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Interfacial waves between two superimposed dielectric fluid layers under a horizontal electric field are investigated from asymptotic and numerical aspects. The fluid is taken to be inviscid, incompressible and non-conducting in each layer. The competing forces resulting from gravity, surface tension and electric field are all considered. A systematic procedure is proposed to derive model equations of multiple scales in various possible limits from the electrified Euler equations in the framework of the Zakharov–Craig–Sulem formulation. Based on thorough analyses of the Dirichlet–Neumann operators in the long-wave approximation, classic weakly nonlinear models – including the Boussinesq-type system, the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation and its variants, and the Benjamin-type equation – are obtained under different scaling assumptions. In addition, strongly nonlinear models (without the smallness assumption on the wave amplitude) in the Benjamin and Barannyk–Papageorgiou–Petropoulos regimes are derived. In these models, the electric effects are shown to produce dispersive regularisations of long and short waves. A modified boundary integral equation method is developed to compute solitary waves in the original electrified Euler equations. Through comparisons with solitary-wave solutions in the Euler equations, it is found that in various asymptotic regimes, weakly nonlinear models are in overall good agreement when wave amplitudes are small. In contrast, the range of validity of the strongly nonlinear model is much broader. It is shown that the horizontal electric field plays a significant role in the physical system: it expands the range of parameters for the existence of progressive waves, changes the qualitative characteristics of solitary waves and leads to a new type of solitary wave, namely the KdV–wavepacket mixed type.
Patients with geriatric depression exhibit a spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild to severe cognitive impairment which could potentially lead to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aim of the study is to assess the alterations of the default mode network (DMN) in remitted geriatric depression (RGD) patients and whether it could serve as an underlying neuropathological mechanism associated with the risk of progression of AD.
A total of 154 participants, comprising 66 RGD subjects (which included 27 patients with comorbid amnestic mild cognitive impairment [aMCI] and 39 without aMCI [RGD]), 45 aMCI subjects without a history of depression (aMCI), and 43 matched healthy comparisons (HC), were recruited.
All participants completed neuropsychological tests and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)-seeded DMN functional connectivity (FC) along with cognitive function were compared among the four groups, and correlation analyses were conducted.
In contrast to HC, RGD, aMCI, and RGD-aMCI subjects showed significant impairment across all domains of cognitive functions except for attention. Furthermore, compared with HC, there was a similar and significant decrease in PCC-seed FC in the bilateral medial superior frontal gyrus (M-SFG) in the RGD, aMCI, and RGD-aMCI groups.
The aberrations in rsFC of the DMN were associated with cognitive deficits in RGD patients and might potentially reflect an underlying neuropathological mechanism for the increased risk of developing AD. Therefore, altered connectivity in the DMN could serve as a potential neural marker for the conversion of geriatric depression to AD.
Based on a cohort from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), we aimed to evaluate the relationship between sleep duration and the incidence of cognitive impairment among older Chinese adults.
We conducted a prospective analysis based on 3692 participants from the CLHLS at baseline (in 2011), and as a 3-year follow-up (till 2014), 531 participants (14.4%) had cognitive impairment, which was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score <24. Sleep duration was classified into three groups: short (≤5 hours/day), normal (>5 but <10 hours), and long (≥10 hours/day). A logistic regression model was used to examine the association between baseline sleep duration and cognitive impairment after adjusting for sociodemographic data, living habits, and health conditions.
Five hundred sixty-two participants (15.2%) were in the short-duration group, and 608 participants (16.5%) were in the long-duration group. After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, compared with normal sleep duration, long sleep duration was associated with the incidence of cognitive impairment (OR = 1.309, 95% CI: 1.019–1.683), especially among men (OR = 1.527, 95% CI: 1.041–2.240) and those having a primary and above education level (OR = 1.559, 95% CI: 1.029–2.361). No significant association was observed between short sleep duration and cognitive impairment (OR = 0.860, 95% CI: 0.646–1.145).
Excessive sleep may increase the risk of cognitive impairment in older individuals. It may be a suggestive sign of early neurodegeneration and may be a useful clinical tool to identify those at a higher risk of progressing to cognitive impairment.
Hypothermia (core temperature <36°C) during major surgeries could result in a number of adverse events such as surgical site infection, bleeding, and prolonged hospital stay. The incidence of intraoperative hypothermia was 44.3 percent in China in 2015, with only 10.7 percent of patients receiving effective hypothermia prevention measures during major surgeries. By systematically examining the adverse risks for patients using different warming measures (active and passive), our study discussed the potential of bringing the most effective one(s) into clinical guidelines.
Articles, ongoing trials and grey literatures were retrieved from PubMed, The Cochrane Library and Clinical Trials till February 2019. Bair HuggerTM (BH) was determined to be the reference group and all randomized controlled trials including BH were included. In the control group, we kept all possible warming measures. Adverse effect indicators were decided using scoping reviews and then applied in literature screening. Type (open/endoscopic) and length of surgery were included in sub-group analysis.
A total of forty-two studies were included, with twenty-seven of them passive insulation measures and fifteen active measures. Compared with passive measures, BH had significant advantages, such as in surgical site infection (risk ratio [RR] = 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05, 0.80), chills (RR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.54) and hospitalization stay (mean difference [MD]=−1.27d, 95% CI: -2.05, -0.48). Compared with active insulation measures, BH had no significant advantages. Patients with open or longer surgeries (≥2 hours) experienced higher risks.
Generally, an active warming system is more effective in lowering risks (e.g., hypothermia, surgical site infection, chills, length of stay) than passive ones, especially for patients going through non-endoscopic or longer surgeries. Among the active warming systems, BH does the same job as other active insulation measures. Given that the practice of peri-operative hypothermia prevention using active warming systems is not popular in China, the use of BH and other active insulation measures during major surgeries are recommended to improve the safety and potentially reduce the cost of treating those clinical adverse events.
The purpose of this study was to construct a glycyrrhetinic acid (GA)-mediated, breakable, intracellular, nanoscale drug-delivery carrier via amide and esterification reactions. The structures were identified by Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectrophotometry. The compatibility and safety of the carrier were evaluated using hemolysis and cytotoxicity tests. The GA-copolymer micelle was prepared using the solvent evaporation method. FTIR and 1H-NMR detection demonstrated the successful construction of the polymer. No hemolysis occurred in any concentration of polymer within 3 h, and the hemolysis rate was less than 5%. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) experimental results showed that the novel polymer reduced the cell survival rate and had significant cytotoxic effects. The blank nanoparticles were liquid with light blue opalescence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the empty micelles were uniform spheres, with an average size of 62 nm and a zeta potential of −13 mV. The novel GA-mediated polymeric carrier material developed here has the potential to effectively kill human SMMC-7721 cancer cells within 3 days when the dose is above 500 ug/mL.
Ketosis is a metabolic disease of dairy cows often characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies and fatty acids, but low milk protein and milk production. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are central for the regulation of milk protein synthesis. The effect of high levels of fatty acids on these pathways and β-casein synthesis are unknown in dairy cows with clinical ketosis. Mammary gland tissue and blood samples were collected from healthy (n = 15) and clinically-ketotic (n = 15) cows. In addition, bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were treated with fatty acids, methionine (Met) or prolactin (PRL), respectively. In vivo, the serum concentration of fatty acids was greater (P > 0.05) and the percentage of milk protein (P > 0.05) was lower in cows with clinical ketosis. The JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways were inhibited and the abundance of β-casein was lower in mammary tissue of cows with clinical ketosis (P > 0.05). In vitro, high levels of fatty acids inhibited the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways (P > 0.05) and further decreased the β-casein synthesis (P > 0.05) in BMEC. Methionine or PRL treatment, as positive regulators, activated the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways to increase the β-casein synthesis. Importantly, the high concentration of fatty acids attenuated the positive effect of Met or PRL on mTOR, JAK2-STAT5 pathways and the abundance of β-casein (P > 0.05). Overall, these data indicate that the high concentrations of fatty acids that reach the mammary cells during clinical ketosis inhibit mTOR and JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathways, and further suppress β-casein synthesis.
Psychiatric disorders are a group of complex psychological syndromes with high prevalence. Recent studies observed associations between altered plasma proteins and psychiatric disorders. This study aims to systematically explore the potential genetic relationships between five major psychiatric disorders and more than 3,000 plasma proteins.
The genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets of attention deficiency/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) were driven from the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium. The GWAS datasets of 3,283 human plasma proteins were derived from recently published study, including 3,301 study subjects. Linkage disequilibrium score (LDSC) regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the genetic correlations between psychiatric disorders and each of the 3,283 plasma proteins.
LDSC observed several genetic correlations between plasma proteins and psychiatric disorders, such as ADHD and lysosomal Pro-X carboxypeptidase (p value = 0.015), ASD and extracellular superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn; p value = 0.023), BD and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 6 (p value = 0.007), MDD and trefoil factor 1 (p value = 0.011), and SCZ and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6 (p value = 0.011). Additionally, we detected four common plasma proteins showing correlation evidence with both BD and SCZ, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B (p value = 0.012 for BD, p value = 0.011 for SCZ).
This study provided an atlas of genetic correlations between psychiatric disorders and plasma proteome, providing novel clues for pathogenetic and biomarkers, therapeutic studies of psychiatric disorders.
The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of n-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA, at an EPA:DHA ratio of 150:500) and phytosterol esters (PS) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-six NAFLD subjects were randomly assigned to the following groups: the PS group (receiving 3·3 g/d PS); the FO group (receiving 450 mg EPA + 1500 mg DHA/d); the PS + FO combination group (receiving 3·3 g/d PS and 450 mg EPA + 1500 mg DHA/d) and the PO group (a placebo group). The baseline clinical characteristics of the four groups were similar. The primary outcome was liver:spleen attenuation ratio (L:S ratio). The percentage increase in liver–spleen attenuation (≤1) in the PS + FO group was 36 % (P = 0·083), higher than those in the other three groups (PS group, 11 %, P = 0·519; FO group, 18 %, P = 0·071; PO group, 15 %, P = 0·436). Compared with baseline, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was significantly decreased in the three study groups at the end of the trial (PS, P = 0·000; FO, P = 0·002; PS + FO, P = 0·001) and TNF-α was significantly decreased in the FO group (P = 0·036), PS + FO group (P = 0·005) and PO group (P = 0·032) at the end of the intervention. Notably, TGF-β was reduced significantly more in the PS + FO group than in the PO group (P = 0·032). The TAG and total cholesterol levels of the PS + FO group were reduced by 11·57 and 9·55 %, respectively. In conclusion, co-supplementation of PS and EPA + DHA could increase the effectiveness of treatment for hepatic steatosis.
Identifying the relative importance of urban and non-urban land-use types for potential denitrification derived N2O at a regional scale is critical for quantifying the impacts of human activities on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission under changing environments. In this study we used a regional dataset from China including 197 soil samples and six land-use types to evaluate the main predictors (land use, heavy metals, soil pH, soil moisture, substrate availability, functional and broad microbial abundances) of potential denitrification using multivariate and pathway analysis. Our results provide empirical evidence that soils on farms have the greatest potential denitrifying ability (PDA) (10.92±6.08ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1) followed by urban soil (6.80±5.35ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1). Our models indicate that land use (low vs. high human activity), followed by total nitrogen (TN) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) was the most important driver of PDA. In addition, our path analysis suggests that at least part of the impacts of land use on potential denitrification were mediated via microbial abundance, soil pH and substrates including TN, dissolved organic carbon and nitrate. This study identifies the main predictors of denitrification at a regional scale which is needed to quantify the impact of human activities on ecosystem functionality under changing conditions.
Submillimeter observations through the atmosphere can be affected by the complex spectroscopic features of the air. Calibration of astronomical observations in these frequencies requires proper modelling of the atmosphere. We analyzed sky observations from altitudes around 500 and 200 hPa respectively and found deficiencies in atmospheric models. Further research to improve the models are expected to help in future submillimeter observations.
The spotted longbarbel catfish (Mystus guttatus) is a member of the family Bagridae and is mainly distributed in the Pearl River Valley and Nandujiang River of Hainan Island. It is one of the four most famous fishes in the history of Pearl River Valley. Nowadays, M. guttatus has become a potential target for aquaculture in China due to its high nutritional value, but its genetic background is still unknown. This study was carried out to estimate its population genetic diversity in Pearl River. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was performed on 30 samples, using 20 random primers of length 10 nucleotides. The results showed that each primer amplified 3–9 bands per sample. Twenty primers produced 3210 well-amplified DNA fragments with reproducible band patterns and the average number of amplified DNA fragments reached 107 in each individual. Broadly speaking, 48 (44.9%) of 107 loci were polymorphic. Only the S30 primer did not produce polymorphic loci. The genetic distance of individuals ranged from 0.0467 to 0.2804. The average genetic distance among the 30 individuals was 0.1526±0.037. Genetic data in this study could be useful in genetic resource assessment as well as in wild population conservation and exploitation of M. guttatus in the future.
A multifunctional-engineering strain was constructed by fusing the insecticidal bacterium (Bacillus thuringiensis) with vip3A gene and the endophytic bacterium (B. subtilis) protoplasts. Results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that the insecticidal vip3A gene of B. thuringiensis was present in the fusant. The fusant's antagonism to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, the adjusted mortality to Plutella xylostella and the endophytic characters were detected. The result showed that the antagonism of the fusant was against the F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum; the adjusted mortality to P. xylostella reached 59% and it had insecticidal characteristics.
A set of 146 representative adzuki (Vigna angularis var. angularis and var. nipponensis) germplasm from six Asian countries with a tradition of adzuki bean production, together with an outgroup standard rice bean (Vigna umbellata), were analysed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) methodology using 12 informative primer pairs. A total of 313 unambiguous polymorphic bands were created. According to the dendrogram, using cluster analysis based on AFLP banding, 143 of the accessions were distinct and revealed enough genetic diversity for identification and classification of accessions within Vigna angularis. A neighbour-joining tree was generated using the newly developed Innan's nucleotide diversity estimate from the AFLP data. From analysis, seven distinct evolutionary groups, named ‘Chinese cultivated’, ‘Japanese cultivated’, ‘Japanese complex-Korean cultivated’, ‘Chinese wild’, ‘China Taiwan wild’, ‘Nepal- Bhutan cultivated’ and ‘Himalayan wild’, were detected. Nucleotide diversity with geographical distribution of each group is discussed, regarding the evolutionary relationships between wild and cultivated adzuki beans. The preliminary results indicated that cultivated adzuki beans have been domesticated from at least four progenitors with at least three geographical origins.
The heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of rhodamine B in aqueous solution containing pure or zinc (iron)-doped titania films has been studied. N-deethylation of rhodamine B was accelerated by iron(III) and zinc(II) doping as compared with pure titania film. It is shown that improvement of electron transfer from dye molecules to the film may be responsible for the high N-deethylation rate for iron-doped (0.5 mol%) film, while for zinc-doped (20 mol%) film, high surface roughness may be the main reason. In addition, both iron and zinc doping brought a new shallow trap to the intragap meaning that the surface defects had increased after doping; this is a possible reason doped films present relative low photoreactivity to catalyze the direct degradation of dye molecules.
TiO2 nanocrystals were prepared by a photo-assisted sol-gel process in which tetrabutoxide titanate was hydrolyzed in acidic medium under ultraviolet irradiation. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra showed that the as-prepared TiO2 particles without further annealing were well-crystallized anatase. Such TiO2 particles were easily immobilized on dacron cloth and showed very high photocatalytic activity. In contrast, TiO2 particles were ill crystallized and showed lower activity when no light was introduced under otherwise equal conditions.
The J-U relation of the KTP crystal along its z-axis under low DC field deviates from linearity, which is different from that of the crystal along the other two principle axis. The resistance of the crystal along its z-axis increases with the time under high DC stress and the crystal becomes dark. The dark color can be removed by annealing. Electrode reactions were also observed. The phenomena are related to the easy movement of ions along the z-axis of the KTP crystal.
The roles of metallic droplets, which generated from the cathodic arc spot holes in the technology of Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition (CAPD), are investigated by SEM, TEM, image analysis apparatus, and electronic probe energy spectrum analysis. The results show that though many papers in recent years are devoted to eliminate them, the metallic droplets, including the macrodroplets, have many important positive roles in the preparation of alloy films: they are the main factor to transfer the original composition of alloy cathodic target to the alloy thick films; they preserve the high deposition rate of CAPD to form the basic characteristics of the microstructure and to affect the pore ratios of the films; they also preserve the high melting point elements in the alloy films, and therefore preserve the corrosion resistance of the alloy in the films. The macrodroplets can be eliminated by raising the substrate temperature properly, which is permitted in some cases, such as depositing alloy films onto middle carbon steel as an anticorrosion system, etc.
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