P < 0·05). Hypothalamic MCT8 expression was increased in rats with prolonged high iodine intake (P < 0·05). These results indicate that iodine excess affects the levels of Dio2, TRH and MCT8 in the hypothalamus.
Discusses education, looking specifically at how religious language interacts with educational settings where a teacher’s religious identity is a key part of their motivation for their work: Christians teaching English as a second or additional language in contexts where teachers are explicitly motivated by their religious beliefs.